Publications by authors named "M D Williamson"

1,175 Publications

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Diamide insecticide resistance in transgenic Drosophila and Sf9-cells expressing a full-length diamondback moth ryanodine receptor carrying an I4790M mutation.

Pest Manag Sci 2021 Nov 24. Epub 2021 Nov 24.

Department of Biointeractions and Crop Protection, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, UK.

Background: Resistance to diamide insecticides in Lepidoptera is known to be caused primarily by amino acid changes on the ryanodine receptor (RyR). Recently, two new target site mutations, G4946V and I4790M, have emerged in populations of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, as well as in other lepidopteran species, and both mutations have been shown empirically to decrease diamide efficacy. Here, we quantify the impact of the I4790M mutation on diamide activation of the receptor, as compared to alterations at the G4946 locus.

Results: I4790M when introduced into P. xylostella RyR expressed in an insect-derived Sf9 cell line was found to mediate just a ten-fold reduction in chlorantraniliprole efficacy (compared to 104- and 146-fold reductions for the G4946E and G4946V variants, respectively), whilst in the field its presence is associated with a ≥150-fold reduction. I4790M-mediated resistance to flubendiamide was estimated to be >24-fold. When the entire coding sequence of P. xylostella RyR was integrated into Drosophila melanogaster, the I4790M variant conferred ~4.4-fold resistance to chlorantraniliprole and 22-fold resistance to flubendiamide in the 3rd instar larvae, confirming that it imparts only a moderate level of resistance to diamide insecticides. Although the I4790M substitution appears to bear no fitness costs in terms of the flies' reproductive capacity, when assessed in a noncompetitive environment, it does, however, have potentially major impacts on mobility at both the larval and adult stages.

Conclusions: I4790M imparts only a moderate level of resistance to diamide insecticides and potentially confers significant fitness costs to the insect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ps.6730DOI Listing
November 2021

Implementation of Telehealth Services in Rural Schools: A Qualitative Assessment.

J Sch Health 2021 Nov 21. Epub 2021 Nov 21.

University of Iowa, College of Public Health, 145 North Riverside Drive, N236 CPHB, Iowa City, Iowa, 52242.

Background: In rural areas with health professional workforce shortages, telehealth offers an opportunity to address service gaps and meet the health needs of students. Few studies have examined telehealth implementation in rural schools. This study explores facilitators and barriers to the implementation of telehealth programs in rural schools and identifies strategies for successful implementation to inform future school-based telehealth initiatives.

Methods: We conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews with 50 key informants involved in the implementation of telehealth programs funded through the School-Based Telehealth Network Grant Program. Researchers completed a thematic analysis of interview transcripts.

Results: The most commonly cited barriers were technology, reimbursement for services, and facilitating acceptance of the telehealth among school staff, clinicians, parents, and students. Key informants identified strategies for facilitating program implementation, including technology training and support, marketing efforts, and integration into existing school processes.

Conclusions: School-based telehealth can augment clinical capacity in areas with clinician shortages. Entities interested in such an approach to care must engage with their school community to ensure successful implementation. For rural, school-based telehealth to gain greater adoption and be sustained, these services must be reimbursable by Medicaid and private insurers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/josh.13104DOI Listing
November 2021

Reducing milking frequency from twice to once daily as an adjunct treatment for ketosis in lactating dairy cows-A randomized controlled trial.

J Dairy Sci 2021 Nov 16. Epub 2021 Nov 16.

Population Medicine, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 2W1.

This randomized controlled trial investigated the effects of temporarily reducing milking frequency (MF) on the resolution of ketosis and milk production in dairy cows in early lactation. To detect ketosis [blood β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) ≥1.2 mmol/L], Holstein cows were screened daily from 3 to 16 d in milk using a cow-side meter. Cows diagnosed with ketosis (n = 104) were randomly assigned to twice-daily milking (TDM) or reduced to once-daily milking (ODM) for 2 wk, then returned to twice-daily milking. Both treatment groups received a 5-d treatment of an oral propylene glycol drench (PG; 300 g) beginning on the afternoon of the diagnosis; cows received additional 5-d PG treatments if they had a ketotic test result (blood BHB ≥1.2 mmol/L) at least 4 d after finishing the first PG treatment. Blood BHB tests were conducted for the first 3 d after ketosis diagnosis, and then once every 3 d for 21 d of trial (DOT). Milk and milk component data were collected weekly for 15 wk following trial enrollment. The ODM group showed rapidly and markedly decreased blood BHB concentrations (primiparous cows: 1 DOT, 0.92 ODM vs. 1.22 TDM, 15 DOT, 0.55 vs. 0.81 mmol/L; multiparous cows: 1 DOT, 1.01 vs. 1.40, 15 DOT, 0.78 vs. 1.65 mmol/L). In addition, a logistic regression model indicated that ODM cows were less likely to have blood BHB concentrations ≥1.2 mmol/L [primiparous cows: 3 DOT: ODM 1% (95% confidence interval: 0-10%) vs. TDM 43% (30-58%), 15 DOT ODM 0% (0-0.2%) vs. TDM 22% (13-36%); multiparous cows: 3 DOT: ODM 33% (24-44%) vs. TDM 59% (48-69%), 15 DOT ODM 20.9% (13-31%) vs. TDM 64% (53-74%)]. The proportion of ODM cows that required additional treatments of PG were substantially lower than the TDM group (ODM: 39%; TDM: 64%) than the TDM cows during the initial 21-d period. However, during the 2-wk treatment period, cows in the ODM group produced 26% less milk and 25% less energy-corrected milk than the TDM cows. During wk 3 to 15, when all cows were milked twice daily, ODM cows produced less milk (-14%) and energy-corrected milk (-12%) compared with the TDM group. Milk protein percentage was greater, and milk fat percentage and linear score tended to be greater in the ODM group over 15 wk. In conclusion, a 2-wk reduction of MF in ketotic cows from twice to once daily with treatment with PG resolved ketosis and decreased blood BHB concentrations more effectively than treating TDM cows with PG alone. However, the 2-wk MF reduction had immediate and long-term (up to 13 wk after cessation of MF reduction) negative effects on milk production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2021-20551DOI Listing
November 2021

Apnoea of Prematurity and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes: Current Understanding and Future Prospects for Research.

Front Pediatr 2021 25;9:755677. Epub 2021 Oct 25.

Department of Paediatrics, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Infants who are born prematurely are at significant risk of apnoea. In addition to the short-term consequences such as hypoxia, apnoea of prematurity has been associated with long-term morbidity, including poor neurodevelopmental outcomes. Clinical trials have illustrated the importance of methylxanthine drugs, in particular caffeine, in reducing the risk of long term adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. However, the extent to which apnoea is causative of this secondary neurodevelopmental delay or is just associated in a background of other sequelae of prematurity remains unclear. In this review, we first discuss the pathophysiology of apnoea of prematurity, previous studies investigating the relationship between apnoea and neurodevelopmental delay, and treatment of apnoea with caffeine therapy. We propose a need for better methods of measuring apnoea, along with improved understanding of the neonatal brain's response to consequent hypoxia. Only then can we start to disentangle the effects of apnoea on neurodevelopment in preterm infants. Moreover, by better identifying those infants who are at risk of apnoea, and neurodevelopmental delay, we can work toward a risk stratification system for these infants that is clinically actionable, for example, with doses of caffeine tailored to the individual. Optimising treatment of apnoea for individual infants will improve neonatal care and long-term outcomes for this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2021.755677DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8573333PMC
October 2021

Zoom disrupts the rhythm of conversation.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2021 Nov 8. Epub 2021 Nov 8.

Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program.

Small, variable transmission delays over Zoom disrupt the typical rhythm of conversation, leading to delays in turn initiation. This study compared local and remote (Zoom) turn transition times using both a tightly controlled yes/no Question and Answer (Q&A) paradigm (Corps et al., 2018) and unscripted conversation. In the Q&A paradigm (Experiment 1), participants responded yes/no as quickly as possible to prerecorded questions. Half of the questions were played over Zoom and half were played locally from their own computer. Local responses had an average latency of 297 ms, whereas remote responses averaged 976 ms. These large increases in transition times over Zoom are far greater than the estimated 30-70 ms of audio transmission delay, suggesting disruption of automated mechanisms that normally guide the timing of turn initiation in conversation. In face-to-face conversations (Experiment 2), turn transition times averaged 135 ms, but transition times for the same dyads over Zoom averaged 487 ms. We consider the possibility that electronic transmission delays disrupt neural oscillators that normally synchronize on syllable rate, at around, 150-300 ms per cycle (Wilson & Wilson, 2005), and enable interlocutors to effortlessly and precisely time the initiation of their turns. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0001150DOI Listing
November 2021
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