Publications by authors named "M Dolores García-Fernández"

415 Publications

Unraveling the Orbital Physics in a Canonical Orbital System KCuF_{3}.

Phys Rev Lett 2021 Mar;126(10):106401

Diamond Light Source, Harwell Campus, Didcot OX11 0DE, United Kingdom.

We explore the existence of the collective orbital excitations, orbitons, in the canonical orbital system KCuF_{3} using the Cu L_{3}-edge resonant inelastic x-ray scattering. We show that the nondispersive high-energy peaks result from the Cu^{2+}  dd orbital excitations. These high-energy modes display good agreement with the ab initio quantum chemistry calculation, indicating that the dd excitations are highly localized. At the same time, the low-energy excitations present clear dispersion. They match extremely well with the two-spinon continuum following the comparison with Müller ansatz calculations. The localized dd excitations and the observation of the strongly dispersive magnetic excitations suggest that the orbiton dispersion is below the resolution detection limit. Our results can reconcile with the strong local Jahn-Teller effect in KCuF_{3}, which predominantly drives orbital ordering.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.126.106401DOI Listing
March 2021

A Systematic Review of Rat Models With Temporomandibular Osteoarthritis Suitable for the Study of Emerging Prolonged Intra-Articular Drug Delivery Systems.

J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2021 Feb 27. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Research engineer, Univ. Lille, INSERM, CHU Lille, U1008 - Controlled Drug Delivery Systems and Biomaterials, Lille, France.

Purpose: Development of minimally invasive therapies for temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis (TMJOA) has focused on drug intra-articular injections to avoid the systemic adverse effects experienced when these substances are administered orally. Therefore, we performed a systematic review to answer the question "Which method of induction of a TMJOA-related pain model in rats leads to prolonged painful symptoms, allowing the best assessment of a sustained drug delivery system?"

Materials And Methods: Following the PRISMA guidelines, we searched MEDLINE for papers published from 1994 to July 2020 on a TMJ arthritis model using rats. We identified the means of pain induction and of nociception assessment. We assessed protocol bias using an adaptation of the QUADAS-2 tool. Animal selection, the reference standard method of pain assessment, applicability of a statistical assessment, and flow and timing were assessed.

Results: Of the 59 full papers we reviewed, 41 performed no pain assessment after the first 7 days following induction of the TMJ-related pain model. We eventually identified 18 long-term TMJOA-related pain models. Pain was induced by injection of toxic substances, most commonly Freund's complete adjuvant (50 μg per 50 μl), formalin at various concentrations, or monosodium iodoacetate (0,5 mg per 50 μl), into the TMJ, or by physical methods. Few studies reported data on pain after 21 days of follow-up. Heterogeneity of induction methods, pain assessment methods, and flow and timing biases precluded a meta-analysis.

Conclusions: Given that pain is 1 of the main symptoms of TMJOA, experimental study protocols should include long-term pain assessment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joms.2021.02.034DOI Listing
February 2021

Strong Superexchange in a d^{9-δ} Nickelate Revealed by Resonant Inelastic X-Ray Scattering.

Phys Rev Lett 2021 Feb;126(8):087001

Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA.

The discovery of superconductivity in a d^{9-δ} nickelate has inspired disparate theoretical perspectives regarding the essential physics of this class of materials. A key issue is the magnitude of the magnetic superexchange, which relates to whether cuprate-like high-temperature nickelate superconductivity could be realized. We address this question using Ni L-edge and O K-edge spectroscopy of the reduced d^{9-1/3} trilayer nickelates R_{4}Ni_{3}O_{8} (where R=La, Pr) and associated theoretical modeling. A magnon energy scale of ∼80  meV resulting from a nearest-neighbor magnetic exchange of J=69(4)  meV is observed, proving that d^{9-δ} nickelates can host a large superexchange. This value, along with that of the Ni-O hybridization estimated from our O K-edge data, implies that trilayer nickelates represent an intermediate case between the infinite-layer nickelates and the cuprates. Layered nickelates thus provide a route to testing the relevance of superexchange to nickelate superconductivity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.126.087001DOI Listing
February 2021

The ligand-bound state of a G protein-coupled receptor stabilizes the interaction of functional cholesterol molecules.

J Lipid Res 2021 Feb 26;62:100059. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, CEA, IBS, Grenoble, France. Electronic address:

Cholesterol is a major component of mammalian plasma membranes that not only affects the physical properties of the lipid bilayer but also is the function of many membrane proteins including G protein-coupled receptors. The oxytocin receptor (OXTR) is involved in parturition and lactation of mammals and in their emotional and social behaviors. Cholesterol acts on OXTR as an allosteric modulator inducing a high-affinity state for orthosteric ligands through a molecular mechanism that has yet to be determined. Using the ion channel-coupled receptor technology, we developed a functional assay of cholesterol modulation of G protein-coupled receptors that is independent of intracellular signaling pathways and operational in living cells. Using this assay, we discovered a stable binding of cholesterol molecules to the receptor when it adopts an orthosteric ligand-bound state. This stable interaction preserves the cholesterol-dependent activity of the receptor in cholesterol-depleted membranes. This mechanism was confirmed using time-resolved FRET experiments on WT OXTR expressed in CHO cells. Consequently, a positive cross-regulation sequentially occurs in OXTR between cholesterol and orthosteric ligands.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jlr.2021.100059DOI Listing
February 2021

Cognitive and behavioral profiles of pediatric surgical candidates with frontal and temporal lobe epilepsy.

Epilepsy Behav 2021 Apr 25;117:107808. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Epilepsy Monitoring Unit, Clinical Neurophysiology Department, Hospital Infantil Universitario Niño Jesús, Madrid, Spain.

Background: We aimed to prospectively analyze memory and executive and social cognitive functioning in patients with drug-resistant frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) and temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with focal lesions and isolate the impact of intellectual ability on specific deficits.

Methods: A neuropsychological evaluation was performed in 23 children with FLE, 22 children with TLE, and 36 healthy pediatric controls (HCs). Patients in the epilepsy groups had a range of lesions, including low-grade epilepsy-associated tumors (LEAT), focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) type II, and mesial temporal sclerosis (MS).

Results: There were no significant differences between children with FLE and TLE regarding memory, executive, or social cognitive functioning. General Ability Index (GAI) was a predictor of memory, executive function, and social cognition scores and was influenced by age at onset, duration of epilepsy, and number of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) prescribed at the time of assessment. Working Memory Index scores of patients with TLE, which measure verbal mnesic processing, were significantly lower than those of HCs and patients with TLE. The greatest differences in both clinical groups compared to HCs were recorded in cognitive executive functions, and patients with FLE had lower scores in this domain. Regarding behavioral executive functions, patients with TLE presented impaired emotional control and impulse inhibition and patients with FLE exhibited decreased flexibility.

Conclusion: Consistent with previous research, our findings provide further detailed evidence of small differences in cognitive performance among children with FLE and TLE. These differences emerge on analysis of the factors with which deficits are associated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yebeh.2021.107808DOI Listing
April 2021

Role of patients associations in connective tissue calcifiying diseases: a position statement from EuroSoftCalc.Net group.

Orphanet J Rare Dis 2021 Feb 8;16(1):71. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

PXE Consultation Center, MAGEC Nord Reference Center for Rare Skin Diseases, Angers University Hospital, Angers, France.

Patients have been showing a growing interest in taking active participation in decision making, and having the opportunity to drive clinical investigation. This is more common for patients who have a rare disease than for those with more prevalent diseases. The EuroSoftCalc.Net COST Action, a group of clinicians and researchers involved in the dystrophic calcification process held a meeting in which three representatives of patients' associations, coming from Portugal, France and Spain, discussed the role of patients and their associations, namely in the Action, and also the main concerns in their countries. The disparities in health care between European Union countries with regard to connective tissue calcifying diseases, and the existing conflicts of interest, were a matter of debate during the meeting. As a consequence of the presentations and the debate that followed, it became clear that, despite their countries, the main concerns of the patients are identical, namely a lack of specific therapy and follow-up clinical guidelines, delays in the diagnosis, difficulties in getting members to enrol to associations, and/or difficulties with doctors' explanations for the diseases. The attendees also agreed that EuroSoftCalc.Net group should help to set up new associations where no Patient Associations presently exist, and, furthermore, should release diagnosis and follow-up guidelines, especially helpful in countries, and/or for diseases, where no multidisciplinary consultations are available.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13023-021-01703-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7869194PMC
February 2021

A Portable Electromagnetic System Based on mm-Wave Radars and GNSS-RTK Solutions for 3D Scanning of Large Material Piles.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Jan 23;21(3). Epub 2021 Jan 23.

Area of Signal Theory and Communications, University of Oviedo, 33203 Gijón, Spain.

In this paper, a portable three-dimensional (3D) scanning system for the accurate characterization of large raw material (e.g., cereal grain, coal, etc.) stockpiles is presented. The system comprises an array of high resolution millimeter-wave radars and a cm-level accuracy positioning system to accurately characterize large stockpiles by means of a high-resolution 3D map, making it suitable for automation purposes. A control unit manages the data received by the sensors, which are sent to a computer system for processing. As a proof of concept, the entire sensor system is evaluated in a real environment for electromagnetically scan a scaled stockpile of coal, used in the industry for handling raw materials. In addition, a highly efficient processing adaptive algorithm that may reconstruct the scanned structure in real-time has been introduced, enabling continuous dynamic updating of the information. Results are compared with those from a photogrammetry-like technique, revealing an excellent agreement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21030757DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7865412PMC
January 2021

[Diaphyseal humeral infarction in a patient with sickle cell anemia].

An Pediatr (Barc) 2021 Jan 22. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Ferrol, Ferrol, A Coruña, España.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anpedi.2020.12.012DOI Listing
January 2021

Detection of Acoustic Plasmons in Hole-Doped Lanthanum and Bismuth Cuprate Superconductors Using Resonant Inelastic X-Ray Scattering.

Phys Rev Lett 2020 Dec;125(25):257002

Diamond Light Source, Harwell Campus, Didcot OX11 0DE, United Kingdom.

High T_{c} superconductors show a rich variety of phases associated with their charge degrees of freedom. Valence charges can give rise to charge ordering or acoustic plasmons in these layered cuprate superconductors. While charge ordering has been observed for both hole- and electron-doped cuprates, acoustic plasmons have only been found in electron-doped materials. Here, we use resonant inelastic x-ray scattering to observe the presence of acoustic plasmons in two families of hole-doped cuprate superconductors (La_{1.84}Sr_{0.16}CuO_{4} and Bi_{2}Sr_{1.6}La_{0.4}CuO_{6+δ}), crucially completing the picture. Interestingly, in contrast to the quasistatic charge ordering which manifests at both Cu and O sites, the observed acoustic plasmons are predominantly associated with the O sites, revealing a unique dichotomy in the behavior of valence charges in hole-doped cuprates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.125.257002DOI Listing
December 2020

Relationship Between Mitochondrial Structure and Bioenergetics in Dermal Fibroblasts.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2020 17;8:610266. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Department of Life Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy.

(PXE) is a genetic disease considered as a paradigm of ectopic mineralization disorders, being characterized by multisystem clinical manifestations due to progressive calcification of skin, eyes, and the cardiovascular system, resembling an age-related phenotype. Although fibroblasts do not express the pathogenic gene, nevertheless these cells are still under investigation because they regulate connective tissue homeostasis, generating the "arena" where cells and extracellular matrix components can promote pathologic calcification and where activation of pro-osteogenic factors can be associated to pathways involving mitochondrial metabolism. The aim of the present study was to integrate structural and bioenergenetic features to deeply investigate mitochondria from control and from PXE fibroblasts cultured in standard conditions and to explore the role of mitochondria in the development of the PXE fibroblasts' pathologic phenotype. Proteomic, biochemical, and morphological data provide new evidence that in basal culture conditions (1) the protein profile of PXE mitochondria reveals a number of differentially expressed proteins, suggesting changes in redox balance, oxidative phosphorylation, and calcium homeostasis in addition to modified structure and organization, (2) measure of oxygen consumption indicates that the PXE mitochondria have a low ability to cope with a sudden increased need for ATP oxidative phosphorylation, (3) mitochondrial membranes are highly polarized in PXE fibroblasts, and this condition contributes to increased reactive oxygen species levels, (4) ultrastructural alterations in PXE mitochondria are associated with functional changes, and (5) PXE fibroblasts exhibit a more abundant, branched, and interconnected mitochondrial network compared to control cells, indicating that fusion prevail over fission events. In summary, the present study demonstrates that mitochondria are modified in PXE fibroblasts. Since mitochondria are key players in the development of the aging process, fibroblasts cultured from aged individuals or aged are more prone to calcify, and in PXE, calcified tissues remind features of premature aging syndromes; it can be hypothesized that mitochondria represent a common link contributing to the development of ectopic calcification in aging and in diseases. Therefore, ameliorating mitochondrial functions and cell metabolism could open new strategies to positively regulate a number of signaling pathways associated to pathologic calcification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2020.610266DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7773789PMC
December 2020

Sleeve gastrectomy as a surgical technique in bariatric surgery: Results of safety and effectiveness.

Cir Esp 2020 Dec 29. Epub 2020 Dec 29.

Servicio de Cirugía General y Aparato Digestivo, Hospital Universitario Basurto, Bilbao, Vizcaya, España.

Introduction: The aim of this study is to evaluate the safety and effectiveness results of sleeve gastrectomy as a bariatric technique.

Methods: Observational follow-up study of a cohort of patients who underwent sleeve gastrectomy in our center between 2008 and 2017. A total of 223 patients were included: 166 as a primary technique (group 1) and 57 as a hypothetical first stage (group 2).

Results: In group 1, the postoperative morbidity is 12.6%, with a fistula rate of 4.2%; 5.4% required reoperation and mortality was 0.6%. In group 2, postoperative morbidity is 14%, with a fistula rate of 5.3%; 10.5% required reoperation and mortality was 5.3%. In group 1, 79.6% and 62.5% of patients at 2 and 5 years respectively managed to achieve a % EBMIL>50%. In group 2, the second stage was completed only in 8 patients (14.0%). Of the patients who did not complete the second stage, 32.2% and 5.9% achieved a % EEBMIL>100% at 2 and 5 years. Analyzing those who completed the second stage, the mean EEBMIL% was 90.5% and 93.4% at 2 and 5 years.

Conclusions: Sleeve gastrectomy is a safe technique in patients with BMI<45 and effective in terms of weight loss in the short-medium term. In patients with BMI>55, a preoperative optimization aimed at reducing morbidity and mortality is necessary, as well as adequately planning the second stage, without which it is clearly insufficient.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ciresp.2020.11.009DOI Listing
December 2020

Neuronal Metabolism and Neuroprotection: Neuroprotective Effect of Fingolimod on Menadione-Induced Mitochondrial Damage.

Cells 2020 Dec 29;10(1). Epub 2020 Dec 29.

Neuroscience Unit, Biomedical Research Institute of Malaga (IBIMA), Malaga University Hospital, 29010 Malaga, Spain.

Imbalance in the oxidative status in neurons, along with mitochondrial damage, are common characteristics in some neurodegenerative diseases. The maintenance in energy production is crucial to face and recover from oxidative damage, and the preservation of different sources of energy production is essential to preserve neuronal function. Fingolimod phosphate is a drug with neuroprotective and antioxidant actions, used in the treatment of multiple sclerosis. This work was performed in a model of oxidative damage on neuronal cell cultures exposed to menadione in the presence or absence of fingolimod phosphate. We studied the mitochondrial function, antioxidant enzymes, protein nitrosylation, and several pathways related with glucose metabolism and glycolytic and pentose phosphate in neuronal cells cultures. Our results showed that menadione produces a decrease in mitochondrial function, an imbalance in antioxidant enzymes, and an increase in nitrosylated proteins with a decrease in glycolysis and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. All these effects were counteracted when fingolimod phosphate was present in the incubation media. These effects were mediated, at least in part, by the interaction of this drug with its specific S1P receptors. These actions would make this drug a potential tool in the treatment of neurodegenerative processes, either to slow progression or alleviate symptoms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells10010034DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7824129PMC
December 2020

Resonant inelastic x-ray spectroscopy on UO as a test case for actinide materials.

J Phys Condens Matter 2021 Feb;33(6):06LT01

European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Postfach 2340, D-76125 Karlsruhe, Germany. Interface Analysis Centre, School of Physics, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol, BS8 1TL, United Kingdom.

Resonant inelastic x-ray spectroscopy at the uranium N absorption edge at 778 eV has been used to reveal the excitations in UO up to 1 eV. The earlier (1989) studies by neutron inelastic scattering of the crystal-field states within the H multiplet are confirmed. In addition, the first excited state of the F multiplet at ∼520 meV has been established, and there is a weak signal corresponding to the next excited state at ∼920 meV. This represents a successful application of soft x-ray spectroscopy to an actinide sample, and resolves an open question in UO that has been discussed for 50 years. The technique is described and important caveats are drawn about possible future applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-648X/abc4d2DOI Listing
February 2021

Platelet Apoptotic Response May Be Associated With the Capacity of Aspirin to Inhibit Platelets.

J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 2020 11;76(5):584-591

Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Universidad Complutense, Madrid, Spain.

An inadequate platelet response to aspirin (ASA) has been identified in some patients under chronic ASA treatment. The aim of this study was to analyze if ASA-sensitive and ASA-resistant platelets have differences in their apoptotic capability. Clinically stable ischemic coronary patients who had been taking ASA (100 mg/d) for at least 9 months before inclusion were divided into ASA-resistant (n = 11) and ASA-sensitive (n = 13) groups as defined by the PFA-100 test. Platelets from ASA-sensitive patients showed higher expression of the proapoptotic proteins Bak and Bax than those from ASA-resistant patients, although only Bak protein remained different when the results were adjusted by age. In resting platelets, neither caspase-3 activity nor cytosolic cytochrome C levels were different between both experimental groups. Stimulation of platelets with calcium ionophore (10 nmol/L, A23187) increased caspase-3 activity (1.91-fold higher; P < 0.05) and cytosolic cytochrome C levels (1.84-fold higher; P < 0.05) to a higher degree in ASA-sensitive than in ASA-resistant platelets. In conclusion, ASA-sensitive platelets seem to be better prepared to undergo apoptosis during robust platelet activation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/FJC.0000000000000908DOI Listing
November 2020

Related cardiometabolic factors and prevalence of low HDL-cholesterol levels and atherogenic dyslipidemia. SIMETAP-AD study.

Clin Investig Arterioscler 2021 Jan-Feb;33(1):19-29. Epub 2020 Oct 17.

C.S. Comillas, Madrid, España.

Aim: To determine the crude and sex- and age-adjusted prevalence rates of atherogenic dyslipidemia (AD) and low HDL-cholesterol levels (low-HDLc), and to assess their associations with cardiovascular risk factors, chronic kidney disease, cardiovascular and cardiometabolic diseases.

Methods: Population-based cross-sectional study conducted in Primary Care, with randomly selected adult subjects. The AD was considered if the patients had hypertriglyceridemia (triglycerides≥150mg/dL) and low-HDLc (<40mg/dL [men];<50mg/dL [women]). Crude and sex- and age-adjusted prevalence rates were determined, and univariate and multivariate analysis were performed to assess related cardiometabolic factors.

Results: Study population with 6,588 adults (55.9% women) with mean age 55.1 (±17.5) years. The mean HDLc levels were 49.2 (±12.6) mg/dL in men and 59.2 (±14.7) mg/dL in women. The crude prevalence rates of low-HDLc and AD were 30.8% (95%CI: 29.7-31.9), and 14.3% (95%CI: 13.5-15.2), respectively. The adjusted prevalence rates of low-HDLc were 28.0% in men and 31.0% in women, and AD were 16.4% in men and 10.6% in women. Seventy-three percent of the population with AD had high or very high cardiovascular risk. The independent factors associated with low HDLc or with AD were diabetes, smoking, abdominal obesity, and obesity. The major factors associated with low HDLc and AD were hypertriglyceridemia and diabetes, respectively.

Conclusions: Almost a third of the adult population had low HDL-C and half of them met AD criteria. Cardiometabolic factors were associated with low HDL-C and AD, highlighting hypertriglyceridemia with low HDLc, and DM with AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arteri.2020.06.006DOI Listing
October 2020

Pro-fibrotic Factors as Potential Biomarkers of Anti-fibrotic Drug Therapy in Patients With Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis.

Arch Bronconeumol 2021 03 24;57(3):231-233. Epub 2020 Sep 24.

Departamento de Fisiología Humana, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Málaga, Instituto de Investigación Biomédica de Málaga, Málaga, Spain.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arbres.2020.08.005DOI Listing
March 2021

Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Support Acute Myeloid Leukemia Bioenergetics and Enhance Antioxidant Defense and Escape from Chemotherapy.

Cell Metab 2020 Nov 22;32(5):829-843.e9. Epub 2020 Sep 22.

Wellcome-MRC Cambridge Stem Cell Institute, CB2 0AW Cambridge, UK; Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares (CNIC), 28029 Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

Like normal hematopoietic stem cells, leukemic stem cells depend on their bone marrow (BM) microenvironment for survival, but the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. We have studied the contribution of nestin BM mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) to MLL-AF9-driven acute myeloid leukemia (AML) development and chemoresistance in vivo. Unlike bulk stroma, nestin BMSC numbers are not reduced in AML, but their function changes to support AML cells, at the expense of non-mutated hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Nestin cell depletion delays leukemogenesis in primary AML mice and selectively decreases AML, but not normal, cells in chimeric mice. Nestin BMSCs support survival and chemotherapy relapse of AML through increased oxidative phosphorylation, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle activity, and glutathione (GSH)-mediated antioxidant defense. Therefore, AML cells co-opt energy sources and antioxidant defense mechanisms from BMSCs to survive chemotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmet.2020.09.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7658808PMC
November 2020

Treadmill Exercise Buffers Behavioral Alterations Related to Ethanol Binge-Drinking in Adolescent Mice.

Brain Sci 2020 Aug 20;10(9). Epub 2020 Aug 20.

Departamento de Psicobiología y Metodología de las Ciencias del Comportamiento, Facultad de Psicología, Universidad de Málaga, 29071 Málaga, Spain.

The binge-drinking pattern of EtOH consumption, which is frequently observed in adolescents, is known to induce several neurobehavioral alterations, but protection strategies against these impairments remain scarcely explored. We aimed to study the protective role of treadmill physical exercise on the deficits caused after repeated cycles of binge-like EtOH exposure in the cognition, motivation, exploration, and emotion of C57BL/6J mice from adolescence to adulthood. Animals were divided into four groups: control group, exercised group, EtOH group, and exercised + EtOH group (20% in tap water). The exercise was performed for 20 min, 5 days/week at 20 cm/s. Then, animals were submitted to several behavioral tasks. Compared to binge-drinking mice, the exercised + EtOH group exhibited diminished anxiolytic-related behaviors in the elevated plus-maze, enhanced exploratory activity in the open field, reduced preference for alcohol odor when another rewarding stimulus was present (social stimulus) and lower latency to start self-cleaning behaviors in the sucrose splash test. In contrast, other measurements such as habituation learning and working memory were not improved by exercise. Besides, exercise was not able to reduce alcohol consumption across the weeks. In conclusion, physical activity during adolescence and early adulthood could buffer certain neurobehavioral alterations associated with binge-drinking, despite not reducing the quantity of consumed alcohol.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10090576DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7563508PMC
August 2020

Coherent many-body exciton in van der Waals antiferromagnet NiPS.

Nature 2020 07 20;583(7818):785-789. Epub 2020 Jul 20.

Center for Correlated Electron Systems, Institute for Basic Science, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

An exciton is the bosonic quasiparticle of electron-hole pairs bound by the Coulomb interaction. Bose-Einstein condensation of this exciton state has long been the subject of speculation in various model systems, and examples have been found more recently in optical lattices and two-dimensional materials. Unlike these conventional excitons formed from extended Bloch states, excitonic bound states from intrinsically many-body localized states are rare. Here we show that a spin-orbit-entangled exciton state appears below the Néel temperature of 150 kelvin in NiPS, an antiferromagnetic van der Waals material. It arises intrinsically from the archetypal many-body states of the Zhang-Rice singlet, and reaches a coherent state assisted by the antiferromagnetic order. Using configuration-interaction theory, we determine the origin of the coherent excitonic excitation to be a transition from a Zhang-Rice triplet to a Zhang-Rice singlet. We combine three spectroscopic tools-resonant inelastic X-ray scattering, photoluminescence and optical absorption-to characterize the exciton and to demonstrate an extremely narrow excitonic linewidth below 50 kelvin. The discovery of the spin-orbit-entangled exciton in antiferromagnetic NiPS introduces van der Waals magnets as a platform to study coherent many-body excitons.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2520-5DOI Listing
July 2020

Publisher Correction: Electronic structure of the parent compound of superconducting infinite-layer nickelates.

Nat Mater 2020 Sep;19(9):1036

Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA, USA.

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41563-020-0761-1DOI Listing
September 2020

Multiorbital charge-density wave excitations and concomitant phonon anomalies in BiSrLaCuO.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 Jul 25;117(28):16219-16225. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Diamond Light Source, Harwell Campus, Didcot OX11 0DE, United Kingdom;

Charge-density waves (CDWs) are ubiquitous in underdoped cuprate superconductors. As a modulation of the valence electron density, CDWs in hole-doped cuprates possess both Cu-3 and O-2 orbital character owing to the strong hybridization of these orbitals near the Fermi level. Here, we investigate underdoped BiSrLaCuO using resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) and find that a short-range CDW exists at both Cu and O sublattices in the copper-oxide (CuO) planes with a comparable periodicity and correlation length. Furthermore, we uncover bond-stretching and bond-buckling phonon anomalies concomitant to the CDWs. Comparing to slightly overdoped BiSrLaCuO, where neither CDWs nor phonon anomalies appear, we highlight that a sharp intensity anomaly is induced in the proximity of the CDW wavevector (Q) for the bond-buckling phonon, in concert with the diffused intensity enhancement of the bond-stretching phonon at wavevectors much greater than Q Our results provide a comprehensive picture of the quasistatic CDWs, their dispersive excitations, and associated electron-phonon anomalies, which are key for understanding the competing electronic instabilities in cuprates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2001755117DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7368327PMC
July 2020

Strongly Correlated Charge Density Wave in La_{2-x}Sr_{x}CuO_{4} Evidenced by Doping-Dependent Phonon Anomaly.

Phys Rev Lett 2020 May;124(20):207005

Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA.

The discovery of charge-density-wave-related effects in the resonant inelastic x-ray scattering spectra of cuprates holds the tantalizing promise of clarifying the interactions that stabilize the electronic order. Here, we report a comprehensive resonant inelastic x-ray scattering study of La_{2-x}Sr_{x}CuO_{4} finding that charge-density wave effects persist up to a remarkably high doping level of x=0.21 before disappearing at x=0.25. The inelastic excitation spectra remain essentially unchanged with doping despite crossing a topological transition in the Fermi surface. This indicates that the spectra contain little or no direct coupling to electronic excitations near the Fermi surface, rather they are dominated by the resonant cross section for phonons and charge-density-wave-induced phonon softening. We interpret our results in terms of a charge-density wave that is generated by strong correlations and a phonon response that is driven by the charge-density-wave-induced modification of the lattice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.124.207005DOI Listing
May 2020

Comment on the Article "A Lightweight and Low-Power UAV-Borne Ground Penetrating Radar Design for Landmine Detection".

Sensors (Basel) 2020 May 25;20(10). Epub 2020 May 25.

Área de Teoría de la Señal y Comunicaciones, Universidad de Oviedo, 33203 Gijón, Spain.

This reply aims to correct some incomplete/incorrect information provided in the article "A Lightweight and Low-Power UAV-Borne Ground Penetrating Radar Design for Landmine Detection", when the authors compare their results with some state-of-the-art contributions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s20103002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7285478PMC
May 2020

High-Temperature Charge-Stripe Correlations in La_{1.675}Eu_{0.2}Sr_{0.125}CuO_{4}.

Phys Rev Lett 2020 May;124(18):187002

Physik-Institut, Universität Zürich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zürich, Switzerland.

We use resonant inelastic x-ray scattering to investigate charge-stripe correlations in La_{1.675}Eu_{0.2}Sr_{0.125}CuO_{4}. By differentiating elastic from inelastic scattering, it is demonstrated that charge-stripe correlations precede both the structural low-temperature tetragonal phase and the transport-defined pseudogap onset. The scattering peak amplitude from charge stripes decays approximately as T^{-2} towards our detection limit. The in-plane integrated intensity, however, remains roughly temperature independent. Therefore, although the incommensurability shows a remarkably large increase at high temperature, our results are interpreted via a single scattering constituent. In fact, direct comparison to other stripe-ordered compounds (La_{1.875}Ba_{0.125}CuO_{4}, La_{1.475}Nd_{0.4}Sr_{0.125}CuO_{4}, and La_{1.875}Sr_{0.125}CuO_{4}) suggests a roughly constant integrated scattering intensity across all these compounds. Our results therefore provide a unifying picture for the charge-stripe ordering in La-based cuprates. As charge correlations in La_{1.675}Eu_{0.2}Sr_{0.125}CuO_{4} extend beyond the low-temperature tetragonal and pseudogap phase, their emergence heralds a spontaneous symmetry breaking in this compound.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.124.187002DOI Listing
May 2020

Skin and Arterial Wall Deposits of 18F-NaF and Severity of Disease in Patients with Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum.

J Clin Med 2020 May 8;9(5). Epub 2020 May 8.

Department of Medicine and Dermatology, University of Málaga, Instituto de Investigación Biomédica de Málaga (IBIMA), 29010 Málaga, Spain.

Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) is a genetic disease characterized by the calcification of elastin fibers. Our aim was to quantify vascular calcification in the arteries and the deposition of 18F-sodium-fluoride (18F-NaF) in the skin and vessel walls with positron emission tomography/computed tomography. This was an observational study including 18 patients with PXE. Vascular calcification was measured in Agatston units, and deposition in the skin and vessel walls was shown using target-to-background ratio (TBR). Severity of the disease was scored by Phenodex. We found higher vascular calcification in the popliteal, femoral, and aortic arch vessels compared to other vascular regions; however, the uptake of radiotracer was the highest in the aorta and femoral arteries. In the skin, the highest uptake was observed in the neck and the axillae. There was no significant association between 18F-NaF deposition in the arteries or skin and the global Phenodex score. In contrast, the Phenodex score was significantly associated in univariate analyses with the averaged vascular calcium score ( < 0.01). In the neck, patients with higher skin Phenodex scores exhibited higher radiotracer uptake. As a conclusion, because vascular calcification is physiological, our data suggested that the detection of cutaneous (neck) 18F-NaF deposits might serve to monitor the calcification process in the short-term for patients with PXE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9051393DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7290446PMC
May 2020

Macular choroidal thickness in patients with pseudoxanthoma elasticum measured by enhanced-depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography.

Int Ophthalmol 2020 Jul 27;40(7):1749-1758. Epub 2020 Mar 27.

Department of Ophthalmology, Málaga University Medical School, Malaga, Spain.

Background/objectives: To analyze macular choroidal thickness in patients with pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) by enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT).

Subjects/methods: This is a prospective cross-sectional study. Sixty-eight eyes of 34 patients with PXE and 68 normal eyes of 34 controls were included to study the macular area with enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT). Eyes with PXE were classified in three groups: those without choroidal neovascularization (CNV) or chorioretinal macular atrophy macular (Group 1); those with active CNV (Group 2) and those with macular atrophy secondary to inactive CNV (Group 3).

Results: Mean subfoveal choroidal thickness (CT) was 266.70 ± 46.93 µm in control group, 304.24 ± 65.52 µm in group 1, 198.55 ± 66.33 µm in group 2, and 119.45 ± 63.89 µm in group 3 (p = 0.00). Comparison between PXE subgroups showed that subfoveal CT was significantly decreased in group 2 and 3 compared to group 1 (p < 0.0001 for both groups). The CT in the different quadrants (superior, inferior, temporal and nasal) was significantly thinner in group 3, followed by group 2 and 1 in ascendant order. Group 1 showed significant increased thickness compared to the other groups.

Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report suggesting thicker macular choroid in patients with PXE without active or inactive CNV than in normal eyes. Initial changes in Bruch membrane (MB) and choroid, in addition to the increased oxidative stress, would lead to hyperpermeability of the choroid and alterations of the barrier BM-RPE causing a thick choroid in early stages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10792-020-01343-2DOI Listing
July 2020

The Atypical Cannabinoid Abn-CBD Reduces Inflammation and Protects Liver, Pancreas, and Adipose Tissue in a Mouse Model of Prediabetes and Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2020 6;11:103. Epub 2020 Mar 6.

UGC Endocrinología y Nutrición, Instituto de Investigación Biomédica de Málaga-IBIMA, Hospital Regional de Málaga, Universidad de Málaga, Málaga, Spain.

The synthetic atypical cannabinoid Abn-CBD, a cannabidiol (CBD) derivative, has been recently shown to modulate the immune system in different organs, but its impact in obesity-related meta-inflammation remains unstudied. We investigated the effects of Abn-CBD on metabolic and inflammatory parameters utilizing a diet-induced obese (DIO) mouse model of prediabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Ten-week-old C57Bl/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet for 15 weeks, following a 2-week treatment of daily intraperitoneal injections with Abn-CBD or vehicle. At week 15 mice were obese, prediabetic and developed NAFLD. Body weight and glucose homeostasis were monitored. Mice were euthanized and blood, liver, adipose tissue and pancreas were collected and processed for metabolic and inflammatory analysis. Body weight and triglycerides profiles in blood and liver were comparable between vehicle- and Abn-CBD-treated DIO mice. However, treatment with Abn-CBD reduced hyperinsulinemia and markers of systemic low-grade inflammation in plasma and fat, also promoting white adipose tissue browning. Pancreatic islets from Abn-CBD-treated mice showed lower apoptosis, inflammation and oxidative stress than vehicle-treated DIO mice, and beta cell proliferation was induced. Furthermore, Abn-CBD lowered hepatic fibrosis, inflammation and macrophage infiltration in the liver when compared to vehicle-treated DIO mice. Importantly, the balance between hepatocyte proliferation and apoptosis was improved in Abn-CBD-treated compared to vehicle-treated DIO mice. These results suggest that Abn-CBD exerts beneficial immunomodulatory actions in the liver, pancreas and adipose tissue of DIO prediabetic mice with NAFLD, thus protecting tissues. Therefore, Abn-CBD and related compounds could represent novel pharmacological strategies for managing obesity-related metabolic disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2020.00103DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7067697PMC
February 2021

Many-Body Physics of Single and Double Spin-Flip Excitations in NiO.

Phys Rev Lett 2020 Feb;124(6):067202

Diamond Light Source, Harwell Campus, Didcot OX11 0DE, United Kingdom.

Understanding many-body physics of elementary excitations has advanced our control over material properties. Here, we study spin-flip excitations in NiO using Ni L_{3}-edge resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) and present a strikingly different resonant energy behavior between single and double spin-flip excitations. Comparing our results with single-site full-multiplet ligand field theory calculations we find that the spectral weight of the double-magnon excitations originates primarily from the double spin-flip transition of the quadrupolar RIXS process within a single magnetic site. Quadrupolar spin-flip processes are among the least studied excitations, despite being important for multiferroic or spin-nematic materials due to their difficult detection. We identify intermediate state multiplets and intra-atomic core-valence exchange interactions as the key many-body factors determining the fate of such excitations. RIXS resonant energy dependence can act as a convincing proof of existence of nondipolar higher-ranked magnetic orders in systems for which, only theoretical predictions are available.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.124.067202DOI Listing
February 2020

Plasma inorganic pyrophosphate and alkaline phosphatase in patients with pseudoxanthoma elasticum.

Ann Transl Med 2019 Dec;7(24):798

Lipid and Arteriosclerosis Laboratory, Centro de Investigaciones Médico-Sanitarias (CIMES), University of Málaga, Málaga, Spain.

Background: Inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) plays a major role inhibiting dystrophic calcification. The aim was to analyze levels of PPi in patients having pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE), and controls as well as the enzymes who regulate the PPi plasma concentration.

Methods: We collected fasting blood samples from PXE patients and age- and sex-matched controls in ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) and citrate-theophylline-adenosine-dipyridamole (CTAD) containing tubes. We measured PPi, ENPP1 mass and activity, alkaline phosphatase (AP) and tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP), CD73 and Human Platelet Factor-4 (CXCL4).

Results: PPi in EDTA and CTAD samples were lower in PXE subjects than in controls (1.11±0.26 1.43±0.41 µM/L and 0.35±0.15 0.61±0.18 µM/L respectively, P<0.05). TNAP and liver TNAP activities were also higher in PXE than in controls (80.3±27.0 63.3±16.4 UI/L and 25.6±14.9 12.9±9.2 UI/L respectively, P<0.05). ENPP1 mass and activity as well as CD73 were almost identical. There was a weak but significant inverse correlation between TNAP activity and PPi levels (Pearson correlation -0.379, P<0.05) in both groups.

Conclusions: High TNAP activity seems to contribute to low plasma levels of PPi in subjects with PXE, reinforcing the idea that pharmacological reduction of TNAP activity may help to reduce dystrophic calcification in PXE patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm.2019.12.73DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6989879PMC
December 2019

Electronic structure of the parent compound of superconducting infinite-layer nickelates.

Nat Mater 2020 Apr 20;19(4):381-385. Epub 2020 Jan 20.

Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA, USA.

The search continues for nickel oxide-based materials with electronic properties similar to cuprate high-temperature superconductors. The recent discovery of superconductivity in the doped infinite-layer nickelate NdNiO (refs. ) has strengthened these efforts. Here, we use X-ray spectroscopy and density functional theory to show that the electronic structure of LaNiO and NdNiO, while similar to the cuprates, includes significant distinctions. Unlike cuprates, the rare-earth spacer layer in the infinite-layer nickelate supports a weakly interacting three-dimensional 5d metallic state, which hybridizes with a quasi-two-dimensional, strongly correlated state with [Formula: see text] symmetry in the NiO layers. Thus, the infinite-layer nickelate can be regarded as a sibling of the rare-earth intermetallics, which are well known for heavy fermion behaviour, where the NiO correlated layers play an analogous role to the 4f states in rare-earth heavy fermion compounds. This Kondo- or Anderson-lattice-like 'oxide-intermetallic' replaces the Mott insulator as the reference state from which superconductivity emerges upon doping.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41563-019-0585-zDOI Listing
April 2020