Publications by authors named "M A Jafer"

27 Publications

Pharmacological Means of Pain Control during Separator Placement: A Systematic Review.

J Contemp Dent Pract 2021 Mar 1;22(3):316-323. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Maxillofacial Surgery and Diagnostic Sciences, Division of Oral Pathology, College of Dentistry, Jazan University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. e-mail:

Aim: To assess the effectiveness of adjuvant analgesics/anesthetics in pain control after separator placement compared with no medication.

Background: Separator placement to create space for cementing bands is the first clinical procedure done in orthodontics. Pain in this stage can negatively affect patient compliance and trust in the clinician. To date, there is no universally accepted regimen for pain control.

Materials And Methods: Electronic databases of PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science were searched. One hundred and thirty-two potentially relevant studies were found. A total of eight randomized clinical trials including 642 subjects were selected. Data were extracted into customized forms, and selected studies were assessed for risk of bias using the Joanna Briggs Institute.

Results: Results showed the use of analgesics led to lower reported pain scores at almost all time intervals. NSAIDs resulted in a statistically significant reduction in pain compared to a control group.

Conclusion: According to the available literature, the use of analgesics is effective in controlling orthodontic pain due to separators. Acetaminophen and ibuprofen show a stable analgesic effect.

Clinical Implication: Acetaminophen 650 mg or ibuprofen 400 mg taken 1 hour prior to separator placement can reduce pain associated with the procedure.
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March 2021

Effect of prosthetic framework material, cantilever length and opposing arch on peri-implant strain in an all-on-four implant prostheses.

Niger J Clin Pract 2021 Jun;24(6):866-873

Department of Prosthodontics and Dental Materials and Dean, School of Dental Medicine, University of Siena, Italy.

Aim: To evaluate the effect of prosthetic framework material and cantilever length on peri-implant strain in mandibular all-on-four implant-supported prostheses with different types of arch antagonist forces.

Materials And Methods: Models simulating a completely edentulous mandibular arch fabricated in heat-cured acrylic resin were used. On the acrylic models, four implants were placed at regions 34, 32, 42, and 44 simulating all-on-four implant placements. Implant-supported screw-retained fixed prosthesis frameworks were fabricated using three different materials (cobalt-chromium, zirconia, and polyetheretherketone) and with three different cantilever lengths (zero mm, 15 mm, and 25 mm). Strain gauges were attached on the model at the buccal and lingual positions of each implant. Forces simulating opposing natural dentition, conventional complete denture, and the parafunctional habit were applied to the models. The peri-implant strain in each strain gauge was recorded.

Results: Least peri-implant strains (67 microstrains) were observed when forces simulating conventional complete dentures were applied on the models and the highest peri-implant strains (9091 microstrains) were observed when forces simulating parafunctional habit were applied. One-way ANOVA test followed by Tukey's post hoc analysis was performed to compare the mean deformation scores between different materials at 50 N load. The level of significance [P-value] was set at P < 0.05. Tests showed significant differences between zero mm and the other types in all the different materials, and also between 1.5 x AP and 2.5 x AP for Zirconia and Peek material at P = 0.02 & P = .008, respectively. The results showed that the type of framework material, cantilever length, and occlusal forces from the opposing arch influence the peri-implant strain in the bone in all-on-four implant-supported prostheses.

Conclusion: Rehabilitation of a single, completely edentulous arch with implant-supported prostheses should consider the situation of the opposing arch. The choice of framework material, as well as the cantilever length, should be altered based on the forces from the opposing arch.
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June 2021

Does Dental Fear in Children Predict Untreated Dental Caries? An Analytical Cross-Sectional Study.

Children (Basel) 2021 May 12;8(5). Epub 2021 May 12.

Division of Dental Public Health, Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, Jazan University, Jazan 45142, Saudi Arabia.

Despite free health care services in Saudi Arabia, the prevalence of caries in children is substantially greater in comparison to other high-income countries. Dental fear in children may be an important issue that needs attention. Therefore, the aim was to investigate the role of dental fear in predicting untreated dental caries in schoolchildren. This analytical cross-sectional study included children aged 8-10 years residing in Saudi Arabia. Dental status via oral examinations was surveyed with the WHO standardized chart and the Children Fear Survey Schedule-Dental Subscale was used to score dental fear. Descriptive, binary, and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to report the findings at 5% statistical significance. Overall, there were 798 schoolchildren with an average fear score of 36. Nearly 70.4% reported fear of someone examining their mouth. About 76.9% had at least one carious tooth in their oral cavity. Children with dental fear were 1.8 times (OR = 1.80; 95% CI = 1.26, 2.56) more likely to have at least one untreated carious tooth in their oral cavity than those who did not express fear during oral examinations and dental procedures. Thus, the current study concludes that fear of dentists and dental treatment procedures successfully predicts untreated carious teeth in schoolchildren.
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May 2021

Third molar impaction in the Jazan Region: Evaluation of the prevalence and clinical presentation.

Saudi Dent J 2021 May 4;33(4):194-200. Epub 2020 Mar 4.

Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, Jazan University, Saudi Arabia.

Objective: To provide information on the prevalence and clinical features of impacted third molar teeth in the South-Western region of Saudi Arabia.

Material And Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 1200 panoramic radiographs (50% males and 50% females) were retrieved from the electronic clinical records of patients at the College of Dentistry, Jazan University from December 2014 to December 2016, and impacted third molars were evaluated. Data on clinical and radiographic presentation were analyzed.

Results: Overall, there were 291 (24.3%) patients with impacted third molars among 1200 radiographs. The distribution of impacted third molars according to the number of impacted teeth was as follows: one impaction in 121 (41.6%); two impactions in 90 (30.9%); three impactions in 42 (14.4%); and four impactions in 38 (13.1%) patients. There was a high prevalence of all impaction types among females (54.5%). Maxillary vertical angulation was most common (50%) followed by mandibular mesioangular angulation (48.3%). The depth of impaction in maxillary teeth was higher than in mandibular teeth. Pain was uncommon (4.5% of patients).

Discussion: Clinically, vertical impaction in the maxilla was present in 50% of patients because of limited posterior space, and mesioangular angulation in the mandible was present in 48% of patients because of inadequate space between the ramus and the second molar. These findings are similar to other reports. Vertical impaction of the maxillary wisdom tooth is mostly related to the discrepancy between the mesiodistal size of the tooth crown and the limited retromolar space.

Conclusion: Noiseless presentation of an impacted third molar requires raising the population's awareness about the need for diagnosis and treatment of the problem to avoid any further complications. The study can be to guide surgical procedures. This study documented the prevalence, pattern, and clinical features of impacted third molars in South Western region of Saudi Arabia.
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May 2021

Determinants of Weight-Related Behaviors in Male Saudi University Students: A Qualitative Approach Using Focus Group Discussions.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 04 1;18(7). Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Health Promotion, NUTRIM School of Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Center+, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Obesity is a serious public health concern in the Gulf States. Students are exposed to many unhealthy weight-related behaviors due to college life. However, research that gives insight into regional and culture-specific aspects and determinants of weight-related behaviors in students is lacking. The purpose of this study was to explore the potential determinants of weight change, eating behaviors, physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and sleep behaviors in Saudi university students. Five semi-structured focus group discussions guided by Social Cognitive Theory were conducted, consisting of 33 male university students 20 to 22 years old. The data were transcribed, coded, and organized according to themes. The students reported weight gain due to personal, social, and environmental factors related to university lifestyle, such as unhealthy eating behaviors, low physical activity, high sedentary behaviors, and inadequate sleep. Both eating behaviors and physical activity shared similar personal aspects found in other studies, such as knowledge, stress, lack of time, and lack of motivation. However, there were some unique social and environmental factors in the region, such as the social norms, cultural aspects, weather conditions, passive transport dependency, and khat consumption, compared with studies worldwide. Such differences are key factors to developing effective interventions in the future.
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April 2021