Publications by authors named "M J Jaffe"

436 Publications

This outcome feels right! subjective evaluations of coin flip outcomes reflect previously stated preferences.

PLoS One 2021 2;16(7):e0253751. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Center for Social Psychology, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

When facing a difficult decision, individuals may rely on a coin flip to help them come to a conclusion. In some cases, however, individuals might not adhere to the coin's outcome, but instead report liking or disliking the coin flip's outcome, and may use this affective reaction to form their decision. In this manuscript we investigate the affective reaction towards the outcome of a coin flip and determine whether this affective reaction provides valid feedback in regards to individuals' underlying preferences (Hypothesis 1). We further test whether flipping a coin results in a higher alignment between previous preferences and subsequent decisions (Hypothesis 2). We conducted three studies in the lab and with online samples. Throughout all studies we found support for the notion that the affective reactions regarding the coin flip's outcome validly reflect previously indicated preferences or attractiveness ratings. Contrary to wide-spread expectations, however, we did not find reliable support for the notion that flipping a coin, compared to a control group, leads to decisions that are more in line with the previously stated preferences.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0253751PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8253383PMC
July 2021

Public restrooms, periods, and people experiencing homelessness: An assessment of public toilets in high needs areas of Manhattan, New York.

PLoS One 2021 23;16(6):e0252946. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Sociomedical Sciences, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY, United States of America.

Access to safe, clean water and sanitation is globally recognized as essential for public health. Public toilets should be accessible to all members of a society, without social or physical barriers preventing usage. A public toilet facility's design and upkeep should offer privacy and safety, ensure cleanliness, provide required sanitation-related resources, and be gender equitable, including enabling comfortable and safe management of menstruation. Menstrual hygiene management (MHM) refers to the need to ensure that girls, women and all people who menstruate have access to clean menstrual products, privacy to change the materials as often as needed, soap and water for washing the body as required, and access to facilities to dispose of used materials. Challenges around menstruation faced by people experiencing homelessness, which tend to be greater than those facing the general population, include inadequate toilet and bathing facilities, affordability issues around menstrual products, and menstrual stigma. Public toilets are a vital resource for managing menstruation, particularly for vulnerable populations without reliable access to private, safe, and clean spaces and menstrual products. This mixed-methods study sought to: 1) understand the lived experiences of MHM among people experiencing homelessness in New York City with respect to public toilets; 2) describe general and MHM-related characteristics of public toilets in high need areas of Manhattan and analyze their interrelationships; and 3) examine the associations among neighborhood-level demographics and the public toilet characteristics in those areas. Qualitative methods included key informant interviews (n = 15) and in-depth interviews (n = 22) with people with experience living on the street or in shelters, which were analyzed using Malterud's 'systematic text condensation' for thematic cross-case analysis. Quantitative methods included audits and analyses of public toilet facilities (n = 25) using traditional statistics (e.g., Spearman's correlations) and spatial analyses (e.g., proximity buffers). Qualitative findings suggest cleanliness, access to restrooms, and availability of resources are critical issues for the participants or prospective users. Quantitative analyses revealed insufficiently provided, maintained, and resourced public toilets for managing menstruation in high-needs areas. Findings also suggest that toilets with more MHM-related resource availability, such as menstrual products and toilet stall disposal bins, were more difficult to access. Neighborhood-level characteristics showed a potential environmental injustice, as areas characterized by higher socioeconomic status are associated with more access to MHM-specific resources in public restrooms, as well as better overall quality.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0252946PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8221515PMC
June 2021

Hydrophobically Modified Isosorbide Dimethacrylates as a Bisphenol-A (BPA)-Free Dental Filling Material.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Apr 22;14(9). Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Interdisciplinary Program in Materials Science and Engineering, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07012, USA.

A series of bio-based hydrophobically modified isosorbide dimethacrylates, with , , and benzoate aromatic spacers (ISBGBMA), are synthesized, characterized, and evaluated as potential dental restorative resins. The new monomers, isosorbide 2,5-bis(4-glyceryloxybenzoate) dimethacrylate (ISB4GBMA), isosorbide 2,5-bis(3-glyceryloxybenzoate) dimethacrylate (ISB3GBMA), and isosorbide 2,5-bis(2-glyceryloxybenzoate) dimethacrylate (ISB2GBMA), are mixed with triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) and photopolymerized. The resulting polymers are evaluated for the degree of monomeric conversion, polymerization shrinkage, water sorption, glass transition temperature, and flexural strength. Isosorbide glycerolate dimethacrylate (ISDGMA) is synthesized, and Bisphenol A glycerolate dimethacrylate (BisGMA) is prepared, and both are evaluated as a reference. Poly(ISBGBMA/TEGDMA) series shows lower water sorption (39-44 µg/mm) over Poly(ISDGMA/TEGDMA) (73 µg/mm) but higher than Poly(BisGMA/TEGDMA) (26 µg/mm). Flexural strength is higher for Poly(ISBGBMA/TEGDMA) series (37-45 MPa) over Poly(ISDGMA/TEGDMA) (10 MPa) and less than Poly(BisGMA/TEGDMA) (53 MPa) after immersion in phosphate-buffered saline (DPBS) for 24 h. Poly(ISB2GBMA/TEGDMA) has the highest glass transition temperature at 85 °C, and its monomeric mixture has the lowest viscosity at 0.62 Pa·s, among the (ISBGBMA/TEGDMA) polymers and monomer mixtures. Collectively, this data suggests that the ortho ISBGBMA monomer is a potential bio-based, BPA-free replacement for BisGMA, and could be the focus for future study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14092139DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8122847PMC
April 2021

Clinical Update on Metamorphopsia: Epidemiology, Diagnosis and Imaging.

Curr Eye Res 2021 May 17:1-15. Epub 2021 May 17.

NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, Moorfields Eye Hospital and UCL Institute of Ophthalmology, London, UK.

: To discuss the pathophysiology of metamorphopsia, its characterisation using retinal imaging and methods of assessment of patient symptoms and visual function.: A literature search of electronic databases was performed: Metamorphopsia has commonly been associated with vitreomacular interface disorders (such as epiretinal membrane) and has also regularly been noted in diseases of the retina and choroid, particularly age-related macular degeneration and central serous chorioretinopathy. Developments in optical coherence tomography retinal imaging have enabled improved imaging of the foveal microstructure and have led to the localisation of the pathophysiology of metamorphopsia within the retinal layers of the macula. Alteration of alignment of inner and outer retinal layers at various retinal loci has been identified using multimodal imaging in patients with metamorphopsia in a range of conditions. Although the Amsler Grid assessment of metamorphopsia is a useful clinical indicator, new emerging methods of metamorphopsia assessment with psychophysical tests such as M-CHARTS and preferential hyperacuity perimetry, have been developed.: It appears that there is a complex relationship between visual acuity and metamorphopsia symptoms that vary between retinal conditions. Although metamorphopsia has traditionally been challenging to measure in the clinic, advances in technology promise more robust, easy-to-use tests. It is possible that home assessment of metamorphopsia, particularly in conditions such as age-related macular degeneration, may help to guide the need for further clinic evaluation and consideration of treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02713683.2021.1912779DOI Listing
May 2021

Mapping stages, barriers and facilitators to the implementation of HEARTS in the Americas initiative in 12 countries: A qualitative study.

J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) 2021 04 18;23(4):755-765. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Non-Communicable Diseases and Mental Health, Pan American Health Organization, Washington, DC, USA.

The World Health Organization (WHO) Global Hearts Initiative offers technical packages to reduce the burden of cardiovascular diseases through population-wide and targeted health services interventions. The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) has led implementation of the HEARTS in the Americas Initiative since 2016. The authors mapped the developmental stages, barriers, and facilitators to implementation among the 371 primary health care centers in the participating 12 countries. The authors used the qualitative method of document review to examine cumulative country reports, technical meeting notes, and reports to regional stakeholders. Common implementation barriers include segmentation of health systems, overcoming health care professionals' scope of practice legal restrictions, and lack of health information systems limiting operational evaluation and quality improvement mechanisms. Main implementation facilitators include political support from ministries of health and leading scientific societies, PAHO's role as a regional catalyst to implementation, stakeholder endorsement demonstrated by incorporating HEARTS into official documents, and having a health system oriented to primary health care. Key lessons include the need for political commitment and cultivating on-the-ground leadership to initiate a shift in hypertension care delivery, accompanied by specific progress in the development of standardized treatment protocols and a set of high-quality medicines. By systematizing an implementation strategy to ease integration of interventions into delivery processes, the program strengthened technical leadership and ensured sustainability. These study findings will aid the regional approach by providing a staged planning model that incorporates lessons learned. A systematic approach to implementation will enhance equity, efficiency, scale-up, and sustainability, and ultimately improve population hypertension control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jch.14157DOI Listing
April 2021
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