Publications by authors named "M J W Olderode-Berends"

21 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

The incidence of consecutive manifestations in Von Hippel-Lindau disease.

Fam Cancer 2019 07;18(3):369-376

Department of Endocrinology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease is an autosomal dominant rare tumor syndrome characterized by high penetrance. VHL mutation carriers develop numerous manifestations in multiple organs during life. The natural course of development of new and growth of existing VHL-related manifestations is still unclear. In this study we aimed to gain insight into the development of subsequent manifestations in VHL disease. We retrospectively scored each new VHL-related manifestation as detected by standard follow-up (retina, central nervous system, kidneys and pancreas, excluding adrenal and endolymfatic sac manifestations) in 75 VHL mutation carriers. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to plot the cumulative proportions of all consecutive manifestations in each organ against age. The cumulative average number of manifestations in all organs during life was calculated by summating these cumulative proportions. Poisson model parameters were used to calculate average time to the detection of consecutive VHL manifestations in each organ. Consecutive VHL-related kidney and retina manifestations during life occur linearly according to Poisson distribution model. The total number of VHL manifestations rises linearly, with an average of seven VHL-related lesions at age 60 years. The incidence of consecutive VHL-related manifestations is constant during life in VHL mutation carriers. Our data is consistent with the notion that somatic inactivation of the remaining allele (Knudson's "two-hit" hypothesis) is the determining factor in developing new VHL-related manifestations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10689-019-00131-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6560011PMC
July 2019

The Apparent Genetic Anticipation in PMS2-Associated Lynch Syndrome Families Is Explained by Birth-cohort Effect.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2019 06 1;28(6):1010-1014. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

Department of Clinical Genetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands.

Background: PMS2-associated Lynch syndrome is characterized by a relatively low colorectal cancer penetrance compared with other Lynch syndromes. However, age at colorectal cancer diagnosis varies widely, and a strong genetic anticipation effect has been suggested for PMS2 families. In this study, we examined proposed genetic anticipation in a sample of 152 European PMS2 families.

Methods: The 152 families (637 family members) that were eligible for analysis were mainly clinically ascertained via clinical genetics centers. We used weighted Cox-type random effects model, adjusted by birth cohort and sex, to estimate the generational effect on the age of onset of colorectal cancer. Probands and young birth cohorts were excluded from the analyses. Weights represented mutation probabilities based on kinship coefficients, thus avoiding testing bias.

Results: Family data across three generations, including 123 colorectal cancers, were analyzed. When compared with the first generation, the crude HR for anticipation was 2.242 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.162-4.328] for the second generation and 2.644 (95% CI, 1.082-6.464) for the third generation. However, after correction for birth cohort and sex, the effect vanished [HR = 1.302 (95% CI, 0.648-2.619) and HR = 1.074 (95% CI, 0.406-2.842) for second and third generations, respectively].

Conclusions: Our study did not confirm previous reports of genetic anticipation in PMS2-associated Lynch syndrome. Birth-cohort effect seems the most likely explanation for observed younger colorectal cancer diagnosis in subsequent generations, particularly because there is currently no commonly accepted biological mechanism that could explain genetic anticipation in Lynch syndrome.

Impact: This new model for studying genetic anticipation provides a standard for rigorous analysis of families with dominantly inherited cancer predisposition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-18-0576DOI Listing
June 2019

Cancer Risks for PMS2-Associated Lynch Syndrome.

J Clin Oncol 2018 10 30;36(29):2961-2968. Epub 2018 Aug 30.

Sanne W. ten Broeke, Heleen M. van der Klift, Carli M.J. Tops, Manon Suerink, Frederik J. Hes, Hans F.A. Vasen, Juul T. Wijnen, and Maartje Nielsen, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden; Encarna Gomez Garcia, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht; Nicoline Hoogerbrugge, Arjen R. Mensenkamp, and Liesbeth Spruijt, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen; Tom G.W. Letteboer, University Medical Center, Utrecht; Theo A.M. van Os and Egbert J.W. Redeker, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam; Maran J.W. Olderode-Berends and Yvonne J. Vos, University of Groningen; University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen; Anja Wagner, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; Stefan Aretz, University of Bonn; University Hospital Bonn, Bonn; Christoph Engel, Leipzig University; Medizinisch Genetisches Zentrum Bayerstr, Leipzig; Magnus von Knebel Doeberitz, University of Heidelberg; German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg; Pål Møller, University of Witten-Herdecke, Wuppertal; Nils Rahner, Heinrich-Heine-University, Düsseldorf; Hans K. Schackert, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden; Verena Steinke-Lange, Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik IV Campus Innenstadt, Klinikum der Universität München, Munich, Germany; Pål Møller, The Norwegian Radium Hospital; Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway; Inge Bernstein, Hvidovre Hospital, Hvidovre, and Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark; Daniel D. Buchanan, Mark Clendenning, John L. Hopper, Mark A. Jenkins, Christophe Rosty, Ingrid Winship, and Aung Ko Win, The University of Melbourne; Daniel D. Buchanan, Ingrid Winship, and Aung Ko Win, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville, Melbourne, Victoria; Rodney Scott, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia; Albert de la Chapelle, Heather L. Hampel, Rachel Pearlman, and Leigha Senter, The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbus, OH; Gabriel Capella and Marta Pineda, Institut d'Investigació Biomédica de Bellvitge, Barcelona, Spain; Steven Gallinger, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Jane C. Figueiredo and Robert Haile, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA; Loic Le Marchand, University of Hawaii Cancer Center, Honolulu, HI; Annika Lindblom, Karolinska Institutet; Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; Noralane M. Lindor, Mayo Clinic Arizona, Scottsdale, AZ; Polly A. Newcomb, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center; University of Washington, Seattle, WA; and Stephen Thibodeau, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.

Purpose: Lynch syndrome due to pathogenic variants in the DNA mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2, and MSH6 is predominantly associated with colorectal and endometrial cancer, although extracolonic cancers have been described within the Lynch tumor spectrum. However, the age-specific cumulative risk (penetrance) of these cancers is still poorly defined for PMS2-associated Lynch syndrome. Using a large data set from a worldwide collaboration, our aim was to determine accurate penetrance measures of cancers for carriers of heterozygous pathogenic PMS2 variants.

Methods: A modified segregation analysis was conducted that incorporated both genotyped and nongenotyped relatives, with conditioning for ascertainment to estimates corrected for bias. Hazard ratios (HRs) and corresponding 95% CIs were estimated for each cancer site for mutation carriers compared with the general population, followed by estimation of penetrance.

Results: In total, 284 families consisting of 4,878 first- and second-degree family members were included in the analysis. PMS2 mutation carriers were at increased risk for colorectal cancer (cumulative risk to age 80 years of 13% [95% CI, 7.9% to 22%] for males and 12% [95% CI, 6.7% to 21%] for females) and endometrial cancer (13% [95% CI, 7.0%-24%]), compared with the general population (6.6%, 4.7%, and 2.4%, respectively). There was no clear evidence of an increased risk of ovarian, gastric, hepatobiliary, bladder, renal, brain, breast, prostate, or small bowel cancer.

Conclusion: Heterozygous PMS2 mutation carriers were at small increased risk for colorectal and endometrial cancer but not for any other Lynch syndrome-associated cancer. This finding justifies that PMS2-specific screening protocols could be restricted to colonoscopies. The role of risk-reducing hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy for PMS2 mutation carriers needs further discussion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2018.78.4777DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6349460PMC
October 2018

Molecular Background of Colorectal Tumors From Patients With Lynch Syndrome Associated With Germline Variants in PMS2.

Gastroenterology 2018 09 29;155(3):844-851. Epub 2018 Jul 29.

Department of Clinical Genetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands.

Background & Aims: Germline variants in mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2 (EPCAM), MSH6, or PMS2 cause Lynch syndrome. Patients with these variants have an increased risk of developing colorectal cancers (CRCs) that differ from sporadic CRCs in genetic and histologic features. It has been a challenge to study CRCs associated with PMS2 variants (PMS2-associated CRCs) because these develop less frequently and in older patients than CRCs with variants in other mismatch repair genes.

Methods: We analyzed 20 CRCs associated with germline variants in PMS2, 22 sporadic CRCs, 18 CRCs with germline variants in MSH2, and 24 CRCs from patients with germline variants in MLH1. Tumor tissue blocks were collected from Dutch pathology departments in 2017. After extraction of tumor DNA, we used a platform designed to detect approximately 3,000 somatic hotspot variants in 55 genes (including KRAS, APC, CTNNB1, and TP53). Somatic variant frequencies were compared using the Fisher exact test.

Results: None of the PMS2-associated CRCs contained any somatic variants in the catenin-β gene (CTNNB1), which encodes β-catenin, whereas 14 of 24 MLH1-associated CRCs (58%) contained variants in CTNNB1. Half the PMS2-associated CRCs contained KRAS variants, but only 20% of these were in hotspots that encoded G12D or G13D. These hotspot variants occurred more frequently in CRCs associated with variants in MLH1 (37.5%; P = .44) and MSH2 (71.4%; P = .035) than in those associated with variants in PMS2.

Conclusions: In a genetic analysis of 84 colorectal tumors, we found tumors from patients with PMS2-associated Lynch syndrome to be distinct from colorectal tumors associated with defects in other mismatch repair genes. This might account for differences in development and less frequent occurrence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2018.05.020DOI Listing
September 2018

High Yield of Pathogenic Germline Mutations Causative or Likely Causative of the Cancer Phenotype in Selected Children with Cancer.

Clin Cancer Res 2018 04 19;24(7):1594-1603. Epub 2018 Jan 19.

Department of Human Genetics, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.

In many children with cancer and characteristics suggestive of a genetic predisposition syndrome, the genetic cause is still unknown. We studied the yield of pathogenic mutations by applying whole-exome sequencing on a selected cohort of children with cancer. To identify mutations in known and novel cancer-predisposing genes, we performed trio-based whole-exome sequencing on germline DNA of 40 selected children and their parents. These children were diagnosed with cancer and had at least one of the following features: (1) intellectual disability and/or congenital anomalies, (2) multiple malignancies, (3) family history of cancer, or (4) an adult type of cancer. We first analyzed the sequence data for germline mutations in 146 known cancer-predisposing genes. If no causative mutation was found, the analysis was extended to the whole exome. Four patients carried causative mutations in a known cancer-predisposing gene: and ( = 3). In another 4 patients, exome sequencing revealed mutations causing syndromes that might have contributed to the malignancy (-based Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome, -based Coffin-Siris syndrome, -based Baraitser-Winter syndrome, and -based Weaver syndrome). In addition, we identified two genes, and , which are possibly involved in genetic cancer predisposition. In our selected cohort of patients, pathogenic germline mutations causative or likely causative of the cancer phenotype were found in 8 patients, and two possible novel cancer-predisposing genes were identified. Therewith, our study shows the added value of sequencing beyond a cancer gene panel in selected patients, to recognize childhood cancer predisposition. .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-17-1725DOI Listing
April 2018

Homozygous TMEM127 mutations in 2 patients with bilateral pheochromocytomas.

Clin Genet 2018 05 23;93(5):1049-1056. Epub 2018 Mar 23.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Pheochromocytoma (PCC) and paraganglioma (PGL) are rare neuroendocrine tumors that are hereditary in up to 50% of patients. The gene encoding transmembrane-protein-127 (TMEM127) is one of the PCC/PGL-susceptibility genes with an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern. Here, we report 2 patients with bilateral PCC who both harbored a homozygous TMEM127-mutation. In a 31-year-old mentally retarded patient, the homozygous c.410-2A > G mutation was discovered during an update of DNA analysis. A 26-year-old mentally retarded patient was found to have a homozygous c.3G > A mutation. The parents of both patients were consanguineous. We reviewed previously reported clinical features of TMEM127 mutation carriers and compared our findings with case descriptions of homozygous mutations in other PGL/PCC-susceptibility genes. Homozygosity for an autosomal dominant inherited disorder is an extremely rare phenomenon and has, to our knowledge, not been reported before for the gene encoding TMEM127. In the present cases, the clinical picture does not seem to be very different from heterozygous TMEM127 mutation carriers, except for a relatively large tumor size and more pronounced plasma metanephrine concentration. It is unclear whether the mental retardation is causally related to homozygosity of the TMEM127 mutations. Updating genetic screening in patients in whom PCC/PGL has been diagnosed in the past should be considered as it might provide clinically relevant information.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cge.13202DOI Listing
May 2018

SNP association study in PMS2-associated Lynch syndrome.

Fam Cancer 2018 10;17(4):507-515

Department of Clinical Genetics, Leiden University Medical Centre, Albinusdreef 2, 2333 ZA, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Lynch syndrome (LS) patients are at high risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC). Phenotypic variability might in part be explained by common susceptibility loci identified in Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS). Previous studies focused mostly on MLH1, MSH2 and MSH6 carriers, with conflicting results. We aimed to determine the role of GWAS SNPs in PMS2 mutation carriers. A cohort study was performed in 507 PMS2 carriers (124 CRC cases), genotyped for 24 GWAS SNPs, including SNPs at 11q23.1 and 8q23.3. Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using a weighted Cox regression analysis to correct for ascertainment bias. Discrimination was assessed with a concordance statistic in a bootstrap cross-validation procedure. Individual SNPs only had non-significant associations with CRC occurrence with HRs lower than 2, although male carriers of allele A at rs1321311 (6p21.31) may have increased risk of CRC (HR = 2.1, 95% CI 1.2-3.0). A polygenic risk score (PRS) based on 24 HRs had an HR of 2.6 (95% CI 1.5-4.6) for the highest compared to the lowest quartile, but had no discriminative ability (c statistic 0.52). Previously suggested SNPs do not modify CRC risk in PMS2 carriers. Future large studies are needed for improved risk stratification among Lynch syndrome patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10689-017-0061-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6182583PMC
October 2018

Childhood tumours with a high probability of being part of a tumour predisposition syndrome; reason for referral for genetic consultation.

Eur J Cancer 2017 07 23;80:48-54. Epub 2017 May 23.

Department of Paediatric Oncology, Emma Children's Hospital, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

Introduction: Recognising a tumour predisposition syndrome (TPS) in childhood cancer patients is of major clinical relevance. The presence of a TPS may be suggested by the type of tumour in the child. We present an overview of 23 childhood tumours that in themselves should be a reason to refer a child for genetic consultation.

Methods: We performed a PubMed search to review the incidence of TPSs in children for 85 tumour types listed in the International Classification of Childhood Cancer third edition (ICCC-3). The results were discussed during a national consensus meeting with representative clinical geneticists from all six academic paediatric oncology centres in The Netherlands. A TPS incidence of 5% or more was considered a high probability and therefore in itself a reason for referral to a clinical geneticist.

Results: The literature search resulted in data on the incidence of a TPS in 26 tumours. For 23/26 tumour types, a TPS incidence of 5% or higher was reported. In addition, during the consensus meeting the experts agreed that children with any carcinoma should always be referred for clinical genetic consultation as well, as it may point to a TPS.

Conclusion: We present an overview of 23 paediatric tumours with a high probability of a TPS; this will facilitate paediatric oncologists to decide which patients should be referred for genetic consultation merely based on type of tumour.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2017.04.021DOI Listing
July 2017

Validation of a clinical screening instrument for tumour predisposition syndromes in patients with childhood cancer (TuPS): protocol for a prospective, observational, multicentre study.

BMJ Open 2017 01 20;7(1):e013237. Epub 2017 Jan 20.

Department of Paediatric Oncology, Emma Children's Hospital, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Introduction: Recognising a tumour predisposition syndrome (TPS) in patients with childhood cancer is of significant clinical relevance, as it affects treatment, prognosis and facilitates genetic counselling. Previous studies revealed that only half of the known TPSs are recognised during standard paediatric cancer care. In current medical practice it is impossible to refer every patient with childhood cancer to a clinical geneticist, due to limited capacity for routine genetic consultation. Therefore, we have developed a screening instrument to identify patients with childhood cancer with a high probability of having a TPS. The aim of this study is to validate the clinical screening instrument for TPS in patients with childhood cancer.

Methods And Analysis: This study is a prospective nationwide cohort study including all newly diagnosed patients with childhood cancer in the Netherlands. The screening instrument consists of a checklist, two- and three-dimensional photographic series of the patient. 2 independent clinical geneticists will assess the content of the screening instrument. If a TPS is suspected based on the instrument data and thus further evaluation is indicated, the patient will be invited for full genetic consultation. A negative control group consists of 20% of the patients in whom a TPS is not suspected based on the instrument; they will be randomly invited for full genetic consultation. Primary outcome measurement will be sensitivity of the instrument.

Ethics And Dissemination: The Medical Ethical Committee of the Academic Medical Centre stated that the Medical Research Involving Human Subjects Act does not apply to this study and that official approval of this study by the Committee was not required. The results will be offered for publication in peer-reviewed journals and presented at International Conferences on Oncology and Clinical Genetics. The clinical data gathered in this study will be available for all participating centres.

Trial Registration Number: NTR5605.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2016-013237DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5253556PMC
January 2017

Comprehensive Mutation Analysis of PMS2 in a Large Cohort of Probands Suspected of Lynch Syndrome or Constitutional Mismatch Repair Deficiency Syndrome.

Hum Mutat 2016 11 21;37(11):1162-1179. Epub 2016 Aug 21.

Department of Clinical Genetics, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Monoallelic PMS2 germline mutations cause 5%-15% of Lynch syndrome, a midlife cancer predisposition, whereas biallelic PMS2 mutations cause approximately 60% of constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD), a rare childhood cancer syndrome. Recently improved DNA- and RNA-based strategies are applied to overcome problematic PMS2 mutation analysis due to the presence of pseudogenes and frequent gene conversion events. Here, we determined PMS2 mutation detection yield and mutation spectrum in a nationwide cohort of 396 probands. Furthermore, we studied concordance between tumor IHC/MSI (immunohistochemistry/microsatellite instability) profile and mutation carrier state. Overall, we found 52 different pathogenic PMS2 variants explaining 121 Lynch syndrome and nine CMMRD patients. In vitro mismatch repair assays suggested pathogenicity for three missense variants. Ninety-one PMS2 mutation carriers (70%) showed isolated loss of PMS2 in their tumors, for 31 (24%) no or inconclusive IHC was available, and eight carriers (6%) showed discordant IHC (presence of PMS2 or loss of both MLH1 and PMS2). Ten cases with isolated PMS2 loss (10%; 10/97) harbored MLH1 mutations. We confirmed that recently improved mutation analysis provides a high yield of PMS2 mutations in patients with isolated loss of PMS2 expression. Application of universal tumor prescreening methods will however miss some PMS2 germline mutation carriers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/humu.23052DOI Listing
November 2016

A heritable form of SMARCE1-related meningiomas with important implications for follow-up and family screening.

Neurogenetics 2016 Apr 23;17(2):83-9. Epub 2016 Jan 23.

Department of Genetics, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, P.O. Box 30001, 9700 RB, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Childhood meningiomas are rare. Recently, a new hereditary tumor predisposition syndrome has been discovered, resulting in an increased risk for spinal and intracranial clear cell meningiomas (CCMs) in young patients. Heterozygous loss-of-function germline mutations in the SMARCE1 gene are causative, giving rise to an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern. We report on an extended family with a pediatric CCM patient and an adult CCM patient and several asymptomatic relatives carrying a germline SMARCE1 mutation, and discuss difficulties in genetic counseling for this heritable condition. Because of the few reported cases so far, the lifetime risk of developing meningiomas for SMARCE1 mutation carriers is unclear and the complete tumor spectrum is unknown. There is no surveillance guideline for asymptomatic carriers nor a long-term follow-up recommendation for SMARCE1-related CCM patients as yet. Until more information is available about the penetrance and tumor spectrum of the condition, we propose the following screening advice for asymptomatic SMARCE1 mutation carriers: neurological examination and MRI of the brain and spine, yearly from diagnosis until the age of 18 and once every 3 years thereafter, or in between if there are clinical symptoms. This advice can also be used for long-term patient follow-up. More data is needed to optimize this proposed screening advice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10048-015-0472-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4794526PMC
April 2016

The effect of genotypes and parent of origin on cancer risk and age of cancer development in PMS2 mutation carriers.

Genet Med 2016 Apr 25;18(4):405-9. Epub 2015 Jun 25.

Department of Clinical Genetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Purpose: Lynch syndrome (LS), a heritable disorder with an increased risk of primarily colorectal cancer (CRC) and endometrial cancer (EC), can be caused by mutations in the PMS2 gene. We wished to establish whether genotype and/or parent-of-origin effects (POE) explain (part of) the reported variability in severity of the phenotype.

Methods: European PMS2 mutation carriers (n = 381) were grouped and compared based on RNA expression and whether the mutation was inherited paternally or maternally.

Results: Mutation carriers with loss of RNA expression (group 1) had a significantly lower age at CRC diagnosis (51.1 years vs. 60.0 years, P = 0.035) and a lower age at EC diagnosis (55.8 years vs. 61.0 years, P = 0.2, nonsignificant) compared with group 2 (retention of RNA expression). Furthermore, group 1 showed slightly higher, but nonsignificant, hazard ratios (HRs) for both CRC (HR: 1.31, P = 0.38) and EC (HR: 1.22, P = 0.72). No evidence for a significant parent-of-origin effect was found for either CRC or EC.

Conclusions: PMS2 mutation carriers with retention of RNA expression developed CRC 9 years later than those with loss of RNA expression. If confirmed, this finding would justify a delay in surveillance for these cases. Cancer risk was not influenced by a parent-of-origin effect.Genet Med 18 4, 405-409.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/gim.2015.83DOI Listing
April 2016

Cancer risk and genotype-phenotype correlations in PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome.

Fam Cancer 2014 Mar;13(1):57-63

The Netherlands Foundation for the Detection of Hereditary Tumors, Rijnsburgerweg 10, Poortgebouw Zuid, 2333 AA, Leiden, The Netherlands,

Patients with germline PTEN mutations are at high risk of developing benign and malignant tumours. We aimed to evaluate the cumulative risk of several types of cancer and of dysplastic cerebellar gangliocytoma (Lhermitte-Duclos disease, LDD). In addition, genotype-phenotype correlations in PTEN hamartoma tumour syndrome (PHTS) were assessed. Data on patients with PTEN mutations were collected from clinical genetic centres in Western Europe, Australia, and the USA. The cumulative risk of developing cancers of the breast, thyroid, endometrium, skin, kidneys, colorectum, and lungs, and also LDD was calculated by Kaplan-Meier methods. Associations between mutations and cancer were assessed by Chi square means. A total of 180 germline PTEN mutation carriers, 81 males (45%), from nine countries were included. The cumulative risk of developing any cancer and/or LDD at age 60 was 56% for males and 87% for females (p = 0.001). Females had significant higher risks of developing breast cancer, thyroid cancer, and LDD than males. The only genotype-phenotype correlation identified was a lower frequency of thyroid cancer in patients with missense mutations (p = 0.014). In conclusion, PHTS patients, particularly females, have a substantial risk of developing one or more tumours from a broad tumour spectrum. Major genotype-phenotype associations could not be identified.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10689-013-9674-3DOI Listing
March 2014

Is colorectal surveillance indicated in patients with PTEN mutations?

Colorectal Dis 2012 Sep;14(9):e562-6

Netherlands Foundation for the Detection of Hereditary Tumors, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Aim: Patients with germline phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) mutations develop hamartomatous lesions in several organs and are at increased risk of various malignancies. We assessed the lifetime risk of benign and malignant gastrointestinal lesions in patients with a proven PTEN mutation.

Method: Data on gender, mutation, dates of birth, last contact, and diagnosis, location and type of gastrointestinal lesions were collected from nine countries. The lifetime risk of gastrointestinal lesions was calculated by Kaplan-Meier methods.

Results: A total of 156 patients (67 men, 43%) from 101 families with a PTEN mutation were included. Patients were born between 1928 and 2008. Benign gastrointestinal polyps were reported in 49 (31%) patients at a mean age of 38 years (range 18-62 years) and were most often hamartomas. Twenty-two (44%) patients had upper as well as lower gastrointestinal lesions, 14 (29%) had only colonic lesions and 13 (27%) had gastrointestinal lesions at unknown sites. The cumulative risk of developing benign gastrointestinal polyps was 70% at age 60. Four patients (two men) developed colorectal carcinoma at 53, 57, 59 and 62 years, respectively. The cumulative risk of developing colorectal carcinoma was 18% at age 60. Except for one carcinoid in the small intestine, no upper gastrointestinal cancers were observed.

Conclusion: Benign gastrointestinal lesions are common in PTEN mutation carriers, and a three- to four-fold increased lifetime risk of colorectal cancer compared with the general population may exist. Colorectal screening of patients with germline PTEN mutations is recommended, starting at age 40 years.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1463-1318.2012.03121.xDOI Listing
September 2012

Routine testing for PALB2 mutations in familial pancreatic cancer families and breast cancer families with pancreatic cancer is not indicated.

Eur J Hum Genet 2012 May 14;20(5):577-9. Epub 2011 Dec 14.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Erasmus MC, University Medical Centre Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

PALB2-mutation carriers not only have an increased risk for breast cancer (BC) but also for pancreatic cancer (PC). Thus far, PALB2 mutations have been mainly found in PC patients from families affected by both PC and BC. As it is well known that the prevalence of gene mutations varies between different populations, we studied the prevalence of PALB2 mutations in a Dutch cohort of non-BRCA1/2 familial PC (FPC) families and in non-BRCA1/2 familial BC (FBC) families with at least one PC case. Mutation analysis included direct sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) and was performed in a total of 64 patients from 56 distinct families (28 FPC families, 28 FBC families). In total, 31 patients (48%) originated from FPC families; 24 were FPC patients (77%), 6 had a personal history of BC (19%) and 1 was a suspected carrier (3.2%). The remaining 33 patients (52%) were all female BC patients of whom 31 (94%) had a family history of PC and 2 (6.1%) had a personal history of PC. In none of these 64 patients a PALB2 mutation was found. Therefore, PALB2 does not have a major causal role in familial clustering of PC and BC in non-BRCA1/2 families in the Dutch population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ejhg.2011.226DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3330210PMC
May 2012

Paediatric intestinal cancer and polyposis due to bi-allelic PMS2 mutations: case series, review and follow-up guidelines.

Eur J Cancer 2011 May 4;47(7):965-82. Epub 2011 Mar 4.

Department of Genetics, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 30.001, 9700 RB Groningen, The Netherlands.

Background: Bi-allelic germline mutations of one of the DNA mismatch repair genes, so far predominantly found in PMS2, cause constitutional MMR-deficiency syndrome. This rare disorder is characterised by paediatric intestinal cancer and other malignancies. We report the clinical, immunohistochemical and genetic characterisation of four families with bi-allelic germline PMS2 mutations. We present an overview of the published gastrointestinal manifestations of CMMR-D syndrome and propose recommendations for gastro-intestinal screening.

Methods And Results: The first proband developed a cerebral angiosarcoma at age 2 and two colorectal adenomas at age 7. Genetic testing identified a complete PMS2 gene deletion and a frameshift c.736_741delinsTGTGTGTGAAG (p.Pro246CysfsX3) mutation. In the second family, both the proband and her brother had multiple intestinal adenomas, initially wrongly diagnosed as familial adenomatous polyposis. A splice site c.2174+1G>A, and a missense c.137G>T (p.Ser46Ile) mutation in PMS2 were identified. The third patient was diagnosed with multiple colorectal adenomas at age 11; he developed a high-grade dysplastic colorectal adenocarcinoma at age 21. Two intragenic PMS2 deletions were found. The fourth proband developed a cerebral anaplastic ganglioma at age 9 and a high-grade colerectal dysplastic adenoma at age 10 and carries a homozygous c.2174+1G>A mutation. Tumours of all patients showed microsatellite instability and/or loss of PMS2 expression.

Conclusions: Our findings show the association between bi-allelic germline PMS2 mutations and severe childhood-onset gastrointestinal manifestations, and support the notion that patients with early-onset gastrointestinal adenomas and cancer should be investigated for CMMR-D syndrome. We recommend yearly follow-up with colonoscopy from age 6 and simultaneous video-capsule small bowel enteroscopy from age 8.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2011.01.013DOI Listing
May 2011

A homozygous FKRP start codon mutation is associated with Walker-Warburg syndrome, the severe end of the clinical spectrum.

Clin Genet 2010 Sep 11;78(3):275-81. Epub 2010 Feb 11.

Department of Human Genetics, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Dystroglycanopathies are a heterogeneous group of disorders caused by defects in the glycosylation pathway of alpha-dystroglycan. The clinical spectrum ranges from severe congenital muscular dystrophy with structural brain and eye involvement to a relatively mild adult onset limb-girdle muscular dystrophy without brain abnormalities and normal intelligence. Mutations have been identified in one of six putative or demonstrated glycosyltransferases. Many different FKRP mutations have been identified, which cover the complete clinical spectrum of dystroglycanopathies. In contrast to the other known genes involved in these disorders, genotype-phenotype correlations are not obvious for FKRP mutations. To date, no homozygous or compound heterozygous null mutations have been identified in FKRP, suggesting that null mutations in FKRP could result in embryonic lethality. We report a family with two siblings carrying a homozygous mutation in the start codon of FKRP that is likely to result in a loss of functional FKRP protein. The clinical phenotype of the patients was consistent with Walker-Warburg syndrome, the most severe disorder in the disease spectrum of dystroglycanopathies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-0004.2010.01384.xDOI Listing
September 2010

Mononucleotide precedes dinucleotide repeat instability during colorectal tumour development in Lynch syndrome patients.

J Pathol 2009 Sep;219(1):96-102

Department of Genetics, University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

A progressive accumulation of genetic alterations underlies the adenoma-carcinoma sequence of colorectal cancer. This accumulation of mutations is driven by genetic instability, of which there are different types. Microsatellite instability (MSI) is the predominant type present in the tumours of Lynch syndrome patients and in a subset of sporadic tumours. It is generally accepted that MSI can be found in the early stages of tumour progression, such as adenomas; however, the frequencies reported vary widely among studies. Moreover, data on the qualitative differences between adenomas and carcinomas, or between tumours of hereditary and sporadic origin, are scarce. We compared MSI in samples of colorectal adenoma and colorectal carcinoma in order to identify possible differences along the adenoma-carcinoma sequence. We compared germline mismatch repair (MMR) gene mutation carriers and non-carriers, to address possible differences of instability patterns between Lynch syndrome patients and patients with sporadic tumours. We found a comparable relative frequency of mono- and dinucleotide instability in sporadic colorectal adenomas and carcinomas, dinucleotide instability being observed most frequently in these sporadic tumours. In MMR gene truncating mutation carriers, the profile was different: colorectal adenomas showed predominantly mononucleotide instability and in colorectal carcinomas, also more mononucleotide than dinucleotide instability was detected. We conclude that MSI profiles differ between sporadic and Lynch syndrome tumours, and that mononucleotide marker instability precedes dinucleotide marker instability during colorectal tumour development in Lynch syndrome patients. As mononucleotide MSI proves to be highly sensitive for detecting mutation carriers, we propose the use of mononucleotide markers for the identification of possible Lynch syndrome patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/path.2573DOI Listing
September 2009

Germline hypermethylation of MLH1 and EPCAM deletions are a frequent cause of Lynch syndrome.

Genes Chromosomes Cancer 2009 Aug;48(8):737-44

Department of Genetics, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

It was shown that Lynch syndrome can be caused by germline hypermethylation of the MLH1 and MSH2 promoters. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated very recently that germline deletions of the 3' region of EPCAM cause transcriptional read-through which results in silencing of MSH2 by hypermethylation. We wanted to determine the prevalence of germline MLH1 promoter hypermethylation and of germline and somatic MSH2 promoter hypermethylation in a large group of Lynch syndrome-suspected patients. From a group of 331 Lynch Syndrome-suspected patients we selected cases, who had no germline MLH1, MSH2, or MSH6 mutation and whose tumors showed loss of MLH1 or MSH2, or, if staining was unavailable, had a tumor with microsatellite instability. Methylation assays were performed to test these patients for germline MLH1 and/or MSH2 promoter hypermethylation. Two patients with germline MLH1 promoter hypermethylation and no patients with germline MSH2 promoter hypermethylation were identified. In the subgroup screened for germline MSH2 promoter hypermethylation, we identified 3 patients with somatic MSH2 promoter hypermethylation in their tumors, which was caused by a germline EPCAM deletion. In the group of 331 Lynch Syndrome-suspected patients, the frequencies of germline MLH1 promoter hypermethylation and somatic MSH2 promoter hypermethylation caused by germline EPCAM deletions are 0.6 and 0.9%, respectively. These mutations, therefore, seem to be rather infrequent. However, the contribution of germline MLH1 hypermethylation and EPCAM deletions to the genetically proven Lynch syndrome cases in this cohort is very high. Previously 27 pathogenic mutations were identified; the newly identified mutations now represent 16% of all mutations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gcc.20678DOI Listing
August 2009

Split hand/foot malformation due to chromosome 7q aberrations(SHFM1): additional support for functional haploinsufficiency as the causative mechanism.

Eur J Hum Genet 2009 Nov 29;17(11):1432-8. Epub 2009 Apr 29.

Department of Genetics, University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen, The Netherlands.

We report on three patients with split hand/foot malformation type 1 (SHFM1). We detected a deletion in two patients and an inversion in the third, all involving chromosome 7q21q22. We performed conventional chromosomal analysis, array comparative genomic hybridization and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Both deletions included the known genes associated with SHFM1 (DLX5, DLX6 and DSS1), whereas in the third patient one of the inversion break points was located just centromeric to these genes. These observations confirm that haploinsufficiency due to either a simultaneous deletion of these genes or combined downregulation of gene expression due to a disruption in the region between these genes and a control element could be the cause of the syndrome. We review previously reported studies that support this hypothetical mechanism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ejhg.2009.72DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2986677PMC
November 2009

Do microsatellite instability profiles really differ between colorectal and endometrial tumors?

Genes Chromosomes Cancer 2009 Jul;48(7):552-7

Department of Genetics, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands.

Microsatellite instability (MSI) occurs in more than 90% of the tumors of Lynch syndrome patients, and in 15-25% of sporadic colorectal (CRC) and endometrial carcinomas (EC). Previous studies comparing EC and CRC using BAT markers showed that the frequency of unstable markers is lower in EC, and that the size of the mutations is smaller in EC. In the present study, we analyzed the type (insertions/deletions), size, and frequency of mutations occurring at three BAT and three dinucleotide markers in CRC and EC, to elucidate whether it is possible to establish different MSI profiles in carcinomas of different tissue origin. We show that mononucleotide markers nearly always become shorter whereas dinucleotide markers can become shorter or longer, in both CRC and EC. We therefore conclude that the type of mutation is a marker-dependent feature rather than tissue-dependent. However, we observed that the size of the deletions/insertions differs between CRC and EC, with EC having shorter alterations. The frequency of mono- and dinucleotide instability found in both tissues is comparable, with mononucleotide and dinucleotide markers being affected at similar rates. We conclude that it is not possible to define clearly different MSI profiles that could distinguish MSI-high in CRC and EC. We propose that the differences observed might indicate different durations of tumor development and/or differences in tissue turnover between colorectal and endometrial epithelium, rather than reflecting truly different MSI profiles. We therefore suggest that the same MSI tests can be used for both tumor types.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gcc.20664DOI Listing
July 2009