Publications by authors named "M C Aime"

131 Publications

A higher-rank classification for rust fungi, with notes on genera.

Fungal Syst Evol 2021 Jun 13;7:21-47. Epub 2020 Nov 13.

Queensland Alliance for Agriculture and Food Innovation, The University of Queensland, Brisbane 4001, Australia.

The rust fungi () with 7000+ species comprise one of the largest orders of , and one for which taxonomy at all ranks remains problematic. Here we provide a taxonomic framework, based on 16 years of sampling that includes . 80 % of accepted genera including type species wherever possible, and three DNA loci used to resolve the deeper nodes of the rust fungus tree of life. are comprised of seven suborders - , , , ., and - and 18 families - ., , , ., & ., , , , , , ., & ., , & ., and . The new genera (for and ) (for ), (for ), and (for and ) are proposed. Twenty-one new combinations and one new name are introduced for: , , , and Higher ranks are newly defined with consideration of morphology, host range and life cycle. Finally, we discuss the evolutionary and diversification trends within . Aime MC, McTaggart AR (2020). A higher-rank classification for rust fungi, with notes on genera. 21-47. doi: 10.3114/fuse.2021.07.02.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3114/fuse.2021.07.02DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8165960PMC
June 2021

Host Adaptation and Virulence in Heteroecious Rust Fungi.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, USA; email:

Rust fungi (Pucciniales, Basidiomycota) are obligate biotrophic pathogens that cause rust diseases in plants, inflicting severe damage to agricultural crops. Pucciniales possess the most complex life cycles known in fungi. These include an alternation of generations, the development of up to five different sporulating stages, and, for many species, the requirement of infecting two unrelated host plants during different parts of their life cycle, termed heteroecism. These fungi have been extensively studied in the past century through microscopy and inoculation studies, providing precise descriptions of their infection processes, although the molecular mechanisms underlying their unique biology are poorly understood. In this review, we cover recent genomic and life cycle transcriptomic studies in several heteroecious rust species, which provide insights into the genetic tool kits associated with host adaptation and virulence, opening new avenues for unraveling their unique evolution. Expected final online publication date for the , Volume 59 is August 2021. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-phyto-020620-121149DOI Listing
June 2021

Comparative transcriptomics reveal different mechanisms for hyphal growth across four plant-associated dimorphic fungi.

Fungal Genet Biol 2021 Jul 13;152:103565. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University, 915 W State St, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2054, USA. Electronic address:

Fungal dimorphism is a phenomenon by which a fungus can grow both as a yeast form and a hyphal form. It is frequently related to pathogenicity as different growth forms are more suitable for different functions during a life cycle. Among dimorphic plant pathogens, the corn smut fungus Ustilago maydis serves as a model organism to understand fungal dimorphism and its effect on pathogenicity. However, there is a lack of data on whether mechanisms elucidated from model species are broadly applicable to other fungi. In this study, two non-model plant-associated species in the smut fungus subphylum (Ustilaginomycotina), Tilletiopsis washingtonensis and Meira miltonrushii, were selected to compare dimorphic mechanisms in these to those in U. maydis. We sequenced transcriptomic profiles during both yeast and hyphal growth in these two species using Tween40, a lipid mimic, as a trigger for hyphal growth. We then compared our data with previously published data from U. maydis and a fourth but unrelated dimorphic phytopathogen, Ophiostoma novo-ulmi. Comparative transcriptomics was performed to identify common genes upregulated during hyphal growth in all four dimorphic species. Intriguingly, T. washingtonensis shares the least similarities of transcriptomic alteration (hyphal growth versus yeast growth) with the others, although it is closely related to M. miltonrushii and U. maydis. This suggests that phylogenetic relatedness is not correlated with transcriptomic similarity under the same biological phenomenon. Among commonly expressed genes in the four species, genes in cell energy production and conversion, amino acid transport and metabolism and cytoskeleton are significantly enriched. Considering dimorphism genes characterized in U. maydis, as well as hyphal tip-associated genes from the literature, we found only genes encoding the cell end marker Tea4/TeaC and the kinesin motor protein Kin3 concordantly expressed in all four species. This suggests a divergence in species-specific mechanisms for dimorphic transition and hyphal growth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fgb.2021.103565DOI Listing
July 2021

How to publish a new fungal species, or name, version 3.0.

IMA Fungus 2021 May 3;12(1):11. Epub 2021 May 3.

National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, 45 Center Drive, Bethesda, MD, 20892, USA.

It is now a decade since The International Commission on the Taxonomy of Fungi (ICTF) produced an overview of requirements and best practices for describing a new fungal species. In the meantime the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICNafp) has changed from its former name (the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature) and introduced new formal requirements for valid publication of species scientific names, including the separation of provisions specific to Fungi and organisms treated as fungi in a new Chapter F. Equally transformative have been changes in the data collection, data dissemination, and analytical tools available to mycologists. This paper provides an updated and expanded discussion of current publication requirements along with best practices for the description of new fungal species and publication of new names and for improving accessibility of their associated metadata that have developed over the last 10 years. Additionally, we provide: (1) model papers for different fungal groups and circumstances; (2) a checklist to simplify meeting (i) the requirements of the ICNafp to ensure the effective, valid and legitimate publication of names of new taxa, and (ii) minimally accepted standards for description; and, (3) templates for preparing standardized species descriptions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s43008-021-00063-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8091500PMC
May 2021