Publications by authors named "M Calvello"

57 Publications

Thymic carcinoma with Lynch syndrome or microsatellite instability, a rare entity responsive to immunotherapy.

Eur J Cancer 2021 Aug 20;153:162-167. Epub 2021 Jun 20.

Division of Medical Oncology for Melanoma & Sarcoma, IEO, European Institute of Oncology IRCCS, Milan, Italy.

Importance: Thymic carcinoma (TC) is a rare aggressive tumour occurring in adults characterised by one of the lowest tumor mutational burdens (TMB). Microsatellite instability (MSI) is a mutational signature, caused by defects in the DNA MisMatch Repair (MMR) system, that predicts benefit from immunotherapy and causes high TMB. Fragmentary and unstructured evidence of these conditions co-occurring are reported in literature.

Objective: Review available data on the co-occurrence of these two conditions and determine its frequency in our institute case series.

Design: We performed a systematic analysis of literature and a retrospective evaluation of all the cases of TET treated at our institution from 2000 to 2020, selecting patients with a medical history of multiple tumours to enhance a priori probability of identifying cases with underlying predisposition.

Results: Literature yielded 3 cases of patients with MSI TC, for which MMR gene alteration was reported. None of them received immunotherapy. Of 366 patients with TETs treated in our institute, 32 had a medical history of multiple tumours and 25 of 32 (19 thymomas and 6 TCs) had available tissue for MMR analysis. One patient with TC showed a high TMB, and MSI due to MLH1 mutation and was treated in a phase II study with avelumab and axitinib combination obtaining a long-lasting partial response. MLH1 alterations are shared across MSI TC cases.

Conclusions And Relevance: This analysis highlights the usefulness of MSI testing in patients with TC. The observation of cases of TC occurring in patients with Lynch syndrome and the unexpected homogeneity of gene alterations support further investigation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2021.05.029DOI Listing
August 2021

A Meta-Analysis of Obesity and Risk of Colorectal Cancer in Patients with Lynch Syndrome: The Impact of Sex and Genetics.

Nutrients 2021 May 20;13(5). Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Experimental Oncology, European Institute of Oncology (IEO) IRCCS, 20141 Milan, Italy.

There appears to be a sex-specific association between obesity and colorectal neoplasia in patients with Lynch Syndrome (LS). We meta-analyzed studies reporting on obesity and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk in LS patients to test whether obese subjects were at increased risk of cancer compared to those of normal weight. We explored also a possible sex-specific relationship between adiposity and CRC risk among patients with LS. The summary relative risk (SRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated through random effect models. We investigated the causes of between-study heterogeneity and assessed the presence of publication bias. We were able to retrieve suitable data from four independent studies. We found a twofold risk of CRC in obese men compared to nonobese men (SRR = 2.09; 95%CI: 1.23-3.55, I = 33%), and no indication of publication bias ( = 0.13). No significantly increased risk due to obesity was found for women. A 49% increased CRC risk for obesity was found for subjects with an mutation (SRR = 1.49; 95%CI: 1.11-1.99, I = 0%). These results confirm the different effects of sex on obesity and CRC risk and also support the public measures to reduce overweight in people with LS, particularly for men.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13051736DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8160758PMC
May 2021

Patient-reported outcomes and patient-reported outcome measures in interstitial lung disease: where to go from here?

Eur Respir Rev 2021 Jun 25;30(160). Epub 2021 May 25.

Dept of Respiratory Diseases and Allergy, Centre for Rare Lung Diseases, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus N, Denmark.

Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs), tools to assess patient self-report of health status, are now increasingly used in research, care and policymaking. While there are two well-developed disease-specific PROMs for interstitial lung diseases (ILD) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), many unmet and urgent needs remain. In December 2019, 64 international ILD experts convened in Erice, Italy to deliberate on many topics, including PROMs in ILD. This review summarises the history of PROMs in ILD, shortcomings of the existing tools, challenges of development, validation and implementation of their use in clinical trials, and the discussion held during the meeting. Development of disease-specific PROMs for ILD including IPF with robust methodology and validation in concordance with guidance from regulatory authorities have increased user confidence in PROMs. Minimal clinically important difference for bidirectional changes may need to be developed. Cross-cultural validation and linguistic adaptations are necessary in addition to robust psychometric properties for effective PROM use in multinational clinical trials. PROM burden of use should be reduced through appropriate use of digital technologies and computerised adaptive testing. Active patient engagement in all stages from development, testing, choosing and implementation of PROMs can help improve probability of success and further growth.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1183/16000617.0026-2021DOI Listing
June 2021

Analysis of Italian Pathogenic Variants Identifies a Private Spectrum in the Population from the Bergamo Province in Northern Italy.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Jan 30;13(3). Epub 2021 Jan 30.

Genome Diagnostics Program, IFOM, FIRC Institute for Molecular Oncology, 20139 Milan, Italy.

Germline pathogenic variants (PVs) in the or genes cause high breast cancer risk. Recurrent or founder PVs have been described worldwide including some in the Bergamo province in Northern Italy. The aim of this study was to compare the PV spectra of the Bergamo and of the general Italian populations. We retrospectively identified at five Italian centers 1019 PVs carrier individuals affected with breast cancer and representative of the heterogeneous national population. Each individual was assigned to the Bergamo or non-Bergamo cohort based on self-reported birthplace. Our data indicate that the Bergamo PV spectrum shows less heterogeneity with fewer different variants and an average higher frequency compared to that of the rest of Italy. Consistently, four PVs explained about 60% of all carriers. The majority of the Bergamo PVs originated locally with only two PVs clearly imported. The Bergamo PV spectrum appears to be private. Hence, the Bergamo population would be ideal to study the disease risk associated with local PVs in breast cancer and other disease-causing genes. Finally, our data suggest that the Bergamo population is a genetic isolate and further analyses are warranted to prove this notion.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13030532DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7866799PMC
January 2021

Effect of Chemical Vapor Deposition WS on Viability and Differentiation of SH-SY5Y Cells.

Front Neurosci 2020 30;14:592502. Epub 2020 Oct 30.

Center for Nanotechnology Innovation @NEST, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Pisa, Italy.

In recent years, transition metal dichalcogenides have been attracting an increasing interest in the biomedical field, thus implying the need of a deeper understanding of their impact on cell behavior. In this study we investigate tungsten disulfide (WS) grown via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on a transparent substrate (sapphire) as a platform for neural-like cell culture. We culture SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells on WS, using graphene, sapphire and standard culture well as controls. The quality, thickness and homogeneity of the materials is analyzed using atomic force microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The cytocompatibility of CVD WS is investigated for the first time by cell viability and differentiation assessment on SH-SY5Y cells. We find that cells differentiated on WS, displaying a viability and neurite length comparable with the controls. These findings shine light on the possibility of using WS as a cytocompatible material for interfacing neural cells.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2020.592502DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7662391PMC
October 2020
-->