Publications by authors named "M Buyse"

404 Publications

Clinical Trial Endpoints in Metastatic Cancer: Using Individual Participant Data to Inform Future Trials Methodology.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2021 Dec 4. Epub 2021 Dec 4.

Hôpital Franco-Britannique, Paris, France.

Meta-analysis based upon individual participant data (IPD) is a powerful methodology for synthesizing evidence by combining information drawn from multiple trials. Hitherto, its principal application has been in questions of clinical management, but an increasingly important use is in clarifying trials methodology, for instance in the selection of endpoints, as discussed in this review. In oncology, the Aide et Recherche en Cancérologie Digestive (ARCAD) Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Database is a leader in the use of IPD-based meta-analysis in methodological research. The ARCAD database contains IPD from over 38,000 patients enrolled in 46 studies and continues to collect Phase III trial data. Here, we review the principal findings of the ARCAD project in respect of endpoint selection and examine their implications for cancer trials. Analysis of the database has confirmed that progression-free survival (PFS) is no longer a valid surrogate endpoint predictive of overall survival in the first-line treatment of colorectal cancer. Nonetheless, PFS remains an endpoint of choice for most first-line trials in metastatic colorectal cancer and other solid tumors. Only substantial PFS effects are likely to translate into clinically meaningful benefits, and accordingly we advocate an oncology research model designed to identify highly effective treatments in carefully defined patient groups. We also review the use of the ARCAD database in assessing clinical response including novel response metrics, and prognostic markers. These studies demonstrate the value of IPD as a tool for methodological studies and provide a reference point for the expansion of this approach within clinical cancer research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djab218DOI Listing
December 2021

Effect of anti-interleukin drugs in patients with COVID-19 and signs of cytokine release syndrome (COV-AID): a factorial, randomised, controlled trial.

Lancet Respir Med 2021 12 29;9(12):1427-1438. Epub 2021 Oct 29.

Laboratory of Mucosal Immunology, VIB-UGhent Center for Inflammation Research, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium; Department of Internal Medicine and Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.

Background: Infections with SARS-CoV-2 continue to cause significant morbidity and mortality. Interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-6 blockade have been proposed as therapeutic strategies in COVID-19, but study outcomes have been conflicting. We sought to study whether blockade of the IL-6 or IL-1 pathway shortened the time to clinical improvement in patients with COVID-19, hypoxic respiratory failure, and signs of systemic cytokine release syndrome.

Methods: We did a prospective, multicentre, open-label, randomised, controlled trial, in hospitalised patients with COVID-19, hypoxia, and signs of a cytokine release syndrome across 16 hospitals in Belgium. Eligible patients had a proven diagnosis of COVID-19 with symptoms between 6 and 16 days, a ratio of the partial pressure of oxygen to the fraction of inspired oxygen (PaO:FiO) of less than 350 mm Hg on room air or less than 280 mm Hg on supplemental oxygen, and signs of a cytokine release syndrome in their serum (either a single ferritin measurement of more than 2000 μg/L and immediately requiring high flow oxygen or mechanical ventilation, or a ferritin concentration of more than 1000 μg/L, which had been increasing over the previous 24 h, or lymphopenia below 800/mL with two of the following criteria: an increasing ferritin concentration of more than 700 μg/L, an increasing lactate dehydrogenase concentration of more than 300 international units per L, an increasing C-reactive protein concentration of more than 70 mg/L, or an increasing D-dimers concentration of more than 1000 ng/mL). The COV-AID trial has a 2 × 2 factorial design to evaluate IL-1 blockade versus no IL-1 blockade and IL-6 blockade versus no IL-6 blockade. Patients were randomly assigned by means of permuted block randomisation with varying block size and stratification by centre. In a first randomisation, patients were assigned to receive subcutaneous anakinra once daily (100 mg) for 28 days or until discharge, or to receive no IL-1 blockade (1:2). In a second randomisation step, patients were allocated to receive a single dose of siltuximab (11 mg/kg) intravenously, or a single dose of tocilizumab (8 mg/kg) intravenously, or to receive no IL-6 blockade (1:1:1). The primary outcome was the time to clinical improvement, defined as time from randomisation to an increase of at least two points on a 6-category ordinal scale or to discharge from hospital alive. The primary and supportive efficacy endpoints were assessed in the intention-to-treat population. Safety was assessed in the safety population. This study is registered online with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04330638) and EudraCT (2020-001500-41) and is complete.

Findings: Between April 4, and Dec 6, 2020, 342 patients were randomly assigned to IL-1 blockade (n=112) or no IL-1 blockade (n=230) and simultaneously randomly assigned to IL-6 blockade (n=227; 114 for tocilizumab and 113 for siltuximab) or no IL-6 blockade (n=115). Most patients were male (265 [77%] of 342), median age was 65 years (IQR 54-73), and median Systematic Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score at randomisation was 3 (2-4). All 342 patients were included in the primary intention-to-treat analysis. The estimated median time to clinical improvement was 12 days (95% CI 10-16) in the IL-1 blockade group versus 12 days (10-15) in the no IL-1 blockade group (hazard ratio [HR] 0·94 [95% CI 0·73-1·21]). For the IL-6 blockade group, the estimated median time to clinical improvement was 11 days (95% CI 10-16) versus 12 days (11-16) in the no IL-6 blockade group (HR 1·00 [0·78-1·29]). 55 patients died during the study, but no evidence for differences in mortality between treatment groups was found. The incidence of serious adverse events and serious infections was similar across study groups.

Interpretation: Drugs targeting IL-1 or IL-6 did not shorten the time to clinical improvement in this sample of patients with COVID-19, hypoxic respiratory failure, low SOFA score, and low baseline mortality risk.

Funding: Belgian Health Care Knowledge Center and VIB Grand Challenges program.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2213-2600(21)00377-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8555973PMC
December 2021

Detection of Fraud in a Clinical Trial Using Unsupervised Statistical Monitoring.

Ther Innov Regul Sci 2022 Jan 29;56(1):130-136. Epub 2021 Sep 29.

CluePoints S.A., Avenue Albert Einstein, 2a, 1348, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium.

Background: A central statistical assessment of the quality of data collected in clinical trials can improve the quality and efficiency of sponsor oversight of clinical investigations.

Material And Methods: The database of a large randomized clinical trial with known fraud was reanalyzed with a view to identifying, using only statistical monitoring techniques, the center where fraud had been confirmed. The analysis was conducted with an unsupervised statistical monitoring software using mixed-effects statistical models. The statistical analyst was unaware of the location, nature, and extent of the fraud.

Results: Five centers were detected as atypical, including the center with known fraud (which was ranked 2). An incremental analysis showed that the center with known fraud could have been detected after only 25% of its data had been reported.

Conclusion: An unsupervised approach to central monitoring, using mixed-effects statistical models, is effective at detecting centers with fraud or other data anomalies in clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s43441-021-00341-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8688378PMC
January 2022

Using an interim analysis based exclusively on an early outcome in a randomized clinical trial with a long-term clinical endpoint.

Pharm Stat 2022 01 9;21(1):209-219. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

International Drug Development Institute (IDDI), Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium.

In RCTs with an interest in a long-term efficacy endpoint, the follow-up time necessary to observe the endpoint may be substantial. In order to reduce the expected duration of such trials, early-outcome data may be collected to enrich an interim analysis aimed at stopping the trial early for efficacy. We propose to extend such a design with an additional interim analysis using solely early-outcome data in order to expedite the evaluation of treatment's efficacy. We evaluate the potential gain in operating characteristics (power, expected trial duration, and expected sample size) when introducing such an early interim analysis, in function of the properties of the early outcome as a surrogate for the long-term endpoint. In the context of a longitudinal age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) ophthalmology trial, results show potentially substantial gains in both the expected trial duration and the expected sample size. A prerequisite, though, is that the treatment effect on the early outcome has to be strongly correlated with the treatment effect on the long-term endpoint, that is, that the early outcome is a validated surrogate for the long-term endpoint.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pst.2165DOI Listing
January 2022

Results of a randomized phase 3 study of oral sapacitabine in elderly patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (SEAMLESS).

Cancer 2021 Dec 23;127(23):4421-4431. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Cyclacel Limited, Dundee, United Kingdom.

Background: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is fatal in elderly patients who are unfit for standard induction chemotherapy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the survival benefit of administering sapacitabine, an oral nucleoside analogue, in alternating cycles with decitabine, a low-intensity therapy, to elderly patients with newly diagnosed AML.

Methods: This randomized, open-label, phase 3 study (SEAMLESS) was conducted at 87 sites in 11 countries. Patients aged ≥70 years who were not candidates for or chose not to receive standard induction chemotherapy were randomized 1:1 to arm A (decitabine in alternating cycles with sapacitabine) received 1-hour intravenous infusions of decitabine 20 mg/m once daily for 5 consecutive days every 8 weeks (first cycle and subsequent odd cycles) and sapacitabine 300 mg twice daily on 3 consecutive days per week for 2 weeks every 8 weeks (second cycle and subsequent even cycles) or to control arm C who received 1-hour infusions of decitabine 20 mg/m once daily for 5 consecutive days every 4 weeks. Prior hypomethylating agent therapy for preexisting myelodysplastic syndromes or myeloproliferative neoplasms was an exclusion criterion. Randomization was stratified by antecedent myelodysplastic syndromes or myeloproliferative neoplasms, white blood cell count (<10 × 10 /L and ≥10 × 10 /L), and bone marrow blast percentage (≥50% vs <50%). The primary end point was overall survival (OS). Secondary end points were the rates of complete remission (CR), CR with incomplete platelet count recovery, partial remission, hematologic improvement, and stable disease along with the corresponding durations, transfusion requirements, number of hospitalized days, and 1-year survival. The trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01303796).

Results: Between October 2011 and December 2014, 482 patients were enrolled and randomized to receive decitabine administered in alternating cycles with sapacitabine (study arm, n = 241) or decitabine monotherapy (control arm, n = 241). The median OS was 5.9 months on the study arm versus 5.7 months on the control arm (P = .8902). The CR rate was 16.6% on the study arm and 10.8% on the control arm (P = .1468). In patients with white blood cell counts <10 × 10 /L (n = 321), the median OS was higher on the study arm versus the control arm (8.0 vs 5.8 months; P = .145), as was the CR rate (21.5% vs 8.6%; P = .0017).

Conclusions: The regimen of decitabine administered in alternating cycles with sapacitabine was active but did not significantly improve OS compared with decitabine monotherapy. Subgroup analyses suggest that patients with baseline white blood cell counts <10 × 10 /L might benefit from decitabine alternating with sapacitabine, with an improved CR rate and the convenience of an oral drug. These findings should be prospectively confirmed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.33828DOI Listing
December 2021
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