Publications by authors named "M L E Leal"

1,031 Publications

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Correlation between quality of life, depression, satisfaction and functionality of older people with HIV.

Rev Bras Enferm 2021 16;74Suppl 2(Suppl 2):e20201334. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Universidade Federal da Paraíba. João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil.

Objective: To analyze the correlation between the quality of life, depression, life satisfaction, and functional capacity in elderly people living with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV).

Methods: A cross-sectional study developed in reference hospitals for treatment and follow-up of people with HIV. 241 elderly people participated by applying a questionnaire containing sociodemographic variables, the HIV/AIDS target quality of Life, the Barthel Index, the Life Satisfaction Scale, and the abbreviated version with 15 items of the Yesavage Geriatric Depression Scale.

Results: The analyses showed an inverse correlation between the dimensions of the HAT-Qol with depression, a positive correlation in the domain satisfaction with life, and statistically significant, but weak, with functionality.

Conclusion: Depression impairs quality of life in all dimensions, while life satisfaction influences this aspect more positively than functional capacity.

Descriptors: Quality of Life; Depression; Personal Satisfaction; Aged; HIV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0034-7167-2020-1334DOI Listing
July 2021

Levamisole, a cocaine cutting agent, induces acute and subchronic systemic alterations in Wistar rats.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2021 Jul 14;426:115649. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Biológicas, Farmacologia e Terapêutica, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Rua Sarmento Leite, 500/305, 90050-170 Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil; Laboratório de Farmacologia e Toxicologia Neurocomportamental, Departamento de Farmacologia, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Rua Sarmento Leite, 500/305, 90050-170 Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Biológicas: Neurociências, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Rua Sarmento Leite, 500/209, 90046-900 Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Electronic address:

The use of the anthelmintic levamisole as a cocaine adulterant has been increasing worldwide. Complications caused by this association include systemic vasculitis, agranulocytosis, neutropenia, tissue necrosis, pulmonary hemorrhage, and renal injury. Data about toxicity of levamisole are scarce, therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the acute and subchronic toxic effects of levamisole in rats. Male Wistar rats received saline or levamisole by intraperitoneal route at the doses of 12, 24 and 36 mg/kg in the acute toxicity test; and at 3, 6 and 12 mg/kg in the subchronic toxicity test. Toxicity was evaluated using behavioral, cognitive, renal, hematological, biochemical and histopathological parameters. Acute administration of levamisole caused behavioral and histopathological alterations. Subchronic administration caused behavioral, cognitive and hematological alterations (p < 0.0001 and p < 0.05, respectively), impairment of liver and kidney functions (p < 0.05), and changes of antioxidant defenses (p ≤ 0.0001). Both administrations produced toxic effects of clinical relevance, which make levamisole a dangerous cutting agent. Furthermore, the knowledge of these effects can contribute to the correct diagnosis and treatment of cocaine dependents with unusual systemic alterations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2021.115649DOI Listing
July 2021

Summer Is Coming! Tackling Ocean Warming in Atlantic Salmon Cage Farming.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Jun 16;11(6). Epub 2021 Jun 16.

ECOMARE, CESAM-Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies, Department of Biology, University of Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal.

Atlantic salmon () cage farming has traditionally been located at higher latitudes where cold seawater temperatures favor this practice. However, these regions can be impacted by ocean warming and heat waves that push seawater temperature beyond the thermo-tolerance limits of this species. As more mass mortality events are reported every year due to abnormal sea temperatures, the Atlantic salmon cage aquaculture industry acknowledges the need to adapt to a changing ocean. This paper reviews adult Atlantic salmon thermal tolerance limits, as well as the deleterious eco-physiological consequences of heat stress, with emphasis on how it negatively affects sea cage aquaculture production cycles. Biotechnological solutions targeting the phenotypic plasticity of Atlantic salmon and its genetic diversity, particularly that of its southernmost populations at the limit of its natural zoogeographic distribution, are discussed. Some of these solutions include selective breeding programs, which may play a key role in this quest for a more thermo-tolerant strain of Atlantic salmon that may help the cage aquaculture industry to adapt to climate uncertainties more rapidly, without compromising profitability. Omics technologies and precision breeding, along with cryopreservation breakthroughs, are also part of the available toolbox that includes other solutions that can allow cage farmers to continue to produce Atlantic salmon in the warmer waters of the oceans of tomorrow.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani11061800DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8234874PMC
June 2021

Nanoparticle-Mediated Angiotensin-(1-9) Drug Delivery for the Treatment of Cardiac Hypertrophy.

Pharmaceutics 2021 Jun 1;13(6). Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Advanced Center for Chronic Diseases (ACCDiS), Universidad de Chile & Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago 8380494, Chile.

Ang-(1-9) peptide is a bioactive vasodilator peptide that prevents cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in vitro and in vivo as well as lowers blood pressure and pathological cardiovascular remodeling; however, it has a reduced half-life in circulation, requiring a suitable carrier for its delivery. In this work, hybrid nanoparticles composed of polymeric nanoparticles (pNPs) based on Eudragit E/Alginate (EE/Alg), and gold nanospheres (AuNS), were developed to evaluate their encapsulation capacity and release of Ang-(1-9) under different experimental conditions. Hybrid pNPs were characterized by dynamic light scattering, zeta potential, transmission and scanning electron microscopy, size distribution, and concentration by nanoparticle tracking analysis. Nanometric pNPs, with good polydispersity index and colloidally stable, produced high association efficiency of Ang-(1-9) and controlled release. Finally, the treatment of neonatal cardiomyocytes in culture with EE/Alg/AuNS 2% + Ang-(1-9) 20% pNPs decreased the area and perimeter, demonstrating efficacy in preventing norepinephrine-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. On the other hand, the incorporation of AuNS did not cause negative effects either on the cytotoxicity or on the association capacity of Ang-(1-9), suggesting that the hybrid carrier EE/Alg/AuNS pNPs could be used for the delivery of Ang-(1-9) in the treatment of cardiovascular hypertrophy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13060822DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8228229PMC
June 2021

Determinants of economic motivations for food choice: insights for the understanding of consumer behaviour.

Int J Food Sci Nutr 2021 Jun 21:1-13. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Agricultural School and CERNAS-IPV Research Centre, Polytechnic Institute of Viseu, Viseu, Portugal.

Food consumption involves several dimensions, being some of them directly associated with the consumers' characteristics. The interrelationships between these domains impact consumer behaviour for food choice and the consequent decisions for food consumption. In these frameworks, economic motivations are determinant. On the other hand, the scientific literature highlights that the economic-based stimuli to choose food is still underexplored. In this perspective, the objective of this study was to assess the main sociodemographic and anthropometric determinants of the economic motivations for food choice. For that, a questionnaire survey was carried out involving 11,919 respondents from 16 countries. A validated questionnaire was used, translated into the native languages in all participating countries, using a back-translation process. First, the information obtained was assessed through factor analysis to reduce the number of variables associated with the economic motivations and to identify indexes. After, and considering the indexes obtained as dependent variables, a classification and regression tree analysis was performed. As main insights, it is highlighted that the main determinants of the economic motivations are country of residence, age, gender, civil state, professional activity, educational level, living environment, responsibility for buying food, weight, height, body mass index, healthy diets and physical exercise practices. Additionally, the results also reveal that economic motivations may be associated with two indexes, one related to convenience attitudes and the other to quality concerns. Finally, the younger persons and the women are the social groups more concerned with healthy diets and food quality. In conclusion, this work confirmed that food choice is to a high extent influenced by several sociodemographic and behavioural factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09637486.2021.1939659DOI Listing
June 2021