Publications by authors named "M Bamshad"

350 Publications

Comparing encounter-based and annualized chronic pseudomonas infection definitions in cystic fibrosis.

J Cyst Fibros 2021 Aug 12. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA.

Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) infection is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in people with cystic fibrosis (CF). There is no gold standard definition of chronic Pa infection in CF. We compared chronic Pa definitions using encounter-based versus annualized data in the Early Pseudomonas Infection Control (EPIC) Observational study cohort, and subsequently compared annualized chronic Pa definitions across a range of U.S. cohorts spanning decades of CF care. We found that an annualized chronic Pa definition requiring at least 1 Pa+ culture in 3 of 4 consecutive years ("Green 3/4") resulted in chronic Pa metrics similar to established encounter-based modified Leeds criteria definitions, including a similar age at and proportion who fulfilled chronic Pa criteria, and a similar proportion with sustained Pa infection after meeting the chronic Pa definition. The Green 3/4 chronic Pa definition will be valuable for longitudinal analyses in cohorts with limited culture frequency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcf.2021.07.020DOI Listing
August 2021

Exome sequencing of child-parent trios with bladder exstrophy: Findings in 26 children.

Am J Med Genet A 2021 10 5;185(10):3028-3041. Epub 2021 Aug 5.

Division of Intramural Population Health Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

Bladder exstrophy (BE) is a rare, lower ventral midline defect with the bladder and part of the urethra exposed. The etiology of BE is unknown but thought to be influenced by genetic variation with more recent studies suggesting a role for rare variants. As such, we conducted paired-end exome sequencing in 26 child/mother/father trios. Three children had rare (allele frequency ≤ 0.0001 in several public databases) inherited variants in TSPAN4, one with a loss-of-function variant and two with missense variants. Two children had loss-of-function variants in TUBE1. Four children had rare missense or nonsense variants (one per child) in WNT3, CRKL, MYH9, or LZTR1, genes previously associated with BE. We detected 17 de novo missense variants in 13 children and three de novo loss-of-function variants (AKR1C2, PRRX1, PPM1D) in three children (one per child). We also detected rare compound heterozygous loss-of-function variants in PLCH2 and CLEC4M and rare inherited missense or loss-of-function variants in additional genes applying autosomal recessive (three genes) and X-linked recessive inheritance models (13 genes). Variants in two genes identified may implicate disruption in cell migration (TUBE1) and adhesion (TSPAN4) processes, mechanisms proposed for BE, and provide additional evidence for rare variants in the development of this defect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.62439DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8446314PMC
October 2021

The role of CDHR3 in susceptibility to otitis media.

J Mol Med (Berl) 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, School of Medicine, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus (CU-AMC), 12700 E. 19th Ave, Aurora, CO, 80045, USA.

Otitis media (OM) is common in young children and can cause hearing loss and speech, language, and developmental delays. OM has high heritability; however, little is known about OM-related molecular and genetic processes. CDHR3 was previously identified as a locus for OM susceptibility, but to date, studies have focused on how the CDHR3 p.Cys529Tyr variant increases epithelial binding of rhinovirus-C and risk for lung or sinus pathology. In order to further delineate a role for CDHR3 in OM, we performed the following: exome sequencing using DNA samples from OM-affected individuals from 257 multi-ethnic families; Sanger sequencing, logistic regression and transmission disequilibrium tests for 407 US trios or probands with OM; 16S rRNA sequencing and analysis for middle ear and nasopharyngeal samples; and single-cell RNA sequencing and differential expression analyses for mouse middle ear. From exome sequence data, we identified a novel pathogenic CDHR3 splice variant that co-segregates with OM in US and Finnish families. Additionally, a frameshift and six missense rare or low-frequency variants were identified in Finnish probands. In US probands, the CDHR3 p.Cys529Tyr variant was associated with the absence of middle ear fluid at surgery and also with increased relative abundance of Lysobacter in the nasopharynx and Streptomyces in the middle ear. Consistent with published data on airway epithelial cells and our RNA-sequence data from human middle ear tissues, Cdhr3 expression is restricted to ciliated epithelial cells of the middle ear and is downregulated after acute OM. Overall, these findings suggest a critical role for CDHR3 in OM susceptibility. KEY MESSAGES: • Novel rare or low-frequency CDHR3 variants putatively confer risk for otitis media. • Pathogenic variant CDHR3 c.1653 + 3G > A was found in nine families with otitis media. • CDHR3 p.Cys529Tyr was associated with lack of effusion and bacterial otopathogens. • Cdhr3 expression was limited to ciliated epithelial cells in mouse middle ear. • Cdhr3 was downregulated 3 h after infection of mouse middle ear.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00109-021-02118-7DOI Listing
July 2021

Targeted long-read sequencing identifies missing disease-causing variation.

Am J Hum Genet 2021 08 2;108(8):1436-1449. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Genetic Medicine, University of Washington and Seattle Children's Hospital, Seattle, WA 98105, USA; Center for Clinical and Translational Research, Seattle Children's Research Institute, Seattle, WA 98101, USA.

Despite widespread clinical genetic testing, many individuals with suspected genetic conditions lack a precise diagnosis, limiting their opportunity to take advantage of state-of-the-art treatments. In some cases, testing reveals difficult-to-evaluate structural differences, candidate variants that do not fully explain the phenotype, single pathogenic variants in recessive disorders, or no variants in genes of interest. Thus, there is a need for better tools to identify a precise genetic diagnosis in individuals when conventional testing approaches have been exhausted. We performed targeted long-read sequencing (T-LRS) using adaptive sampling on the Oxford Nanopore platform on 40 individuals, 10 of whom lacked a complete molecular diagnosis. We computationally targeted up to 151 Mbp of sequence per individual and searched for pathogenic substitutions, structural variants, and methylation differences using a single data source. We detected all genomic aberrations-including single-nucleotide variants, copy number changes, repeat expansions, and methylation differences-identified by prior clinical testing. In 8/8 individuals with complex structural rearrangements, T-LRS enabled more precise resolution of the mutation, leading to changes in clinical management in one case. In ten individuals with suspected Mendelian conditions lacking a precise genetic diagnosis, T-LRS identified pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants in six and variants of uncertain significance in two others. T-LRS accurately identifies pathogenic structural variants, resolves complex rearrangements, and identifies Mendelian variants not detected by other technologies. T-LRS represents an efficient and cost-effective strategy to evaluate high-priority genes and regions or complex clinical testing results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2021.06.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8387463PMC
August 2021
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