Publications by authors named "M Farahat"

57 Publications

Use of lemongrass essential oil as a feed additive in quail's nutrition: its effect on growth, carcass, blood biochemistry, antioxidant and immunological indices, digestive enzymes and intestinal microbiota.

Poult Sci 2021 Jun 26;100(6):101172. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Poultry Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44511, Egypt.

The present study was designed to assess the impact of dietary supplementation of lemongrass essential oil (LGEO) on growth performance, carcass traits, liver and kidney function, immunity, antioxidant indices and caecal microbiota of growing quail. A total of 200 Japanese quails at 1-week-old were haphazardly allotted to 5 groups of 40 chicks in five replicates (8 per replicate). The first group was the control group, while LGEO was added at levels of 150, 300, 450, and 600 mg/kg diet in the 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th groups, respectively. Dietary supplementation of LGEO (150, 300 and 450 mg/ kg diet) increased body weight at 3 and 5 wk of age, and increased body weight gain during all periods compared with the control group (P < 0.05). All levels of LGEO improved feed conversion ratio during the periods from 1 to 3 and 1 to 5 wk of age. During 3 to 5 wk, feed conversion ratio was improved in quails fed LGEO (300 and 450 mg/kg diet) compared with the control and other treatments. Carcass traits, plasma globulin, alanine aminotransferase, and urea values did not differ among the treatments (P > 0.05), but the activity of aspartate aminotransferase in the plasma was significantly decreased (P < 0.05) in LGEO-treated groups. The total protein and albumin values were significantly increased (P < 0.05) in quails fed levels of LGEO (except 600 mg/kg diet) compared with the control. The inclusion of LGEO in quail diets improved (P < 0.05) plasma lipid profile. The dietary supplementation of LGEO increased (linear and quadratic, P < 0.05) plasma immunoglobulins (IgM, IgG, and IgA) levels, lysozyme values and activities of superoxide dismutase, total antioxidant capacity, reduced glutathione and catalase compared with the control group. The caecal Coliform, E. coli and Salmonella were lowered (P < 0.0001) in the quails treated with all LGEO levels, but the total bacterial count and Lactobacillus count were increased with dietary supplementation of LGEO levels (300 and 450 mg/kg) compared with those in the control group. The activities of digestive enzymes were significantly higher in birds fed the diet supplemented with LGEO levels than those fed the control diet. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of LGEO can improve the performance, lipid profile, immunity and antioxidant indices and decline intestinal pathogens and thus boost the health status of growing quail.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2021.101172DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8111249PMC
June 2021

H3ABioNet genomic medicine and microbiome data portals hackathon proceedings.

Database (Oxford) 2021 Apr;2021

Computational Biology Division, N1.05 Werner Beit North, Department of Integrative Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Anzio Road, Observatory, Cape Town 7925, South Africa.

African genomic medicine and microbiome datasets are usually not well characterized in terms of their origin, making it difficult to find and extract data for specific African ethnic groups or even countries. The Pan-African H3Africa Bioinformatics Network (H3ABioNet) recognized the need for developing data portals for African genomic medicine and African microbiomes to address this and ran a hackathon to initiate their development. The two portals were designed and significant progress was made in their development during the hackathon. All the participants worked in a very synergistic and collaborative atmosphere in order to achieve the hackathon's goals. The participants were divided into content and technical teams and worked over a period of 6 days. In response to one of the survey questions of what the participants liked the most during the hackathon, 55% of the hackathon participants highlighted the familial and friendly atmosphere, the team work and the diversity of team members and their expertise. This paper describes the preparations for the portals hackathon and the interaction between the participants and reflects upon the lessons learned about its impact on successfully developing the two data portals as well as building scientific expertise of younger African researchers. Database URL: The code for developing the two portals was made publicly available in GitHub repositories: [https://github.com/codemeleon/Database; https://github.com/codemeleon/AfricanMicrobiomePortal].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/database/baab016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8052916PMC
April 2021

Bioactive Levan-Type Exopolysaccharide Produced by ZMR7: Characterization and Optimization for Enhanced Production.

J Microbiol Biotechnol 2021 May;31(5):696-704

Department of Botany and Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza 12613, Egypt.

Levan is an industrially important, functional biopolymer with considerable applications in the food and pharmaceutical fields owing to its safety and biocompatibility. Here, levan-type exopolysaccharide produced by Pantoea agglomerans ZMR7 was purified by cold ethanol precipitation and characterized using TLC, FTIR, H, and C NMR spectroscopy. The maximum production of levan (28.4 g/l) was achieved when sucrose and ammonium chloride were used as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively, at 35°C and an initial pH of 8.0. Some biomedical applications of levan like antitumor, antiparasitic, and antioxidant activities were investigated in vitro. The results revealed the ability of levan at different concentrations to decrease the viability of rhabdomyosarcoma and breast cancer cells compared with untreated cancer cells. Levan appeared also to have high antiparasitic activity against the promastigote of . Furthermore, levan had strong DPPH radical scavenging (antioxidant) activity. These findings suggest that levan produced by ZMR7 can serve as a natural biopolymer candidate for the pharmaceutical and medical fields.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4014/jmb.2101.01025DOI Listing
May 2021

Effect of cereal type and plant extract addition on the growth performance, intestinal morphology, caecal microflora, and gut barriers gene expression of broiler chickens.

Animal 2021 Mar 16;15(3):100056. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Department of Nutrition and Clinical Nutrition, College of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, 44519 Zagazig, Egypt.

Feeding broiler chickens on diets based on cereal grains of high non-starch polysaccharides content such as wheat and barley can negatively impact their performance and gut health. Plant extracts can be used as a potential tool to alleviate these negative effects. The present study assessed the effects of dietary cereal type and the inclusion of a plant extract blend (PEB) on the growth performance, intestinal histomorphology, caecal microflora, and gene expression of selected biomarkers for gut integrity in broiler chickens in a 42-d experiment. Ross-308 male broilers were assigned into different dietary treatments and fed on two cereal types (corn- vs. wheat/barley-based) with/without added graded concentrations of a PEB (0, 250, 500, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg diet). There were no significant differences in the growth performance parameters, intestinal histomorphology, and caecal microflora due to the impact of dietary cereal type. However, lactobacilli count in the caecal microflora was increased in the group fed on a corn-based diet. The PEB supplementation especially at a level of 500 to 1000 mg/kg diet significantly increased the average BW and decreased the feed conversion ratio. It also increased the villi length of duodenum, jejunum, and ileum, decreased the duodenal crypt depth, and increased the villi length to crypt depth ratio in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum. Supplementation of the PEB decreased the total bacterial and coliform count and increased the lactobacilli count in a linear pattern. Gene expression of Occludin and Junction Adhesion Molecule was significantly increased in the PEB supplemented diets, whereby no influence was observed on mucin expression. In conclusion, supplementation of a PEB at levels of 500-1000 mg/kg can be used as a tool to improve broiler performance and gut health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.animal.2020.100056DOI Listing
March 2021

Hybrid Tetrameric Perylene Diimide Assemblies.

ChemSusChem 2021 Jan 26. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Department of Chemistry, University of Calgary, 731Campus Place NW, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 1N4, Canada.

Organic photovoltaics have found utility as indoor light recycling devices providing an opportunity for the sustainable powering of IoT sensors and related smart electronics. In the report, two organic π-conjugated molecules consisting of four perylene diimide (PDI) chromophores each are presented and used as non-fullerene acceptors in indoor photovoltaic devices. The new materials consist of a dimeric N-annulated PDI core with single PDIs grafted onto the pyrrolic N-atom positions of the core. Compounds PDI e and PDI i are PDI tetramers and differ with PDI e having the terminal N-annulated PDI with pyrrolic N-atom distal to the core and PDI i having the terminal N-annulated PDI with pyrrolic N-atom proximal to the core. The structural and optoelectronic properties were investigated using NMR spectroscopy, optical absorption and emission spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry. The compounds exhibit typical optical signatures for PDIs but notable is that the addition of grafted PDI molecules prevents significant aggregation of the dimeric PDI core, as compared to a reference dimer. Use as non-fullerene acceptors in ternary bulk-heterojunction blends with the polymer FBT and fullerene PC BM lead to increased open-circuit voltages and power conversion efficiencies upwards of 13.7 % at 2000 lux light intensity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cssc.202002784DOI Listing
January 2021