Publications by authors named "M Bishr Omary"

327 Publications

Acitretin mitigates uroporphyrin-induced bone defects in congenital erythropoietic porphyria models.

Sci Rep 2021 May 5;11(1):9601. Epub 2021 May 5.

Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine, Rutgers University, Piscataway, 08854, USA.

Congenital erythropoietic porphyria (CEP) is a rare genetic disorder leading to accumulation of uro/coproporphyrin-I in tissues due to inhibition of uroporphyrinogen-III synthase. Clinical manifestations of CEP include bone fragility, severe photosensitivity and photomutilation. Currently there is no specific treatment for CEP, except bone marrow transplantation, and there is an unmet need for treating this orphan disease. Fluorescent porphyrins cause protein aggregation, which led us to hypothesize that uroporphyrin-I accumulation leads to protein aggregation and CEP-related bone phenotype. We developed a zebrafish model that phenocopies features of CEP. As in human patients, uroporphyrin-I accumulated in the bones of zebrafish, leading to impaired bone development. Furthermore, in an osteoblast-like cell line, uroporphyrin-I decreased mineralization, aggregated bone matrix proteins, activated endoplasmic reticulum stress and disrupted autophagy. Using high-throughput drug screening, we identified acitretin, a second-generation retinoid, and showed that it reduced uroporphyrin-I accumulation and its deleterious effects on bones. Our findings provide a new CEP experimental model and a potential repurposed therapeutic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-88668-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8100164PMC
May 2021

Cell kinetics of auxin transport and activity in Arabidopsis root growth and skewing.

Nat Commun 2021 03 12;12(1):1657. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

School of Plant Sciences and Food Security, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Auxin is a key regulator of plant growth and development. Local auxin biosynthesis and intercellular transport generates regional gradients in the root that are instructive for processes such as specification of developmental zones that maintain root growth and tropic responses. Here we present a toolbox to study auxin-mediated root development that features: (i) the ability to control auxin synthesis with high spatio-temporal resolution and (ii) single-cell nucleus tracking and morphokinetic analysis infrastructure. Integration of these two features enables cutting-edge analysis of root development at single-cell resolution based on morphokinetic parameters under normal growth conditions and during cell-type-specific induction of auxin biosynthesis. We show directional auxin flow in the root and refine the contributions of key players in this process. In addition, we determine the quantitative kinetics of Arabidopsis root meristem skewing, which depends on local auxin gradients but does not require PIN2 and AUX1 auxin transporter activities. Beyond the mechanistic insights into root development, the tools developed here will enable biologists to study kinetics and morphology of various critical processes at the single cell-level in whole organisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-21802-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7954861PMC
March 2021

Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (4th edition).

Autophagy 2021 Jan 8;17(1):1-382. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

University of Crete, School of Medicine, Laboratory of Clinical Microbiology and Microbial Pathogenesis, Voutes, Heraklion, Crete, Greece; Foundation for Research and Technology, Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology (IMBB), Heraklion, Crete, Greece.

In 2008, we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, this topic has received increasing attention, and many scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Thus, it is important to formulate on a regular basis updated guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Despite numerous reviews, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to evaluate autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. Here, we present a set of guidelines for investigators to select and interpret methods to examine autophagy and related processes, and for reviewers to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of reports that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a dogmatic set of rules, because the appropriateness of any assay largely depends on the question being asked and the system being used. Moreover, no individual assay is perfect for every situation, calling for the use of multiple techniques to properly monitor autophagy in each experimental setting. Finally, several core components of the autophagy machinery have been implicated in distinct autophagic processes (canonical and noncanonical autophagy), implying that genetic approaches to block autophagy should rely on targeting two or more autophagy-related genes that ideally participate in distinct steps of the pathway. Along similar lines, because multiple proteins involved in autophagy also regulate other cellular pathways including apoptosis, not all of them can be used as a specific marker for autophagic responses. Here, we critically discuss current methods of assessing autophagy and the information they can, or cannot, provide. Our ultimate goal is to encourage intellectual and technical innovation in the field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15548627.2020.1797280DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7996087PMC
January 2021

The AGA 2020 Year in Review.

Authors:
M Bishr Omary

Gastroenterology 2021 Mar 13;160(4):982-984. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

President, American Gastroenterological Association, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2021.01.022DOI Listing
March 2021