Publications by authors named "M Bradley Drummond"

992 Publications

Lung Function in Women with and without HIV.

Clin Infect Dis 2022 May 23. Epub 2022 May 23.

Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, USA.

Background: Prior studies have found that HIV infection is associated with impaired lung function and increased risk of chronic lung disease, but few have included large numbers of women. In this study, we investigate whether HIV infection is associated with differences in lung function in women.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional analysis of participants in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS), a racially and ethnically diverse multicenter cohort of women with and without HIV. In 2018-2019, participants at all nine clinical sites were invited to perform spirometry. Single-breath diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) was also measured at selected sites. The primary outcomes were the post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and DLCO. Multivariable regression modeling was used to analyze the association of HIV infection and lung function outcomes after adjustment for confounding exposures.

Results: FEV1 measurements from 1,489 women (1,062 HIV+, 427 HIV-) and DLCO measurements from 671 women (463 HIV+, 208 HIV-) met standards for quality and reproducibility. There was no significant difference in FEV1 between women with and without HIV. Women with HIV had lower DLCO measurements (adjusted difference, -0.73  mL/min/mmHg, 95% CI -1.33 to -0.14). Among women with HIV, lower nadir CD4 + cell counts and hepatitis C virus infection were associated with lower DLCO measurements.

Conclusions: HIV infection was associated with impaired respiratory gas exchange in women. Among women with HIV, lower nadir CD4 + cell counts and hepatitis C infection were associated with decreased respiratory gas exchange.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciac391DOI Listing
May 2022

Secondary Coordination Sphere Influences the Formation of Fe(III)-O or Fe(III)-OH in Nitrite Reduction: A Synthetic and Computational Study.

Inorg Chem 2022 May 17. Epub 2022 May 17.

School of Chemical Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 600 S. Mathews Avenue, Urbana, Illinois 61801, United States.

The reduction of nitrite (NO) to generate nitric oxide (NO) is a significant area of research due to their roles in the global nitrogen cycle. Here, we describe various modifications of the tris(5-cyclohexyliminopyrrol-2-ylmethyl)amine H[N(pi)] ligand where the steric bulk and acidity of the secondary coordination sphere were explored in the non-heme iron system for nitrite reduction. The cyclohexyl and 2,4,6-trimethylphenyl variants of the ligand were used to probe the mechanism of nitrite reduction. While previously stoichiometric addition of nitrite to the iron(II)-species generated an iron(III)-oxo complex, changing the secondary coordination sphere to mesityl resulted in an iron(III)-hydroxo complex. Subsequent addition of an electron and two protons led to the release of water and regeneration of the starting iron(II) catalyst. This sequence mirrored the proposed mechanism of nitrite reduction in biological systems, where the distal histidine residue shuttles protons to the active site. Computational studies aimed at interrogating the dissimilar behavior of the cyclohexyl and mesityl ligand systems resulting in Fe(III)-oxo and Fe(III)-hydroxo complexes, respectively, shed light on the key role of H-bonds involving the secondary coordination sphere in the relative stability of these species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.inorgchem.2c00462DOI Listing
May 2022

Disease-Related Costs Published in The Middle East and North Africa Region: Systematic Review and Analysis of Transferability.

Pharmacoeconomics 2022 Jun 17;40(6):587-599. Epub 2022 May 17.

Health Economics Research Center, University Research and Innovation Center, Óbuda University Budapest, Óbudai Egyetem, Bécsi út 96, Budapest, 1034, Hungary.

Background: In the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) the scarcity of local cost data is a key barrier to conducting health economic evaluations. We systematically reviewed reports of disease-related costs from MENA and analysed their transferability within the region.

Methods: We searched PubMed and included full text English papers that reported disease-related costs from the local populations of Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Syria, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates and Yemen between 1995 and 2019. Screening, study selection and data extraction were done in duplicate. Study-related variables, costing methods, all costs and their characteristics were extracted and analysed via descriptive methods. From multi-country studies of MENA employing homogenous costing methods, we estimated the ratio (cost transfer coefficient) between the relative differences in direct medical costs and macroeconomic indicators via robust regression. We predicted each cost via the estimated cost transfer formula and evaluated prediction error between true and predicted (transferred) costs.

Results: The search yielded 1646 records, 206 full text papers and 3525 costs from 84 diagnoses. Transferability was analysed involving 144 direct medical costs from eight multi-country studies. Adjusting the average of available foreign costs by 0.28 times the relative difference in GDP per capita provided the most accurate estimates. The correlation between true and predicted costs was 0.96; 68% of predicted costs fell in the true ± 50% range. Predictions were more accurate for costs from studies that involved the largest number of countries, for countries outside the Gulf region and for drug costs versus unit or disease costs.

Conclusion: The estimated cost transfer formula allows the prediction of missing costs in MENA if only GDP per capita is available for adjustment to the local setting. Input costs for the formula should be collected from multiple sources and match the decision situation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40273-022-01146-6DOI Listing
June 2022

Increased viral load in a hospitalized patient on treatment with crushed bictegravir/emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide: A case report and review of the literature.

Am J Health Syst Pharm 2022 May 3. Epub 2022 May 3.

University of South Carolina College of Pharmacy, Columbia, SC, and Prisma Health Richland, Columbia, SC, USA.

Disclaimer: In an effort to expedite the publication of articles related to the COVID-19 pandemic, AJHP is posting these manuscripts online as soon as possible after acceptance. Accepted manuscripts have been peer-reviewed and copyedited, but are posted online before technical formatting and author proofing. These manuscripts are not the final version of record and will be replaced with the final article (formatted per AJHP style and proofed by the authors) at a later time.

Purpose: To describe a case of increased viral load in a patient with HIV-1 infection receiving treatment with crushed bictegravir/emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide (B/FTC/TAF).

Summary: A 43-year-old man, newly diagnosed with HIV, was hospitalized due to failure to thrive, neurological changes, and hypotension. Before treatment, the viral load of HIV RNA (VL) was 769,704 copies/mL and the CD4 + T-cell count was 36 cells/μL. On hospital day (HD) 8, B/FTC/TAF by mouth daily was initiated. During the hospitalization, the patient's course was complicated by opportunistic infections, bilateral pneumothorax, seizure activity, and acute respiratory distress, requiring multiple intubations and extended time in the intensive care unit. A repeat VL measurement on HD 28 was 5,887 copies/mL after the patient had received 14 of 20 scheduled B/FTC/TAF doses. Because of a failed swallow study and continued nutritional deficits, a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube was placed on HD 38 and continuous tube feeds via the PEG tube were initiated. Subsequently, the B/FTC/TAF order was modified to be crushed, mixed in 30 mL water, and administered daily via the PEG tube. A repeat VL measurement on HD 65 showed an increase to 8,047 copies/mL, despite receipt of 37 consecutive doses of B/FTC/TAF. B/FTC/TAF was discontinued and dolutegravir 50 mg twice daily, darunavir 800 mg plus ritonavir 100 mg (DRV/r), and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/FTC 200 mg/300 mg were started owing to virological increase, need for a viable option compatible with PEG tube delivery, and potential for integrase inhibitor resistance. At the time of regimen change (HD 67), a resistance panel showed minor mutations, E157Q and V118I. The regimen was streamlined with discontinuation of DRV/r on HD 92. The patient was discharged on HD 161. The PEG tube was removed 2 months after discharge, oral B/FTC/TAF was reinitiated, and the patient was virologically suppressed at 1 year after discharge.

Conclusion: Controlled studies are needed to verify acceptable pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic metrics for crushed B/FTC/TAF given via tube, with and without tube feeds, before use in this manner.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajhp/zxac120DOI Listing
May 2022

Diagnostic and therapeutic approach of central sleep apnea in heart failure - the role of adaptive servo-ventilation. A statement of the Portuguese society of pulmonology and the Portuguese sleep association.

Pulmonology 2022 Apr 29. Epub 2022 Apr 29.

Centro Hospitalar e Universitario de Coimbra, Portugal.

It is known that patients with heart failure (HF) have an increased risk of developing central sleep apnoea (CSA), with Cheyne-Stokes respiration. The development of servo-ventilation aimed to treat CSA and improve the quality of life (QoL) of these patients. A large randomized clinical study, SERVE-HF, was conducted in order to test this theory in patients with HF and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). The results from this trial seemed to indicate that, in these patients, there was no beneficial effect of the assisted ventilation in CSA treatment. More surprisingly, an increased rate of all-cause or cardiovascular mortality was observed. This has led to dramatic changes in clinical practice, with decreased frequency of servo-ventilation prescription across Europe, including Portugal, due to changes in the guidelines. However, SERVE-HF was conducted only in severe systolic HF patients with CSA, and caution must be taken when extrapolating these results to HF patients with preserved ejection fraction or CSA patients without HF. The study also showed poor adherence, methodological and statistical gaps, including study design, patient selection, data collection and analysis, treatment adherence, and group crossovers, which have not been discussed in the trial as potential confounding factors and raise several concerns. Moreover, the adaptive servo-ventilation (ASV) device used in SERVE-HF was unable to lower the minimum support pressure below 3 mm H0, and this has been suggested as one of the probable contributing reasons to the excess mortality observed in this study. This limitation has since been solved, and this ASV device is no longer used. This paper describes the results of a Portuguese Task Force on the treatment of central sleep apnoea in patients with chronic HF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pulmoe.2021.12.002DOI Listing
April 2022
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