Publications by authors named "M M Eskandari"

389 Publications

Protective Effects of Mill. Fruit on Carbon Tetrachloride-induced Hepatotoxicity Mediated through Mitochondria and Restoration of Cellular Energy Content.

Iran J Pharm Res 2020 ;19(4):354-364

Department of Medicinal Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran.

Quince ( Mill.) is one of the medicinal plant with a broad range of pharmacological activities such as hepatoprotective effect. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of Mill. fruit (ACOF) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl)-induced liver damage in rats. Hepatotoxicity was induced by CCl and all tested group animals were treated with the plant extract at a dose of 75, 150, and 300 mg/kg orally for 5 days. Blood was collected for the assessment of serum marker enzymes (alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)). Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) of liver mitochondria was also measured using a validated high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. The antioxidant capacity of the extract resulted in the reduction of MDA and the restoration of GSH in the liver ( < 0.05). Free radical scavenging activity of the extract was evaluated by DPPH method and the IC value was found to be 568 μg/mL. Our results indicated that bioenergetic depletion occurred in the intoxicated rats as a consequence of mitochondrial dysfunction and ATP production collapse. ACOF markedly restored ATP contents that is a key step in liver regeneration. It can be concluded that the role of ACOF to improve liver function on CCl-hepatoxicity could be attributed, at least partially, to its action at mitochondira by preventing the loss of ATP content.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22037/ijpr.2020.112534.13812DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8019890PMC
January 2020

A short overview of CRISPR-Cas technology and its application in viral disease control.

Transgenic Res 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Dr. John and Anne Chong Lab for Functional Genomics, Charles Perkins Centre, Centenary Institute, University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW, 2006, Australia.

Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPRs) together with CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins have catalysed a revolution in genetic engineering. Native CRISPR-Cas systems exist in many bacteria and archaea where they provide an adaptive immune response through sequence-specific degradation of an invading pathogen's genome. This system has been reconfigured for use in genome editing, drug development, gene expression regulation, diagnostics, the prevention and treatment of cancers, and the treatment of genetic and infectious diseases. In recent years, CRISPR-Cas systems have been used in the diagnosis and control of viral diseases, for example, CRISPR-Cas12/13 coupled with new amplification techniques to improve the specificity of sequence-specific fluorescent probe detection. Importantly, CRISPR applications are both sensitive and specific and usually only require commonly available lab equipment. Unlike the canonical Cas9 which is guided to double-stranded DNA sites of interest, Cas13 systems target RNA sequences and thus can be employed in strategies directed against RNA viruses or for transcriptional silencing. Many challenges remain for these approach, including issues with specificity and the requirement for better mammalian delivery systems. In this review, we summarize the applications of CRISPR-Cas systems in controlling mammalian viral infections. Following necessary improvements, it is expected that CRISPR-Cas systems will be used effectively for such applications in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11248-021-00247-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8027712PMC
April 2021

Strategic Ingestion of High-Protein Dairy Milk during a Resistance Training Program Increases Lean Mass, Strength, and Power in Trained Young Males.

Nutrients 2021 Mar 15;13(3). Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Physiological and Psychosocial Stress, CNRS, LaPSCo, Université Clermont Auvergne, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand, France.

Background: We evaluated the effects of high-protein dairy milk ingestion on changes in body composition, strength, power, and skeletal muscle regulatory markers following 6 weeks of resistance training in trained young males.

Methods: Thirty resistance-trained young males (age: 27 ± 3 years; training experience: 15 ± 2 months) were randomly assigned to one of two groups: high-protein dairy milk (both whey and casein) + resistance training (MR; = 15) or isoenergetic carbohydrate (maltodextrin 9%) + resistance training (PR; = 15). Milk and placebo were ingested immediately post-exercise (250 mL; 30 g protein) and 30 min before sleep (250 mL; 30 g protein). Before and after 6 weeks of linear periodized resistance training (4 times/week), body composition (bioelectrical impedance), strength, power, and serum levels of skeletal muscle regulatory markers (insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), growth hormone, testosterone, cortisol, follistatin, myostatin, and follistatin-myostatin ratio) were assessed.

Results: The MR group experienced a significantly higher ( < 0.05) increase in lean mass, strength, and power (upper- and lower-body) than the PR group. Further, IGF-1, growth hormone, testosterone, follistatin, and follistatin-myostatin ratio were significantly increased, while cortisol and myostatin significantly decreased in the MR group than the PR group ( < 0.05).

Conclusions: The strategic ingestion of high-protein dairy milk (post-exercise and pre-sleep) during 6 weeks of resistance training augmented lean mass, strength, power, and altered serum concentrations of skeletal muscle regulatory markers in trained young males compared to placebo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13030948DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7999866PMC
March 2021

Hepatitis B core-based virus-like particles: A platform for vaccine development in plants.

Biotechnol Rep (Amst) 2021 Mar 28;29:e00605. Epub 2021 Feb 28.

Institute of Biotechnology, College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran.

Virus-like particles (VLPs) are a class of structures formed by the self-assembly of viral capsid protein subunits and contain no infective viral genetic material. The Hepatitis B core (HBc) antigen is capable of assembling into VLPs that can elicit strong immune responses and has been licensed as a commercial vaccine against Hepatitis B. The HBc VLPs have also been employed as a platform for the presentation of foreign epitopes to the immune system and have been used to develop vaccines against, for example, influenza A and Foot-and-mouth disease. Plant expression systems are rapid, scalable and safe, and are capable of providing correct post-translational modifications and reducing upstream production costs. The production of HBc-based virus-like particles in plants would thus greatly increase the efficiency of vaccine production. This review investigates the application of plant-based HBc VLP as a platform for vaccine production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.btre.2021.e00605DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7937989PMC
March 2021

Adjunctive branch interventions during thoracic endovascular aortic repair for acute complicated type B dissection are not associated with inferior outcomes.

J Vasc Surg 2021 Mar 5. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Division of Vascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IIl. Electronic address:

Objective: Thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) has been shown to effectively treat malperfusion associated with acute type B thoracic aortic dissection (TBAD). A subset of patients might still require adjunctive peripheral or visceral artery branch interventions during TEVAR to remedy persistent end organ malperfusion. Our objectives were to determine the incidence of these adjunctive interventions and to compare the outcomes between patients who had and had not undergone such interventions.

Methods: We performed a retrospective review of the TEVAR and complex EVAR module of the Vascular Quality Initiative from 2010 to 2019 to identify all patients treated for malperfusion due to acute TBAD. The anatomic branch and procedure performed at TEVAR were recorded. The 30-day mortality, need for reintervention, complication rates, and overall survival were compared between these patients stratified by adjunctive intervention status.

Results: A total of 426 patients had undergone TEVAR for acute TBAD with end organ malperfusion. Of the 426 patients, 126 (29.6%) had undergone 182 adjunctive branch interventions during TEVAR. The most common interventions were stenting (n = 86; 47.3%) and stent grafting (n = 49; 26.9%), with the most common site being the left renal artery (n = 49; 26.9%). The patients in both groups had similar 30-day mortality (12.4% with branch intervention vs 15.6% without; P = .511) and rates of in-hospital reintervention (19.2% with branch intervention vs 20.7% without; P = .732). No differences were found in the rates of postoperative complications or overall survival at 3 years between the two groups.

Conclusions: Adjunctive peripheral and visceral artery branch interventions in conjunction with TEVAR for acute TBAD with malperfusion occurred in one third of index cases, but did not predispose patients to worse overall outcomes. Adjunctive arterial branch interventions should be included in the treatment paradigm for acute TBAD with end organ malperfusion that does not improve with primary entry tear coverage alone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2021.02.028DOI Listing
March 2021

Effect of gadolinium perfusion magnetic resonance imaging on surgeons' management preferences in kienböck's disease. A survey study.

Hand Surg Rehabil 2021 Feb 24. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

University of Mersin, School of Medicine, Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Division of Hand Surgery, İhsaniye Mh., 32133 Sokak Çiftlikköy Kampüsü, 33079 Yenişehir/Mersin, Turkey. Electronic address:

In literature, the use of gadolinium perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (GP-MRI) is recommended in Kienböck's disease to evaluate the lunate bone's perfusion. This survey study sought to assess how GP-MRI findings affect the management preferences of hand surgeons. A questionnaire consisting of 11 scenarios differing in ulnar variance, GP-MRI findings and management preferences was developed. The scenarios were designed based on the last published clinical guidelines. The questionnaire was sent to the members of a national hand surgery society consisting of 160 hand surgeons. Sixty-six surgeons completed the questionnaire. The surgeons' preferences changed significantly by ulnar variance in stages II and IIIA, and by GP-MRI in stages I and II. No need for other diagnostic tools was found in any of the scenarios. Management preferences of the study participants related to alterations in ulnar variance and treatment choices in all stages were in accordance with previously published clinical and survey studies. This study showed that GP-MRI findings significantly changed the management preferences of hand surgeons in early stages of Kienböck's disease. There was no significant tendency among the participants to use further assessment tools beyond direct radiography, MRI, and GP-MRI. Given the study results and the literature, we emphasize the limited and well-defined indications of GP-MRI in Kienböck's disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hansur.2020.12.012DOI Listing
February 2021

Build-Up of a 3D Organogel Network within the Bilayer Shell of Nanoliposomes. A Novel Delivery System for Vitamin D: Preparation, Characterization, and Physicochemical Stability.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Mar 22;69(8):2585-2594. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Departamento de Química Física, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria S/n, Madrid 28040, Spain.

The inherent thermodynamic instability of liposomes during production and storage has limited their widespread applications. Therefore, a novel structure of food-grade nanoliposomes stabilized by a 3D organogel network within the bilayer shell was developed through the extrusion process and successfully applied to encapsulate vitamin D. A huge flocculation and a significant reduction of zeta potential (-17 mV) were observed in control nanoliposomes (without the organogel shell) after 2 months of storage at 4 °C, while the sample with a gelled bilayer showed excellent stability with a particle diameter of 105 nm and a high negative zeta potential (-63.4 mV), even after 3 months. The development of spherical vesicles was confirmed by TEM. Interestingly, the gelled bilayer shell led to improved stability against osmotically active divalent salt ions. Electron paramagnetic resonance confirmed the higher rigidity of the shell bilayer upon gelation. The novel liposome offered a dramatic increase in encapsulation efficiency and loading of vitamin D compared to those of control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.0c06680DOI Listing
March 2021

Application of Machine Learning Algorithms in Plant Breeding: Predicting Yield From Hyperspectral Reflectance in Soybean.

Front Plant Sci 2020 12;11:624273. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Department of Plant Agriculture, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada.

Recent substantial advances in high-throughput field phenotyping have provided plant breeders with affordable and efficient tools for evaluating a large number of genotypes for important agronomic traits at early growth stages. Nevertheless, the implementation of large datasets generated by high-throughput phenotyping tools such as hyperspectral reflectance in cultivar development programs is still challenging due to the essential need for intensive knowledge in computational and statistical analyses. In this study, the robustness of three common machine learning (ML) algorithms, multilayer perceptron (MLP), support vector machine (SVM), and random forest (RF), were evaluated for predicting soybean () seed yield using hyperspectral reflectance. For this aim, the hyperspectral reflectance data for the whole spectra ranged from 395 to 1005 nm, which were collected at the R4 and R5 growth stages on 250 soybean genotypes grown in four environments. The recursive feature elimination (RFE) approach was performed to reduce the dimensionality of the hyperspectral reflectance data and select variables with the largest importance values. The results indicated that R5 is more informative stage for measuring hyperspectral reflectance to predict seed yields. The 395 nm reflectance band was also identified as the high ranked band in predicting the soybean seed yield. By considering either full or selected variables as the input variables, the ML algorithms were evaluated individually and combined-version using the ensemble-stacking (E-S) method to predict the soybean yield. The RF algorithm had the highest performance with a value of 84% yield classification accuracy among all the individual tested algorithms. Therefore, by selecting RF as the metaClassifier for E-S method, the prediction accuracy increased to 0.93, using all variables, and 0.87, using selected variables showing the success of using E-S as one of the ensemble techniques. This study demonstrated that soybean breeders could implement E-S algorithm using either the full or selected spectra reflectance to select the high-yielding soybean genotypes, among a large number of genotypes, at early growth stages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2020.624273DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7835636PMC
January 2021

Effects of type I Diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase (DGAT1) genes on soybean (Glycine max L.) seed composition.

Sci Rep 2021 Jan 28;11(1):2556. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Department of Plant Agriculture, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada.

Type I Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT1) catalyzes the final step of the biosynthesis process of triacylglycerol (TAG), the major storage lipids in plant seeds, through the esterification of diacylglycerol (DAG). To characterize the function of DGAT1 genes on the accumulation of oil and other seed composition traits in soybean, transgenic lines were generated via trans-acting siRNA technology, in which three DGAT1 genes (Glyma.13G106100, Glyma.09G065300, and Glyma.17G053300) were downregulated. The simultaneous downregulation of the three isoforms in transgenic lines was found to be associated with the reduction of seed oil concentrations by up to 18 mg/g (8.3%), which was correlated with increases in seed protein concentration up to 42 mg/g (11%). Additionally, the downregulations also influenced the fatty acid compositions in the seeds of transgenic lines through increasing the level of oleic acid, up to 121 mg/g (47.3%). The results of this study illustrate the importance of DGAT1 genes in determining the seed compositions in soybean through the development of new potential technology for manipulating seed quality in soybean to meet the demands for its various food and industrial applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-82131-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7844222PMC
January 2021

The neuroprotective effect of MicroRNA-149-5p and coenzymeQ10 by reducing levels of inflammatory cytokines and metalloproteinases following focal brain ischemia in rats.

Brain Res Bull 2021 Apr 27;169:205-213. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran.

The increase in some factors following cerebral ischemia, especially Matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs) and inflammatory factors lead to blood-brain barrier (BBB) damages, edema and neuronal death. Previous studies have shown that these molecules are miRNA-149-5p (miR-149) and Coenzyme (Co) Q10 targets. Therefore, in this study, the effect of mimic of miRNA-149-5p (mimic miR) and CoQ10 on the expression of metalloproteinase 1 and 2 and inflammatory cytokines following injury caused by cerebral ischemia is investigated. Cerebral ischemia was modeled by Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion (MCAO). Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: sham (without surgery and treatment), control (MCAO), negative control (NC): MCAO + scrambled miR, vehicle: MCAO + Ethanole, first treatment: MCAO + mimic miR, second treatment: MCAO + Q10. Each group was divided into 6 subgroups to evaluate neurological defects, the volume of tissue damage using 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining, blood-brain barrier permeability using cerebral Evans Blue (EB) staining, edema by measuring the percentage of brain water, MMP-2,9 mRNA and miR-149-5p levels using Quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR) and the levels of IL-6 and TNF-α proteins using ELISA. The data obtained from this study showed that the use of mimic miR and Q10 increased the level of miR-149, decreased the extent of neurological defects and tissue damage, increased BBB integrity, decreased brain water percentage and also decreased the level of inflammatory cytokines and MMPs. It seems that the use mimic of miRNA-149-5p and Q10 can have a protective effect on the brain by reducing MMPs and inflammatory factors following cerebral ischemia and this could lead to a new treatment strategy to reduce the complications of cerebral ischemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresbull.2021.01.013DOI Listing
April 2021

Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) in combination with resistance training reduced blood pressure in the elderly hypertensive men: A randomized controlled trial.

Br J Clin Pharmacol 2021 Jan 26. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Department of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.

Aims: We aimed to determine the independent and combined effects of saffron and resistance training on blood pressure (BP) and some chemical biomarkers in the elderly with hypertension.

Methods: The present study was a randomized clinical trial on hypertensive men aged 60-70 years who were assigned to a control group (CO) and 3 experimental groups; resistance training (RT); saffron (S); and resistance training + saffron (RTS) for 12 weeks. Dynamic resistance training was applied with moderate intensity. Patients in S and RTS received 1 tablet containing 200 mg of saffron daily. BP variables, chemical biomarkers and anthropometric indicators were measured at weeks 0, 6, 12 and 18. Data were analysed by repeated measurements ANOVA with 95% confidence interval (CI).

Results: In comparison to the CO (153.3 ± 1.18, CI = 10.9-20.2, P < .001) and S (143.3 ± 1.18, CI = 0.97-10.2, P = .01), RTS (137.7 ± 1.18) reduced systolic BP with the effect size partial η of 0.68. Nitric oxide increased in the RTS compared to the CO group (CI = 0.13-0.62, P = .001). There was a significant increase and decrease in adiponectin and endothelin-1 in the S (CI = 0.03-1.20, P = .012; CI = 4.30-17.3, P < .001) and RT (CI = 0.36-1.60, P < .001; CI = 2.26-15.3, P = .003) compared to the CO, respectively. The partial η for nitric oxide, adiponectin and ET-1 were 0.35, 0.35 and 0.38, respectively. There was no significant difference between the groups for atrial natriuretic peptide.

Conclusions: Resistance training and consumption of saffron can improve BP in the elderly with hypertension by affecting the factors involved in altering vascular endothelial resistance. The present study was approved by the Ethics Committee of Iran's sports science research institution (IR.SSRC.REC.1398.020) and registered at the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRCT20190731044398N1).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bcp.14746DOI Listing
January 2021

Microfluidic on-chip production of microgels using combined geometries.

Sci Rep 2021 Jan 15;11(1):1565. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.

Microfluidic on-chip production of microgels using external gelation can serve numerous applications that involve encapsulation of sensitive cargos. Nevertheless, on-chip production of microgels in microfluidic devices can be challenging due to problems induced by the rapid increase in precursor solution viscosity like clogging. Here, a novel design incorporating a step, which includes a sudden increase in cross-sectional area, before a flow-focusing nozzle was proposed for microfluidic droplet generators. Besides, a shielding oil phase was utilized to avoid the occurrence of emulsification and gelation stages simultaneously. The step which was located before the flow-focusing nozzle facilitated the full shielding of the dispersed phase due to 3-dimensional fluid flow in this geometry. The results showed that the microfluidic device was capable of generating highly monodispersed spherical droplets (CV < 2% for step and CV < 5% for flow-focusing nozzle) with an average diameter in the range of 90-190 μm, both in step and flow-focusing nozzle. Moreover, it was proved that the device could adequately create a shelter for the dispersed phase regardless of the droplet formation locus. The ability of this microfluidic device in the production of microgels was validated by creating alginate microgels (with an average diameter of ~ 100 μm) through an external gelation process with on-chip calcium chloride emulsion in mineral oil.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-81214-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7810975PMC
January 2021

Effect of Metformin on Circulating Levels of Inflammatory Markers in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

Ann Pharmacother 2021 Jan 7:1060028020985303. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Department of Clinical Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran.

Background: Emerging evidence indicates that metformin has anti-inflammatory effect; however, the results differ concerning randomized controlled trails of the effect of metformin on inflammatory markers in type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients.

Objective: This study reassessed the data on the effect of metformin treatment on inflammatory markers in T2D patients through a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Methods: A systematic search was performed in the PubMed, ISI Web of Science, EMBASE, Cochrane Library and Scopus databases to collect relevant published data up to September 2020. Data of each study was combined using random-effects model. Subgroup analysis was performed based on subgroups of the treatment duration, dose and target population.

Results: Thirteen RCTs including 1776 participants with T2D were analyzed. Although CRP levels significantly decreased [SMD: -0.76 mg/L; 95% CI (-1.48, -0.049); P = 0.036] in patients with T2D following metformin treatment, circulating levels of TNF-α [SMD: -0.17 pg/mL; 95% CI (-0.55, 0.20); P = 0.37] and IL-6 [SMD: -0.06 pg/mL; 95% CI (-0.38, 0.25); P = 0.69] were insignificant after metformin treatment. Compared to treatment duration of less than 24 weeks, longer treatment duration (more than 24 weeks) was associated with reduced level of CRP.

Relevance To Patient Care And Clinical Practice: Based on available evidence from RCTs in this meta-analysis, metformin decreased CRP level. However, strategies for the treatment of inflammation should focus on metformin in patients with T2D.

Conclusion: The present study evidences that therapy with metformin can reduces CRP level significantly in T2D patients compared to other inflammatory markers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1060028020985303DOI Listing
January 2021

Calculated plasma volume status predicts outcomes after transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

Open Heart 2020 12;7(2)

Cardiology, King's College Hospital, London, UK

Objectives: Congestion can worsen outcomes after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI), but can be difficult to quantify non-invasively. We hypothesised that preprocedural plasma volume status (PVS), estimated using a validated formula that enumerates percentage change from ideal PV, would provide prognostic utility post-TAVI.

Methods: This retrospective cohort study identified patients who underwent TAVI (2007-2017) from a prospectively collected database. Actual ([1-haematocrit] × [a + (b × weight (Kg))] and ideal (c × weight (Kg)) PV were quantified from equations where a, b and c are sex-dependent constants. Calculated PVS was then derived (100% x [(actual - ideal PV)/ideal PV]).

Results: In 564 patients (mean age 82±7 years, 49% male), mean PVS was -2.7±10.2%, with PV expansion (PVS >0%) evident in 39%. Only logistic European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE) independently predicted a PVS >0% (OR 1.85, p=0.002). On Cox analyses, a PVS >0% was associated with greater mortality at 3 (HR 2.29, 95% CI 1.11 to 4.74, p=0.03) and 12 months (HR 2.00, 95% CI 1.23 to 3.26, p=0.006) after TAVI, independently of, and incremental to, the EuroSCORE and New York Heart Association class. A PVS >0% was also independently associated with more days in intensive care (coefficient: 0.41, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.78, p=0.03) and in hospital (coefficient: 1.95, 95% CI 0.48 to 3.41, p=0.009).

Conclusion: Higher PVS values, calculated simply from weight and haematocrit, are associated with greater mortality and longer hospitalisation post-TAVI. PVS could help refine risk stratification and further investigations into the utility of PVS-guided management in TAVI patients is warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/openhrt-2020-001477DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7759954PMC
December 2020

Novel Mechanical Strain Characterization of Ventilated Porcine and Murine Lung using Digital Image Correlation.

Front Physiol 2020 4;11:600492. Epub 2020 Dec 4.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Riverside, Riverside, CA, United States.

Respiratory illnesses, such as bronchitis, emphysema, asthma, and COVID-19, substantially remodel lung tissue, deteriorate function, and culminate in a compromised breathing ability. Yet, the structural mechanics of the lung is significantly understudied. Classical pressure-volume air or saline inflation studies of the lung have attempted to characterize the organ's elasticity and compliance, measuring deviatory responses in diseased states; however, these investigations are exclusively limited to the bulk composite or global response of the entire lung and disregard local expansion and stretch phenomena within the lung lobes, overlooking potentially valuable physiological insights, as particularly related to mechanical ventilation. Here, we present a method to collect the first non-contact, full-field deformation measures of porcine and murine lungs and interface with a pressure-volume ventilation system to investigate lung behavior in real time. We share preliminary observations of heterogeneous and anisotropic strain distributions of the parenchymal surface, associative pressure-volume-strain loading dependencies during continuous loading, and consider the influence of inflation rate and maximum volume. This study serves as a crucial basis for future works to comprehensively characterize the regional response of the lung across various species, link local strains to global lung mechanics, examine the effect of breathing frequencies and volumes, investigate deformation gradients and evolutionary behaviors during breathing, and contrast healthy and pathological states. Measurements collected in this framework ultimately aim to inform predictive computational models and enable the effective development of ventilators and early diagnostic strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2020.600492DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7746832PMC
December 2020

Genome-wide association identifies several QTLs controlling cysteine and methionine content in soybean seed including some promising candidate genes.

Sci Rep 2020 12 11;10(1):21812. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

Département de Phytologie, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences and Institute for Integrative and Systems Biology (IBIS), Laval University, Quebec City, QC, Canada.

Soybean is an important source of protein, oil and carbohydrates, as well as other beneficial nutrients. A major function of proteins in nutrition is to supply adequate amounts of amino acids. Although they are essential for human nutrition, the sulfur-containing amino acids cysteine (Cys) and methionine (Met) are often limited and the genetic control of their content in soybean seeds is poorly characterized. This study aimed to characterize the phenotypic variation and identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with Cys and Met content in a core set of 137 soybean lines, representative of the genetic diversity among Canadian short-season soybean, spanning maturity groups 000-II (MG000-II). Significant phenotypic differences were found among these lines for Cys, Met and Cys + Met content. Using both a mixed linear model and six multi-locus methods with a catalogue of 2.18 M SNPs, we report a total of nine QTLs and seventeen QTNs of which seven comprise promising candidate genes. This work allowed us to reproducibly detect multiple novel loci associated with sulfur-containing amino acid content. The markers and genes identified in this study may be useful for soybean genetic improvement aiming to increase Cys and Met content.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-78907-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7733516PMC
December 2020

Whole Egg Vs. Egg White Ingestion During 12 weeks of Resistance Training in Trained Young Males: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

J Strength Cond Res 2021 Feb;35(2):411-419

Department of Health and Human Performance, Marymount University, Arlington, Texas.

Abstract: Bagheri, R, Moghadam, BH, Ashtary-Larky, D, Forbes, SC, Candow, DG, Galpin, AJ, Eskandari, M, Kreider, RB, and Wong, A. Whole egg vs. egg white ingestion during 12 weeks of resistance training in trained young males: a randomized controlled trial. J Strength Cond Res 35(2): 411-419, 2021-The primary purpose was to compare the effects of whole egg ingestion and egg white ingestion during 12 weeks of resistance training (RT) on muscle cross-sectional area, body composition, muscular strength, and anaerobic power in resistance-trained young males. A secondary purpose was to examine systemic hormonal responses. Thirty resistance-trained young males were randomly assigned to one of 2 groups: Whole eggs + RT (WER; n = 15) or egg whites + RT (ERT; n = 15). Whole eggs + RT ingested 3 whole eggs immediately following RT, whereas ERT ingested an isonitrogenous quantity consisting of 6 egg whites immediately following RT. Before and after 12 weeks of whole-body undulating periodized RT (3 sessions per week), knee extensor muscle mass and cross-sectional area (computed tomography), lean body mass and body fat percentage (bioelectrical impedance), muscular strength (knee extension, handgrip strength), Wingate (cycle ergometer), and serum concentrations of hormones were assessed. There was a significant group × time interaction for body fat percentage, serum testosterone, knee extension, and handgrip strength with greater improvements observed in WER. There was a significant main effect of time (p < 0.05) for knee extensor muscle mass, cross-sectional area, lean body mass, anaerobic power, and all other blood hormones. There was a trend (p = 0.06) in the WER group for having a greater change in lean body mass compared with that of ERT. Postexercise whole egg ingestion increases knee extension and handgrip strength, testosterone, and reduces body fat percentage compared with postexercise egg white ingestion, despite no group differences in muscle mass, in resistance-trained young males. Whole eggs consumption may be preferable during RT programs geared toward the improvement of muscular strength and body fat percentage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000003922DOI Listing
February 2021

Introducing a Custom-Designed Volume-Pressure Machine for Novel Measurements of Whole Lung Organ Viscoelasticity and Direct Comparisons Between Positive- and Negative-Pressure Ventilation.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2020 21;8:578762. Epub 2020 Oct 21.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Riverside, Riverside, CA, United States.

Asthma, emphysema, COVID-19 and other lung-impacting diseases cause the remodeling of tissue structural properties and can lead to changes in conducting pulmonary volume, viscoelasticity, and air flow distribution. Whole organ experimental inflation tests are commonly used to understand the impact of these modifications on lung mechanics. Here we introduce a novel, automated, custom-designed device for measuring the volume and pressure response of lungs, surpassing the capabilities of traditional machines and built to range size-scales to accommodate both murine and porcine tests. The software-controlled system is capable of constructing standardized continuous volume-pressure curves, while accounting for air compressibility, yielding consistent and reproducible measures while eliminating the need for pulmonary degassing. This device uses volume-control to enable viscoelastic whole lung macromechanical insights from rate dependencies and pressure-time curves. Moreover, the conceptual design of this device facilitates studies relating the phenomenon of diaphragm breathing and artificial ventilation induced by pushing air inside the lungs. System capabilities are demonstrated and validated via a comparative study between murine lungs and elastic balloons, using various testing protocols. Volume-pressure curve comparisons with previous pressure-controlled systems yield good agreement, confirming accuracy. This work expands the capabilities of current lung experiments, improving scientific investigations of healthy and diseased pulmonary biomechanics. Ultimately, the methodologies demonstrated in the manufacturing of this system enable future studies centered on investigating viscoelasticity as a potential biomarker and improvements to patient ventilators based on direct assessment and comparisons of positive- and negative-pressure mechanics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fbioe.2020.578762DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7643401PMC
October 2020

Neural priming of adipose-derived stem cells by cell-imprinted substrates.

Biofabrication 2020 Oct 30. Epub 2020 Oct 30.

Department of Pathology and Immunology, University of Geneva, Geneva, GE, SWITZERLAND.

Cell-imprinting technology is a novel method for directing stem cell fate using substrates molded from target cells. Here, we fabricated and studied cell-imprinted substrates for neural priming in human adipose-derived stem cells in the absence of chemical cues. We molded polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) silicone substrates on fixed differentiated neural progenitor cells (ReNcellTM VM). The ReNcellTM cell line consists of immortalized human neural progenitor cells that are capable to differentiate into neural cells. The fabricated cell-imprinted silicone substrates represent the geometrical micro- and nanotopology of the target cell morphology. During the molding procedure, no transfer of cellular proteins was detectable. In the first test with undifferentiated ReNcellTM VM cells, the cell-imprinted substrates could accelerate neural differentiation. With adipose-derived stem cells cultivated on the imprinted substrates, we observed modifications of cell morphology, shifting from spread to elongated shape. Both immunofluorescence and quantitative gene expression analysis showed upregulation of neural stem cell and early neuronal markers. Our study, for the first time, demonstrated the effectiveness of cell-imprinted substrates for neural priming of adipose-derived stem cells for regenerative medicine applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1758-5090/abc66fDOI Listing
October 2020

Numerical study of a highly efficient light trapping nanostructure of perovskite solar cell on a textured silicon substrate.

Sci Rep 2020 Oct 29;10(1):18699. Epub 2020 Oct 29.

Nanomaterial Research Group, Academic Center for Education, Culture and Research (ACECR) on TMU, Tehran, Iran.

In this paper, a nanostructured perovskite solar cell (PSC) on a textured silicon substrate is examined, and its performance is analyzed. First, its configuration and the simulated unit cell are discussed, and its fabrication method is explained. In this proposed structure, poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is used instead of glass. It is shown that the use of PDMS dramatically reduces the reflection from the cell surface. Furthermore, the light absorption is found to be greatly increased due to the light trapping and plasmonic enhancement of the electric field in the active layer. Then, three different structures, are compared with the main proposed structure in terms of absorption, considering the imperfect fabrication conditions and the characteristics of the built PSC. The findings show that in the worst fabrication conditions considered structure (FCCS), short-circuit current density (J) is 22.28 mA/cm, which is 27% higher than that of the planar structure with a value of 17.51 mA/cm. As a result, the efficiencies of these FCCSs are significant as well. In the main proposed structure, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) is observed to be improved by 32%, from 13.86% for the planar structure to 18.29%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-75630-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7596715PMC
October 2020

A Hydrogen-Bonded Extracellular Matrix-Mimicking Bactericidal Hydrogel with Radical Scavenging and Hemostatic Function for pH-Responsive Wound Healing Acceleration.

Adv Healthc Mater 2021 02 26;10(3):e2001122. Epub 2020 Oct 26.

Drug Research Program, Division of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, FI-00014, Finland.

Generation of reactive oxygen species, delayed blood clotting, prolonged inflammation, bacterial infection, and slow cell proliferation are the main challenges of effective wound repair. Herein, a multifunctional extracellular matrix-mimicking hydrogel is fabricated through abundant hydrogen bonding among the functional groups of gelatin and tannic acid (TA) as a green chemistry approach. The hydrogel shows adjustable physicochemical properties by altering the concentration of TA and it represents high safety features both in vitro and in vivo on fibroblasts, red blood cells, and mice organs. In addition to the merit of facile encapsulation of cell proliferation-inducing hydrophilic drugs, accelerated healing of skin injury is obtained through pH-dependent release of TA and its multifaceted mechanisms as an antibacterial, antioxidant, hemostatic, and anti-inflammatory moiety. The developed gelatin-TA (GelTA) hydrogel also shows an outstanding effect on the formation of extracellular matrix and wound closure in vivo via offered cell adhesion sites in the backbone of gelatin that provide increased re-epithelialization and better collagen deposition. These results suggest that the multifunctional GelTA hydrogel is a promising candidate for the clinical treatment of full-thickness wounds and further development of wound dressing materials that releases active agents in the neutral or slightly basic environment of infected nonhealing wounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adhm.202001122DOI Listing
February 2021

Genomic regions associated with important seed quality traits in food-grade soybeans.

BMC Plant Biol 2020 Oct 23;20(1):485. Epub 2020 Oct 23.

Department of Plant Agriculture, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada.

Background: The production of soy-based food products requires specific physical and chemical characteristics of the soybean seed. Identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with value-added traits, such as seed weight, seed protein and sucrose concentration, could accelerate the development of competitive high-protein soybean cultivars for the food-grade market through marker-assisted selection (MAS). The objectives of this study were to identify and validate QTL associated with these value-added traits in two high-protein recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations.

Results: The RIL populations were derived from the high-protein cultivar 'AC X790P' (49% protein, dry weight basis), and two high-yielding commercial cultivars, 'S18-R6' (41% protein) and 'S23-T5' (42% protein). Fourteen large-effect QTL (R > 10%) were identified associated with seed protein concentration. Of these QTL, seven QTL were detected in both populations, and eight of them were co-localized with QTL associated with either seed sucrose concentration or seed weight. None of the protein-related QTL was found to be associated with seed yield in either population. Sixteen candidate genes with putative roles in protein metabolism were identified within seven of these protein-related regions: qPro_Gm02-3, qPro_Gm04-4, qPro_Gm06-1, qPro_Gm06-3, qPro_Gm06-6, qPro_Gm13-4 and qPro-Gm15-3.

Conclusion: The use of RIL populations derived from high-protein parents created an opportunity to identify four novel QTL that may have been masked by large-effect QTL segregating in populations developed from diverse parental cultivars. In total, we have identified nine protein QTL that were detected either in both populations in the current study or reported in other studies. These QTL may be useful in the curated selection of new soybean cultivars for optimized soy-based food products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12870-020-02681-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7583236PMC
October 2020

Development of a novel platform of virus-like particle (VLP)-based vaccine against COVID-19 by exposing epitopes: an immunoinformatics approach.

New Microbes New Infect 2020 Nov 14;38:100786. Epub 2020 Oct 14.

Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The emergence of a rapidly spreading and highly infectious coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak by a novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has caused a global pandemic with unprecedented social and economic dimensions. Therefore, the development of effective strategies is urgent to control the COVID-19 outbreak. According to recent investigations, cell entry of coronaviruses relies on binding of the viral spike glycoprotein to the host cellular receptors. Therefore, the present study aimed to predict immunogenic epitopes in silico by analysing the spike protein. In parallel, by screening the immunogenic SARS-CoV-2 spike-derived epitopes provided in the literature, we chose a set of epitopes that we believed would induce immunogenic response. Next, provided with the epitopes selected by using both approaches, we performed immunoinformatic analysis that mapped identically to the antigen regions and antigenic properties. Finally, after selecting a screened set of epitopes, we designed a novel virus-like particle vaccine optimized to be produced in plants by using molecular farming biotechnology techniques. Our assay may be used as a starting point for guiding experimental efforts towards the development of a vaccine against SARS-CoV-2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nmni.2020.100786DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7556220PMC
November 2020

A Novel Fortified Dairy Product and Sarcopenia Measures in Sarcopenic Older Adults: A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial.

J Am Med Dir Assoc 2021 Apr 14;22(4):809-815. Epub 2020 Oct 14.

Shiraz Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Nemazee Hospital, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of daily consumption of fortified yogurt with beta-Hydroxy beta-Methyl Butyrate (HMB) and vitamins D and C on measures of sarcopenia, inflammation, and quality of life in sarcopenic older adults.

Design: In this 12-week randomized double-blind controlled trial, participants received either yogurt fortified with 3 g HMB, 1000 IU vitamin D, and 500 mg vitamin C in the intervention group (n = 33) or plain yogurt in the control group (n = 33).

Setting And Participants: A total of 66 older adults with sarcopenia recruited from the community in Shiraz, Iran.

Measures: Body composition, muscle strength, and functionality were measured using Dual-energy-X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA), hydraulic handgrip dynamometer, and usual gait speed, respectively. Serum concentrations of vitamin D, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), malondialdehyde, and insulin were measured at baseline and after 12 weeks. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was also evaluated using SF-12 questionnaire.

Results: Consumption of fortified yogurt was associated with improvement in handgrip strength [mean change (95% confidence interval) 4.36 (3.35-5.37) vs. 0.97 (-0.04 to 1.99)] and gait speed [0.10 (0.07-0.13) vs. 0.01 (0.00-0.04)] in the intervention group compared with the control group (P < .001). In addition, the results revealed a significant increase in vitamin D and IGF-1 levels in the intervention group (P < .001). The nutritional intervention significantly prevented any increase in the serum concentration of hs-CRP compared with the control group (P = .033). The results also showed a more significant decrease in the malondialdehyde level in the intervention group compared with the control (P = .008). Moreover, there were significant differences between the 2 groups regarding physical aspects of HRQoL (P = .035).

Conclusions And Implications: A novel dairy product fortified with HMB, vitamin D, and vitamin C not only could enhance muscle strength and functionality, but also modulate anabolic and inflammatory conditions as well as quality of life. This study suggested that specific nutritional interventions alone could be beneficial, especially for those who are unable to exercise.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2020.08.035DOI Listing
April 2021

Effects of Interval Jump Rope Exercise Combined with Dark Chocolate Supplementation on Inflammatory Adipokine, Cytokine Concentrations, and Body Composition in Obese Adolescent Boys.

Nutrients 2020 Sep 30;12(10). Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Department of Health and Human Performance, Marymount University, Arlington, VA 22207, USA.

We examined the effects of six weeks of dark chocolate supplementation combined with interval jump rope exercise (JRE) on inflammatory cytokines, adipokines, and body composition in obese adolescent boys. Forty-eight obese adolescent boys (age  = 15.4  ±  1.1 years and body mass index  =  32.2  ±  2.4 kg/m) were randomly assigned into one of four groups: JRE + white chocolate (JW; = 13), JRE + dark chocolate supplementation (JD; = 13), dark chocolate supplementation (DS; = 12), or control (C; = 12). Participants in JW and JD groups performed JRE for three times per week for six weeks. Participants in the DS and JD groups consumed 30 g of dark chocolate containing 83% of cocoa. Body composition, pro-inflammatory cytokines ((hs-CRP, TNF-α, IL-6), adipokines (leptin, resistin, RBP-4, chemerin, MCP-1), and anti-inflammatory adipokines (irisin, adiponectin)) were evaluated prior to and after the intervention trials. All three intervention trials significantly ( < 0.05) decreased body mass, waist-hip ratio, fat mass, hs-CRP, TNF-α, IL-6, leptin, resistin, RBP-4, and MCP-1, and increased irisin and adiponectin concentrations. The improvements in these parameters were greater in the JD group, and additionally, chemerin concentrations decreased only in the JD group. JD enhanced adiponectin concentrations and decreased IL-6 concentrations compared to C. Moreover, JD significantly reduced chemerin concentrations, an effect not observed in any of the other interventions. We demonstrated that dark chocolate supplementation potentiated JRE-induced decreases in body mass, WHR, FM, hs-CRP, TNF-α, IL-6, leptin, resistin, RBP-4, and MCP-1, chemerin as well as increases irisin and adiponectin concentrations in obese adolescent boys. Therefore, JRE combined with dark chocolate supplementation could be a beneficial in reducing obesity-induced inflammation in adolescent boys.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12103011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7600985PMC
September 2020

Characterizing the viscoelasticity of extra- and intra-parenchymal lung bronchi.

J Mech Behav Biomed Mater 2020 10 4;110:103824. Epub 2020 May 4.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California at Riverside, USA; BREATHE Center at the School of Medicine, University of California at Riverside, USA; Department of Bioengineering, University of California at Riverside, USA. Electronic address:

Pulmonary disease is known to cause remodeling of tissue structure, resulting in altered viscoelastic properties; yet the foundation for understanding this phenomenon is still nascent and will enable scientific insights regarding lung functionality. In order to characterize the viscoelastic response of pulmonary airways, uniaxial tensile experiments are conducted on porcine extra- and intra-parenchymal bronchial regions, measuring both axially and circumferentially oriented tissue. Anisotropic and heterogeneous effects on preconditioning and hysteresis are substantial, linking to energy dissipation expectancies. Stress relaxation is rheologically modeled using several classical configurations of discrete spring and dashpot elements; among them, Standard Linear Solid (SLS) and Maxwell-Weichart exhibit better fit performance. Enhanced fractional order derivative SLS (FSLS) model is also evaluated through use of a hybrid spring-pot of order α. FSLS outperforms the conventional models, demonstrating superior representation of the stress-relaxation curve's initial value and non-linear asymptotic decent. FSLS parameters exhibit notable orientation- and region-specific values, trending with observed tissue structural constituents, such as glycosaminoglycan and collagen. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first to characterize proximal and distal bronchial energy efficiency and contextualize tissue biochemical composition in view of experimental measures and viscoelastic trends. Results provide a foundation for future investigations, particularly for understanding the role of viscoelasticity in diseased states.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmbbm.2020.103824DOI Listing
October 2020

Quasi-species nature and differential gene expression of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and phylogenetic analysis of a novel Iranian strain.

Infect Genet Evol 2020 11 13;85:104556. Epub 2020 Sep 13.

Queensland Biosciences Precinct, The University of Queensland, St Lucia 4072, Queensland, Australia.

A novel coronavirus related to severe acute respiratory syndrome virus, (SARS-CoV-2) is the causal agent of the COVID-19 pandemic. Despite the genetic mutations across the SARS-CoV-2 genome being recently investigated, its transcriptomic genetic polymorphisms at inter-host level and the viral gene expression level based on each Open Reading Frame (ORF) remains unclear. Using available High Throughput Sequencing (HTS) data and based on SARS-CoV-2 infected human transcriptomic data, this study presents a high-resolution map of SARS-CoV-2 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) hotspots in a viral population at inter-host level. Four throat swab samples from COVID-19 infected patients were pooled, with RNA-Seq read retrieved from SRA NCBI to detect 21 SNPs and a replacement across the SARS-CoV-2 genomic population. Twenty-two RNA modification sites on viral transcripts were identified that may cause inter-host genetic diversity of this virus. In addition, the canonical genomic RNAs of N ORF showed higher expression in transcriptomic data and reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR compared to other SARS-CoV-2 ORFs, indicating the importance of this ORF in virus replication or other major functions in virus cycle. Phylogenetic and ancestral sequence analyses based on the entire genome revealed that SARS-CoV-2 is possibly derived from a recombination event between SARS-CoV and Bat SARS-like CoV. Ancestor analysis of the isolates from different locations including Iran suggest shared Chinese ancestry. These results propose the importance of potential inter-host level genetic variations to the evolution of SARS-COV-2, and the formation of viral quasi-species. The RNA modifications discovered in this study may cause amino acid sequence changes in polyprotein, spike protein, product of ORF8 and nucleocapsid (N) protein, suggesting further insights to understanding the functional impacts of mutations in the life cycle and pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2020.104556DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7487081PMC
November 2020

The expression of MDM2, MDM4, p53 and p21 in myeloid neoplasms and the effect of MDM2/MDM4 dual inhibitor.

Leuk Lymphoma 2021 01 14;62(1):167-175. Epub 2020 Sep 14.

Department of Pathology, Montefiore Medical Center, New York, NY, USA.

p53 together with its downstream product p21 plays an important role in tumorigenesis development. MDM2 and MDM4 are two p53 regulators. We studied the expression of p53, p21, MDM2, and MDM4 in a total of 120 cases of myeloid neoplasms including MDS, AML or MDS/MPN, and control, using single and double immunohistochemical stains. We found TP53 mutations had a worse outcome in patients with AML/MDS, and p53 expression detected by immunohistochemistry had a similar prognostic value. p21 expression was strongly related to TP53 mutation status, with loss of expression in almost all TP53 mutated cases. MDM2 and MDM4 were highly expressed in hematopoietic cells in both benign and neoplastic cells. MDM2/p53 double positive cells exceeded MDM4/p53 double positive cells in neoplastic cases. Finally, we observed that p21 protein expression was up regulated upon the use of ALRN-6924 (Aileron) while no significant changes were seen in p53, MDM2 and MDM4 expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10428194.2020.1817441DOI Listing
January 2021

The effect of 12-week resistance exercise training on serum levels of cellular aging process parameters in elderly men.

Exp Gerontol 2020 11 9;141:111090. Epub 2020 Sep 9.

Department of Exercise Physiology, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: Regular physical activity has a positive effect on the prevention of cellular aging. The present study investigated the effect of 12-week resistance training (RT) on serum levels of Sirtuin-1 (SIRT1), Sirtuin-3 (SIRT3), Sirtuin-6 (SIRT6), Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC1-α), and telomerase enzyme in elderly men.

Methods: For this purpose, 30 elderly men (age 66.23 ± 0.57 years) were randomly divided into two groups: resistance training group (RET, n = 15) and control group (CTR, n = 15). Participants in RET performed RT protocols with intensity of 60% one-repetition maximum (3×/week, 4 sets of the six exercise circuits). Body composition, physical functioning and, blood samples were assessed before (pre-test) and after (post-test) a 12-week intervention.

Results: The results showed that there was a significant increase in serum levels of SIRT1 (P = 0.001), SIRT3 (P = 0.001), SIRT6 (P = 0.02), PGC1-α (P = 0.001), and telomerase enzyme (P = 0.001) in RET. Also, we found a significant difference between the RET and CTR in serum levels of SIRT1 (P = 0.001), SIRT3 (P = 0.001), SIRT6 (P = 0.037), PGC1-α (P = 0.007), and telomerase enzyme (P = 0.001).

Conclusions: 12-Week RT increased the levels of proteins associated with the biological aging process in elderly men. It seems that the RT may have beneficial effects on cellular senescence and also improved impaired mitochondrial protein and enzymatic functional induced aging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exger.2020.111090DOI Listing
November 2020

Contemporary management of carotid body tumors in a Midwestern academic center.

Surgery 2021 03 28;169(3):700-704. Epub 2020 Aug 28.

Division of Vascular Surgery, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL. Electronic address:

Background: Carotid body tumors are rare, neurogenic tumors arising from the periadventitial chemoreceptive tissue of the carotid body. The purpose of this study is to ascertain the presentation and preoperative risk factors associated with surgical resection.

Methods: A single-center retrospective review of 25 carotid body tumor resections from 2002 to 2019. Demographics, periprocedural details, and postoperative outcomes were analyzed using Stata (Stata Corporation, College Station, TX).

Results: Among 25 patients, 64% were women, 84% were asymptomatic, and the mean age was 49 years (range 21-79). Forty-four percent of tumors were Shamblin III. Nine patients underwent preoperative embolization but did not correlate with decreased blood loss (299 cm vs 205 cm, P = .35). The 30-day death, stroke, and cranial nerve injury rates were 0%, 8%, and 32%, respectively. Cranial nerve injuries included 20% vagus, 4% hypoglossal, 4% facial, and 4% glossopharyngeal, with permanent deficits in 4% (n = 1). Mean length of stay was 3.0 days (range 1-9 days). At a mean follow-up of 12 months (range 1-63 months), there has been no recurrence.

Conclusion: Although carotid body tumors are uncommon in the Midwest, complete surgical resection is curative of these typically hormonally inactive tumors. Preoperative embolization did not affect blood loss, and the incidence of death, stroke, and permanent cranial nerve injury rates remained very low.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surg.2020.07.030DOI Listing
March 2021