Publications by authors named "M Arfan Ikram"

1,250 Publications

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Association of Insulin Resistance and Type 2 Diabetes With Gut Microbial Diversity: A Microbiome-Wide Analysis From Population Studies.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 Jul 1;4(7):e2118811. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

Importance: Previous studies have indicated that gut microbiome may be associated with development of type 2 diabetes. However, these studies are limited by small sample size and insufficient for confounding. Furthermore, which specific taxa play a role in the development of type 2 diabetes remains unclear.

Objective: To examine associations of gut microbiome composition with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes in a large population-based setting controlling for various sociodemographic and lifestyle factors.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This cross-sectional analysis included 2166 participants from 2 Dutch population-based prospective cohorts: the Rotterdam Study and the LifeLines-DEEP study.

Exposures: The 16S ribosomal RNA method was used to measure microbiome composition in stool samples collected between January 1, 2012, and December 31, 2013. The α diversity (Shannon, richness, and Inverse Simpson indexes), β diversity (Bray-Curtis dissimilarity matrix), and taxa (from domain to genus level) were identified to reflect gut microbiome composition.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Associations among α diversity, β diversity, and taxa with the Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) and with type 2 diabetes were examined. Glucose and insulin were measured to calculate the HOMA-IR. Type 2 diabetes cases were identified based on glucose levels and medical records from January 2012 to December 2013. Analyses were adjusted for technical covariates, lifestyle, sociodemographic, and medical factors. Data analysis was performed from January 1, 2018, to December 31, 2020.

Results: There were 2166 participants in this study: 1418 from the Rotterdam Study (mean [SD] age, 62.4 [5.9] years; 815 [57.5%] male) and 748 from the LifeLines-DEEP study (mean [SD] age, 44.7 [13.4] years; 431 [57.6%] male); from this total, 193 type 2 diabetes cases were identified. Lower microbiome Shannon index and richness were associated with higher HOMA-IR (eg, Shannon index, -0.06; 95% CI, -0.10 to -0.02), and patients with type 2 diabetes had a lower richness than participants without diabetes (odds ratio [OR], 0.93; 95% CI, 0.88-0.99). The β diversity (Bray-Curtis dissimilarity matrix) was associated with insulin resistance (R2 = 0.004, P = .001 in the Rotterdam Study and R2 = 0.005, P = .002 in the LifeLines-DEEP study). A total of 12 groups of bacteria were associated with HOMA-IR or type 2 diabetes. Specifically, a higher abundance of Christensenellaceae (β = -0.08; 95% CI, -0.12 to -0.03: P < .001), Christensenellaceae R7 group (β = -0.07; 95% CI, -0.12 to -0.03; P < .001), Marvinbryantia (β = -0.07; 95% CI, -0.11 to -0.03; P < .001), Ruminococcaceae UCG005 (β = -0.09; 95% CI, -0.13 to -0.05; P < .001), Ruminococcaceae UCG008 (β = -0.07; 95% CI, -0.11 to -0.03; P < .001), Ruminococcaceae UCG010 (β = -0.08; 95% CI, -0.12 to -0.04; P < .001), or Ruminococcaceae NK4A214 group (β = -0.09; 95% CI, -0.13 to -0.05; P < .001) was associated with lower HOMA-IR. A higher abundance of Clostridiaceae 1 (OR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.41-0.65; P < .001), Peptostreptococcaceae (OR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.45-0.70; P < .001), C sensu stricto 1 (OR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.40-0.65; P < .001), Intestinibacter (OR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.48-0.76; P < .001), or Romboutsia (OR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.44-0.70; P < .001) was associated with less type 2 diabetes. These bacteria are all known to produce butyrate.

Conclusions And Relevance: In this cross-sectional study, higher microbiome α diversity, along with more butyrate-producing gut bacteria, was associated with less type 2 diabetes and with lower insulin resistance among individuals without diabetes. These findings could help provide insight into the etiology, pathogenesis, and treatment of type 2 diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.18811DOI Listing
July 2021

Nitrogen and Carbon Nitride-Doped TiO for Multiple Catalysis and Its Antimicrobial Activity.

Nanoscale Res Lett 2021 Jul 26;16(1):119. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Tianjin Institute of Industrial Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Tianjin, 300308, China.

Nitrogen (N) and carbon nitride (CN)-doped TiO nanostructures were prepared using co-precipitation route. Fixed amount of N and various concentrations (0.1, 0.2, 0.3 wt%) of CN were doped in TiO lattice. Through multiple techniques, structural, chemical, optical and morphological properties of samples were thoroughly investigated. XRD results verified anatase TiO presence along the substitutional doping of N, while higher degree of crystallinity as well as increased crystallite size were noticed after doping. HR-TEM study revealed formation of nanostructures incorporated on two dimensional (2D) CN nanosheet surface. Elemental composition was checked out using EDS technique which confirmed the presence of dopant in product. Optical characteristics were evaluated with UV-vis spectroscopy which depicted representative redshift in absorption spectra resulted in a reduction in bandgap energy in N/CN-doped TiO samples. The formation of Ti-O-Ti bonds and different molecular vibrations were disclosed by FTIR. Trap sites and charge carrier's migration in the materials were evaluated with PL spectroscopy. Multiple catalytic activities (photo, sono and photo-sono) were undertaken to evaluate the dye degradation performance of prepared specimen against methylene blue and ciprofloxacin. Further, antimicrobial activity was analyzed against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) bacteria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s11671-021-03573-4DOI Listing
July 2021

Macrolide-associated ototoxicity: a cross-sectional and longitudinal study to assess the association of macrolide use with tinnitus and hearing loss.

J Antimicrob Chemother 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Bioanalysis, Pharmaceutical Care Unit, Ghent University, Ottergemsesteenweg 460, 9000, Ghent, Belgium.

Background: Macrolides are widely prescribed antibiotics for many different indications. However, there are concerns about adverse effects such as ototoxicity.

Objectives: To investigate whether macrolide use is associated with tinnitus and hearing loss in the general population.

Methods: Cross-sectional (n = 4286) and longitudinal (n = 636) analyses were performed within the population-based Rotterdam Study. We investigated with multivariable logistic regression models the association between macrolides and tinnitus, and with multivariable linear regression models the association between macrolides and two different hearing thresholds (both ears, averaged over 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 8 kHz and 2, 4 and 8 kHz). Both regression models were adjusted for age, sex, systolic blood pressure, alcohol, smoking, BMI, diabetes, education level, estimated glomerular filtration rate and other ototoxic or tinnitus-generating drugs. Cumulative exposure to macrolides was categorized according to the number of dispensed DDDs and duration of action.

Results: In the fully adjusted model, ever use of macrolides was associated with a 25% higher likelihood of prevalent tinnitus (OR = 1.25; 95% CI 1.07-1.46). This association was more prominent in participants with a cumulative dose of more than 14 DDDs and among users of intermediate- or long-acting macrolides. Macrolide use in between both assessments was associated with more than a 2-fold increased risk on incident tinnitus. No general association between macrolides and hearing loss was observed. A borderline significant higher hearing threshold in very recent users (≤3 weeks) was found.

Conclusions: Macrolide use was significantly associated with both prevalent and incident tinnitus. Macrolide-associated tinnitus was likely cumulative dose-dependent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkab232DOI Listing
July 2021

Novel Ag/cellulose-doped CeO quantum dots for efficient dye degradation and bactericidal activity with molecular docking study.

Carbohydr Polym 2021 Oct 17;269:118346. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Department of Physics, Riphah Institute of Computing and Applied Sciences (RICAS), Riphah International University, 14 Ali Road, Lahore, Pakistan.

In the present study, the novel Ag/cellulose nanocrystal (CNC)-doped CeO quantum dots (QDs) with highly efficient catalytic performance were synthesized using one pot co-precipitation technique, which were then applied in the degradation of methylene blue and ciprofloxacin (MBCF) in wastewater. Catalytic activity against MBCF dye was significantly reduced (99.3%) for (4%) Ag dopant concentration in acidic medium. For Ag/CNC-doped CeO vast inhibition domain of G-ve was significantly confirmed as (5.25-11.70 mm) and (7.15-13.60 mm), while medium- to high-concentration of CNC levels were calculated for G + ve (0.95 nm, 1.65 mm), respectively. Overall, (4%) Ag/CNC-doped CeO revealed significant antimicrobial activity against G-ve relative to G + ve at both concentrations, respectively. Furthermore, in silico molecular docking studies were performed against selected enzyme targets dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS), and DNA gyrase belonging to folate and nucleic acid biosynthetic pathway, respectively to rationalize possible mechanism behind bactericidal potential of CNC-CeO and Ag/CNC-CeO.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2021.118346DOI Listing
October 2021

Monitoring System-Based Flying IoT in Public Health and Sports Using Ant-Enabled Energy-Aware Routing.

J Healthc Eng 2021 1;2021:1686946. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Information Technology Specialization, FPT University, Hoa Lac High Tech Park, Hanoi, Vietnam.

In recent decades, the Internet of flying networks has made significant progress. Several aerial vehicles communicate with one another to form flying ad hoc networks. Unmanned aerial vehicles perform a wide range of tasks that make life easier for humans. However, due to the high frequency of mobile flying vehicles, network problems such as packet loss, latency, and perhaps disrupted channel links arise, affecting data delivery. The use of UAV-enabled IoT in sports has changed the dynamics of tracking and working on player safety. WBAN can be merged with aerial vehicles to collect data regarding health and transfer it to a base station. Furthermore, the unbalanced energy usage of flying things will result in earlier mission failure and a rapid decline in network lifespan. This study describes the use of each UAV's residual energy level to ensure a high level of safety using an ant-based routing technique called AntHocNet. In health care, the use of IoT-assisted aerial vehicles would increase operational performance, surveillance, and automation optimization to provide a smart application of flying IoT. Apart from that, aerial vehicles can be used in remote communication for treatment, medical equipment distribution, and telementoring. While comparing routing algorithms, simulation findings indicate that the proposed ant-based routing protocol is optimal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/1686946DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8270719PMC
July 2021
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