Publications by authors named "M M Tolba"

146 Publications

Detection of assemblages A and B among children from three villages in the West Delta region, Egypt using assemblage specific primers.

J Parasit Dis 2021 Sep 18;45(3):655-663. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Department of Parasitology, Medical Research Institute (MRI), Alexandria University (AU), 165 El-Horreya Avenue, El-Hadra, POB 21561, Alexandria, Egypt.

is a common diarrheagenic parasite infecting children globally. It has been classified into eight morphologically identical but genetically distinct genotypes. Human infection is mainly associated with A and B assemblages with variable geographical distribution. The present work aimed to study the epidemiology of assemblages A and B in children inhabiting different areas in Lower Egypt. Stool samples were collected from 315 children and examined microscopically for parasitic infections positive samples were genotyped using assemblage specific primers. The prevalence of was 18.1% among the examined children. Mixed assemblages A and B was more common (47.4%) than single assemblage B (36.8%) or A (15.8%). The distribution of different genotypes was significantly associated with the residence area, animal contact, and handwashing habits. A non-significant association was observed between assemblages and the clinical manifestations. Assemblage B is the predominant genotype among Egyptian children. The distribution of different assemblages is strongly associated with the studied area and the habits of its people.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12639-020-01338-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8368831PMC
September 2021

Correlating WHO COVID-19 interim guideline 2020.5 and testing capacity, accuracy, and logistical challenges in Africa.

Pan Afr Med J 2021 31;39:89. Epub 2021 May 31.

African Academy of Sciences Affiliates, Nairobi, Kenya.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a severe acute respiratory syndrome caused by SARS-CoV-2 was declared a global pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) in March 2020. As of 21 April 2021, the disease had affected more than 143 million people with more than 3 million deaths worldwide. Urgent effective strategies are required to control the scourge of the pandemic. Rapid sample collection and effective testing of appropriate specimens from patients meeting the suspect case definition for COVID-19 is a priority for clinical management and outbreak control. The WHO recommends that suspected cases be screened for SARS-CoV-2 virus with nucleic acid amplification tests such as real-time Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (rRT-PCR). Other COVID-19 screening techniques such as serological and antigen tests have been developed and are currently being used for testing at ports of entry and for general surveillance of population exposure in some countries. However, there are limited testing options, equipment, and trained personnel in many African countries. Previously, positive patients have been screened more than twice to determine viral clearance prior to discharge after treatment. In a new policy directive, the WHO now recommends direct discharge after treatment of all positive cases without repeated testing. In this review, we discuss COVID-19 testing capacity, various diagnostic methods, test accuracy, as well as logistical challenges in Africa with respect to the WHO early discharge policy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11604/pamj.2021.39.89.27522DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8379409PMC
September 2021

Concurrent estimation of some co-administered antimicrobial drugs applying conventional and first derivative synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy techniques.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2021 Aug 6;264:120255. Epub 2021 Aug 6.

Department of Pharmaceutical Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mansoura University, 35516 Mansoura, Egypt.

For the estimation of some co-administered antimicrobials, two highly accurate and precise spectrofluorimetric methods were developed. Fluconazole (FLZ) is co-administered with either ciprofloxacin (CPR) or ofloxacin (OFX) for the treatment of certain microbial infections. On the other hand, another antimicrobial drug, vancomycin (VNC) is co-administered with ciprofloxacin (CPR) for peritonitis treatment. In method I, conventional spectrofluorimetry has been introduced for the concurrent quantitative estimation of FLZ in presence of OFX or CPR. While in method II, a first derivative synchronous spectrofluorimetric technique was adapted for quantitation of VNC and CPR co-administered combination. Both of them were utilized for estimation of the considered drugs in raw materials, laboratory prepared mixtures, dosage forms, and biological fluids. Method I was relied on simultaneous measuring of the native fluorescence of FLZ and OFX or CPR without any overlapping between the emission spectra of each binary mixture (FLZ / OFX) and (FLZ / CPR). Fluorescence intensities were measured at 283.0, 483.0 and 436.0 nm after excitation at 262.0, 292.0 and 275.0 nm for FLZ, OFX and CPR, respectively. Method II was utilized the synchronous fluorescence intensity of VNC and CPR in methanol at Δλ = 40 nm. The first derivative synchronous spectra were calibrated at 297.0 nm for VNC and at 379.5 nm for CPR. Different variables influencing conventional and synchronous fluorescence intensities of the four antimicrobials under investigation were precisely optimized. Both methods were successfully investigated for the determination of the studied drugs in plasma. The linear data analysis for the calibration curves reveals a good relationship in the ranges of 1.0-10.0, 0.25-2.5 and 0.06-0.6 μg/mL for FLZ, OFX and CPR for method I with limits of detection 0.144, 0.038 and 0.007 μg/mL and limits of quantitation of 0.437, 0.114 and 0.021 μg/mL for FLZ, OFX and CPR, respectively. Linearity range for method II was 0.5 -10.0 μg/mL for VNC and CPR with detection limits of 0.127 and 0.110 μg/mL and quantitation limits of 0.380 and 0.334 μg/mL for VNC and CPR, respectively. International Council on Harmonization ICH Q2 (R1) Guidelines were followed in the developed methods validation. The achieved outcomes were statistically compared with those found by the reported ones, and no significant difference was observed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2021.120255DOI Listing
August 2021

Green and sensitive spectrofluorimetric method for the determination of two cephalosporins in dosage forms.

R Soc Open Sci 2021 Aug 4;8(8):210329. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Department of Pharmaceutical Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mansoura University, 35516 Mansoura, Egypt.

Using two green and sensitive spectrofluorimetric methods, we quantified two cephalosporins, cefepime (CFM) and cefazolin (CFZ), in raw and pharmaceutical formulations. The first method is based on the reaction between CFM and fluorescamine (borate buffer, pH 8), which yields a highly fluorescent product. After excitation at 384 nm, the fluorescent product emits light at 484 nm. At concentration ranges from 12.0 to 120.0 ng ml, the relative fluorescence intensity/concentration curve was linear with a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 2.46 ng ml. The second method relied on measuring the CFZ quenching action on acriflavine fluorescence through formation of an ion-associate complex using Britton-Robinson buffer at pH 8. We measured acriflavine fluorescence at 505 nm after excitation at 265 nm. The decrease in acriflavine fluorescence intensity was CFZ concentration-dependent. Using this method, we quantified CFZ in concentrations ranging from 1 to 10 µg ml with a LOQ of 0.48 µg ml. We studied and optimized the factors influencing reaction product formation. Moreover, we adapted our methods to the investigation of the mentioned drugs in raw and pharmaceutical formulations with greatly satisfying results. We statistically validated our methods according to International Council on Harmonisation Guidelines. The obtained results were consistent with those obtained with the official high-performance liquid chromatography methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsos.210329DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8334852PMC
August 2021

Synchronized spectrofluorimetric determination of ponatinib and curcumin as an effective therapeutic combination in laboratory prepared mixtures and human plasma samples.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2021 Jul 31;264:120235. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Department of Pharmaceutical Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mansoura University, 35516 Mansoura, Egypt.

Curcumin is a natural product that is frequently utilized in cancer prevention and treatment. The significant benefit of vegetable-derived nutraceuticals in combination with widespread cytostatic medication such as ponatinib is to reduce toxicity and side effects. In this paper, we focus the study on analytical quantification of ponatinib and curcumin through highly sensitive synchronous spectrofluorometric method. Applying this method at Δλ = 160 nm, each of ponatinib and curcumin could be measured at 303 and 412 nm without interference from each others. The diverse experimental factors impacting the performance of the method were studied and optimized. The method exhibited a reasonable linearity in the ranges of 5.0-60.0 and 10.0-200.0 ng/mL for ponatinib and curcumin, respectively with detection limits of 1.48 and 1.22 ng/mL and quantitation limits of 4.49 and 3.68 ng/mL, respectively. The anticipated method was employed for the assessment and evaluation of the studied drugs in the spiked human plasma samples. The mean % recoveries in plasma samples (n = 6) for each of ponatinib and curcumin were 99.84 ± 1.86 and 100.06 ± 2.72, accordingly. The developed method was validated in conformity with the requirements of International Council of Harmonization (ICH).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2021.120235DOI Listing
July 2021
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