Publications by authors named "M A Fischer"

4,930 Publications

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Titanocene pnictinidene complexes.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Leibniz-Institut für Katalyse e.V. (LIKAT Rostock), Albert-Einstein-Straße 29a, Rostock 18059, Germany.

The phospha-Wittig reagent MesTerPPMe3 (MesTer = 2,6-{2,4,6-Me3-C6H2}-C6H3) and arsa-Wittig reagent DipTerAsPMe3 (DipTer = 2,6-{2,6-iPr2-C6H3}-C6H3) have been employed to synthesize the titanocene complexes Cp2Ti(PMe3)PnAr (Pn = P, As) with terminal phosphinidene or arsinidene ligands, respectively. Ab initio studies show that the description as singlet biradicaloids in their ground state is warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cc01305jDOI Listing
May 2021

Mitigation of endemic GI-tract pathogen-mediated inflammation through development of multimodal treatment regimen and its impact on SIV acquisition in rhesus macaques.

PLoS Pathog 2021 May 10;17(5):e1009565. Epub 2021 May 10.

Infectious Disease Resource, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Oregon Health and Science University, Beaverton, Oregon, United States of America.

Here, we assessed the efficacy of a short-course multimodal therapy (enrofloxacin, azithromycin, fenbendazole, and paromomycin) to eliminate common macaque endemic pathogens (EPs) and evaluated its impact on gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota, mucosal integrity, and local and systemic inflammation in sixteen clinically healthy macaques. Treatment combined with expanded practices resulted in successful maintenance of rhesus macaques (RM) free of common EPs, with no evidence of overt microbiota diversity loss or dysbiosis and instead resulted in a more defined luminal microbiota across study subjects. Creation of a GI pathogen free (GPF) status resulted in improved colonic mucosal barrier function (histologically, reduced colonic MPO+, and reduced pan-bacterial 16s rRNA in the MLN), reduced local and systemic innate and adaptive inflammation with reduction of colonic Mx1 and pSTAT1, decreased intermediate (CD14+CD16+) and non-classical monocytes (CD14-CD16+), reduced populations of peripheral dendritic cells, Ki-67+ and CD38+ CD4+ T cells, Ki-67+IgG+, and Ki-67+IgD+ B cells indicating lower levels of background inflammation in the distal descending colon, draining mesenteric lymph nodes, and systemically in peripheral blood, spleen, and axillary lymph nodes. A more controlled rate of viral acquisition resulted when untreated and treated macaques were challenged by low dose intrarectal SIVmac239x, with an ~100 fold increase in dose required to infect 50% (AID50) of the animals receiving treatment compared to untreated controls. Reduction in and increased consistency of number of transmitted founder variants resulting from challenge seen in the proof of concept study directly correlated with post-treatment GPF animal's improved barrier function and reduction of key target cell populations (Ki-67+ CD4+T cells) at the site of viral acquisition in the follow up study. These data demonstrate that a therapeutic and operational strategy can successfully eliminate varying background levels of EPs and their associated aberrant immunomodulatory effects within a captive macaque cohort, leading to a more consistent, better defined and reproducible research model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1009565DOI Listing
May 2021

Complete Genome Sequences of Three Clinical Listeria monocytogenes Sequence Type 8 Strains from Recent German Listeriosis Outbreaks.

Microbiol Resour Announc 2021 May 6;10(18). Epub 2021 May 6.

FG11 Division of Enteropathogenic Bacteria and Legionella, German Consultant Laboratory for L. monocytogenes, Robert Koch Institute, Wernigerode, Germany

We report here the closed genome sequences of three clinical strains of multilocus sequence typing (MLST) sequence type 8 (ST8). These strains are representatives of three separate listeriosis outbreak clusters (Alpha1, Pi4, and Sigma1) that affected Germany between 2012 and 2020.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/MRA.00303-21DOI Listing
May 2021

[Correction: Surgical Aspects in Gene Therapy for Inherited Retinal Diseases].

Klin Monbl Augenheilkd 2021 Mar 5;238(3):e1. Epub 2021 May 5.

Augenklinik der LMU, Klinikum der Universität München, Deutschland.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1498-4482DOI Listing
March 2021

Surveillance for West Nile virus disease - United States, 2009-2018.

Am J Transplant 2021 May;21(5):1959-1974

Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, CDC, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Problem/condition: West Nile virus (WNV) is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) in the family Flaviviridae and is the leading cause of domestically acquired arboviral disease in the contiguous United States. An estimated 70%-80% of WNV infections are asymptomatic. Symptomatic persons usually develop an acute systemic febrile illness. Less than 1% of infected persons develop neuroinvasive disease, which typically presents as encephalitis, meningitis, or acute flaccid paralysis.

Reporting Period: 2009-2018.

Description Of System: WNV disease is a nationally notifiable condition with standard surveillance case definitions. State health departments report WNV cases to CDC through ArboNET, an electronic passive surveillance system. Variables collected include patient age, sex, race, ethnicity, county and state of residence, date of illness onset, clinical syndrome, hospitalization, and death.

Results: During 2009-2018, a total of 21 869 confirmed or probable cases of WNV disease, including 12 835 (59%) WNV neuroinvasive disease cases, were reported to CDC from all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. A total of 89% of all WNV patients had illness onset during July-September. Neuroinvasive disease incidence and case-fatalities increased with increasing age, with the highest incidence (1.22 cases per 100 000 population) occurring among persons aged ≥70 years. Among neuroinvasive cases, hospitalization rates were >85% in all age groups but were highest among patients aged ≥70 years (98%). The national incidence of WNV neuroinvasive disease peaked in 2012 (0.92 cases per 100 000 population). Although national incidence was relatively stable during 2013-2018 (average annual incidence: 0.44; range: 0.40-0.51), state level incidence varied from year to year. During 2009-2018, the highest average annual incidence of neuroinvasive disease occurred in North Dakota (3.16 cases per 100 000 population), South Dakota (3.06), Nebraska (1.95), and Mississippi (1.17), and the largest number of total cases occurred in California (2819), Texas (2043), Illinois (728), and Arizona (632). Six counties located within the four states with the highest case counts accounted for 23% of all neuroinvasive disease cases nationally.

Interpretation: Despite the recent stability in annual national incidence of neuroinvasive disease, peaks in activity were reported in different years for different regions of the country. Variations in vectors, avian amplifying hosts, human activity, and environmental factors make it difficult to predict future WNV disease incidence and outbreak locations.

Public Health Action: WNV disease surveillance is important for detecting and monitoring seasonal epidemics and for identifying persons at increased risk for severe disease. Surveillance data can be used to inform prevention and control activities. Health care providers should consider WNV infection in the differential diagnosis of aseptic meningitis and encephalitis, obtain appropriate specimens for testing, and promptly report cases to public health authorities. Public health education programs should focus prevention messaging on older persons because they are at increased risk for severe neurologic disease and death. In the absence of a human vaccine, WNV disease prevention depends on community-level mosquito control and household and personal protective measures. Understanding the geographic distribution of cases, particularly at the county level, appears to provide the best opportunity for directing finite resources toward effective prevention and control activities. Additional work to further develop and improve predictive models that can foreshadow areas most likely to be impacted in a given year by WNV outbreaks could allow for proactive targeting of interventions and ultimately lowering of WNV disease morbidity and mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ajt.16595DOI Listing
May 2021