Publications by authors named "M E Baltakhinova"

8 Publications

Evidence for a sensitive period of plasticity in brown adipose tissue during early childhood among indigenous Siberians.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2021 08 28;175(4):834-846. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Anthropology, Northwestern University, Evanston, USA.

Objectives: Evolutionary theorists have debated the adaptive significance of developmental plasticity in organisms with long lifespans such as humans. This debate in part stems from uncertainty regarding the timing of sensitive periods. Does sensitivity to environmental signals fluctuate across development or does it steadily decline? We investigated developmental plasticity in brown adipose tissue (BAT) among indigenous Siberians in order to explore the timing of phenotypic sensitivity to cold stress.

Methods: BAT thermogenesis was quantified using infrared thermal imaging in 78 adults (25 men; 33 women). Cold exposure during gestation, infancy, early childhood, middle childhood, and adolescence was quantified using: (1) the average ambient temperature across each period; (2) the number of times daily temperature dropped below -40°F during each period. We also assessed past cold exposure with a retrospective survey of participation in outdoor activities.

Results: Adult BAT thermogenesis was significantly associated with the average temperature (p = 0.021), the number of times it was below -40°F (p = 0.026), and participation in winter outdoor activities (p = 0.037) during early childhood.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that early childhood represents an important stage for developmental plasticity, and that culture may play a critical role in shaping the timing of environmental signals. The findings highlight a new pathway through which the local consequences of global climate change may influence human biology, and they suggest that ambient temperature may represent an understudied component of the developmental origins of health and disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.24297DOI Listing
August 2021

Brown adipose tissue, energy expenditure, and biomarkers of cardio-metabolic health among the Yakut (Sakha) of northeastern Siberia.

Am J Hum Biol 2018 11 4;30(6):e23175. Epub 2018 Oct 4.

Department of Anthropology, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois.

Objectives: This study provides the first investigation of non-shivering thermogenesis (NST) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity among an indigenous circumpolar population, the Yakut of northeastern Siberia. The study also examines the health significance of BAT activity in this population by testing the relationships between BAT thermogenesis and biomarkers of cardio-metabolic disease risk, such as percent body fat and blood glucose and cholesterol levels.

Methods: Data were collected in the Sakha Republic (Yakutia) for 31 men and 43 women. Change in energy expenditure and BAT thermogenesis were quantified after a 30-minute mild cooling condition. Anthropometric dimensions, blood glucose, and lipid levels were also collected.

Results: On average, the skin temperature of the supraclavicular area was constant after cooling while the skin temperature of a point on the sternum dropped significantly (P < .001), thus suggesting the presence of active supraclavicular BAT among Yakut adults. Participants with evidence of greater BAT thermogenesis exhibited a larger percent change in energy expenditure (% ΔEE) and an increase in respiratory quotient (RQ) after cooling (P ≤ .05). While there was no relationship between BAT activity and blood lipid levels, BAT thermogenesis was positively associated with blood glucose levels (P < .01).

Conclusions: Yakut adults exhibit evidence of active BAT deposits. Given that there is a significant relationship between BAT activity and % ΔEE, it is possible that BAT plays a role in NST among Yakut adults. While the relationship between BAT and body composition is inconclusive, participants with greater BAT seemed to preferentially utilize glucose during cold stress exposure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajhb.23175DOI Listing
November 2018

[The Attitude to One's Own Health Among Native Residents of Yakutia].

Probl Sotsialnoi Gig Zdravookhranenniiai Istor Med 2017 Jul;25(4):199-202

The M.K. Ammosov Northern-East federal university, the research institute of health, Yakutsk, 677010, Russia.

The study was carried out concerning value reference points and attitudes of native population of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) intended for health preservation. The analysis was applied to answers of 292 respondents residing in rural area of Yakutia. The analysis of answers of value motivation section demonstrated that for most respondents their health is a priority value of life. At that, most of respondents misunderstand and underestimate role of health in their life because they are unaware of health as an instrumental value. The health as an instrumental value gives its priority to persistence and diligence and hence ranks lower as compared with terminal value. The respondents assume that health mainly depends on diet, life-style, ecology. The results of analysis of answers to questions of "emotional" and "behavioral" sections testify in most of the respondents absence of comprehension about responsibility for one's own health, inadequate commitment to healthy life-style and passive attitude to health. The more active attitude to health is established in respondents of mature age that is rather related to deterioration of well-being feeling and presence of chronic diseases. In the younger age, most of respondents consider they are healthy and hence ignore prevention of diseases. Thereby, in spite of that health is mentioned by respondents as one of priority values most respondents are missing both attitudes to health preservation and clear-cut strategy of health-preserving behavior. In conditions of cardinal alteration of traditional way of life and life-style of native population of the North, behavioral habits of self-preserving behavior helping to survive in the severe climate conditions became inadequate. Nowadays, it is necessary to develop a new behavior strategy of health preservation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0869-866X-2017-25-4-199-202DOI Listing
July 2017

Lifestyle mediates seasonal changes in metabolic health among the yakut (sakha) of northeastern siberia.

Am J Hum Biol 2016 11 13;28(6):868-878. Epub 2016 Jun 13.

Department of Anthropology, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon.

Objectives: Among indigenous circumpolar populations, extreme seasonality influences food availability and energy metabolism. Furthermore, subsistence patterns and wage labor opportunities shift with season. Thus, health measures among circumpolar populations likely exhibit seasonal changes that are influenced by lifestyle factors. This study examines how markers of cardio-metabolic health vary between summer and winter as a function of an individual's lifestyle and sex among the Yakut of northeastern Siberia.

Methods: Anthropometric dimensions, serum lipids and glucose levels, blood pressure, and lifestyle data were collected for a sample of 115 Yakut participants (71 women, 44 men) in Berdygestiakh, Sakha Republic, Russia in the summer of 2009 and winter of 2011.

Results: Men and women experienced significant increases in total and HDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels from summer to winter. Women exhibited winter-time increases in adiposity and glucose levels. Men who reported greater market integration were more likely to have lower winter blood pressure levels. Additionally, time spent fishing was associated with lower winter-time LDL cholesterol, while foraging time was associated with higher HDL cholesterol.

Conclusions: While seasonal changes in anthropometric dimensions were modest, Yakut men and women experienced significant increases in total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol from summer to winter. These results also suggest that while Yakut individuals with greater subsistence participation are more buffered from adverse seasonal changes in cholesterol levels, they may be at a greater risk for winter increases in blood pressure. Furthermore, the interactions between lifestyle and seasonal change in metabolic health appear to differ between Yakut women and men. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 28:868-878, 2016. © 2016Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajhb.22879DOI Listing
November 2016

Adiponectin, hemoglobin, and cardiovascular risk in an indigenous siberian population.

Am J Hum Biol 2016 07 23;28(4):580-3. Epub 2015 Nov 23.

Department of Anthropology, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon.

Objectives: Adipose tissue hypoxia appears to play a role in promoting chronic inflammation and the development of obesity-related cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, yet the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. The aim of the present research is to examine whether adiponectin levels (an adipocyte-derived hormone with anti-inflammatory properties) are inversely correlated with hemoglobin levels in an indigenous Siberian population.

Methods: The study was conducted among 252 Yakut adults (≥18 years; 135 females) from Berdygestiakh, Sakha Republic, Russia. Measurements included anthropometric dimensions (body mass index [BMI], waist circumference [WC], and percent body fat) and blood levels of hemoglobin and adiponectin.

Results: Yakut females had higher adiponectin concentrations than males (15.1 ± 9.8 vs. 11.7 ± 10.6 µg/ml; P < 0.001), whereas males had higher hemoglobin levels (14.4 ± 1.4 vs. 12.6 ± 1.5 g/dL; P < 0.001). Body composition measures in both sexes were negatively associated with adiponectin and positively associated with hemoglobin. After adjusting for central adiposity and smoking, adiponectin levels were negatively correlated with hemoglobin levels in men (P < 0.05), but not in women (P = 0.511).

Conclusions: This investigation provides some support for the involvement of hypoxia-related dysregulation of adiponectin associated with obesity and potentially cardiovascular disease. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 28:580-583, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajhb.22808DOI Listing
July 2016
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