Publications by authors named "Mélanie Revaz-Breton"

8 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

IL-4-producing B cells regulate T helper cell dichotomy in type 1- and type 2-controlled diseases.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2017 10 15;114(40):E8430-E8439. Epub 2017 Sep 15.

Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine (IDM), Division of Immunology and South African Medical Research Council (SAMRC), Immunology of Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town 7925, South Africa;

Interleukin-4 (IL-4)-induced T helper (Th) 2 cells promote susceptibility to the protozoan parasite , while conferring immunity to the intestinal trematode Here, we report that abrogation of IL-4 receptor alpha (IL-4Rα) signaling on B cells in BALB/c mice (IL-4Rα) transformed nonhealer BALB/c to a healer phenotype with an early type 1 and dramatically reduced type 2 immune response and an absence of ulceration and necrosis during cutaneous leishmaniasis. From adoptive reconstitution and mixed bone-marrow chimera studies in B cell-deficient (µMT) mice, we reveal a central role for B cell-derived IL-4 and IL-4Rα in the optimal induction of the susceptible type 2 phenotype to infection. We further demonstrate that the absence of IL-4Rα signaling on B cells exacerbated -induced mortality and pathology in BALB/c mice, due to a diminished type 2 immune response. In both disease models, IL-4Rα-responsive B cells displayed increased IL-4 production as early as day 1 after infection. Together, these results demonstrate that IL-4-producing and IL-4Rα-responsive B cells are critical in regulating and assisting early T helper dichotomy toward Th2 responses, which are detrimental in cutaneous leishmaniasis but beneficial in acute schistosomiasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1708125114DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5635893PMC
October 2017

MyD88 and TLR9 dependent immune responses mediate resistance to Leishmania guyanensis infections, irrespective of Leishmania RNA virus burden.

PLoS One 2014 6;9(5):e96766. Epub 2014 May 6.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Lausanne, Epalinges, Switzerland; Department of Biochemistry, World Health Organization Immunology Research and Training center (WHO-IRTC), Epalinges, Switzerland.

Infections with Leishmania parasites of the Leishmania Viannia subgenus give rise to both localized cutaneous (CL), and metastatic leishmaniasis. Metastasizing disease forms including disseminated (DCL) and mutocutaneous (MCL) leishmaniasis result from parasitic dissemination and lesion formation at sites distal to infection and have increased inflammatory responses. The presence of Leishmania RNA virus (LRV) in L. guyanensis parasites contributes to the exacerbation of disease and impacts inflammatory responses via activation of TLR3 by the viral dsRNA. In this study we investigated other innate immune response adaptor protein modulators and demonstrated that both MyD88 and TLR9 played a crucial role in the development of Th1-dependent healing responses against L. guyanensis parasites regardless of their LRV status. The absence of MyD88- or TLR9-dependent signaling pathways resulted in increased Th2 associated cytokines (IL-4 and IL-13), which was correlated with low transcript levels of IL-12p40. The reliance of IL-12 was further confirmed in IL12AB-/- mice, which were completely susceptible to infection. Protection to L. guyanensis infection driven by MyD88- and TLR9-dependent immune responses arises independently to those induced due to high LRV burden within the parasites.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0096766PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4011865PMC
June 2015

Deletion of IL-4 receptor alpha on dendritic cells renders BALB/c mice hypersusceptible to Leishmania major infection.

PLoS Pathog 2013 Oct 24;9(10):e1003699. Epub 2013 Oct 24.

International Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (ICGEB), Cape Town Component and Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine (IIDMM), Division of Immunology, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.

In BALB/c mice, susceptibility to infection with the intracellular parasite Leishmania major is driven largely by the development of T helper 2 (Th2) responses and the production of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13, which share a common receptor subunit, the IL-4 receptor alpha chain (IL-4Rα). While IL-4 is the main inducer of Th2 responses, paradoxically, it has been shown that exogenously administered IL-4 can promote dendritic cell (DC) IL-12 production and enhance Th1 development if given early during infection. To further investigate the relevance of biological quantities of IL-4 acting on DCs during in vivo infection, DC specific IL-4Rα deficient (CD11c(cre)IL-4Rα(-/lox)) BALB/c mice were generated by gene targeting and site-specific recombination using the cre/loxP system under control of the cd11c locus. DNA, protein, and functional characterization showed abrogated IL-4Rα expression on dendritic cells and alveolar macrophages in CD11c(cre)IL-4Rα(-/lox) mice. Following infection with L. major, CD11c(cre)IL-4Rα(-/lox) mice became hypersusceptible to disease, presenting earlier and increased footpad swelling, necrosis and parasite burdens, upregulated Th2 cytokine responses and increased type 2 antibody production as well as impaired classical activation of macrophages. Hypersusceptibility in CD11c(cre)IL-4Rα(-/lox) mice was accompanied by a striking increase in parasite burdens in peripheral organs such as the spleen, liver, and even the brain. DCs showed increased parasite loads in CD11c(cre)IL-4Rα(-/lox) mice and reduced iNOS production. IL-4Rα-deficient DCs produced reduced IL-12 but increased IL-10 due to impaired DC instruction, with increased mRNA expression of IL-23p19 and activin A, cytokines previously implicated in promoting Th2 responses. Together, these data demonstrate that abrogation of IL-4Rα signaling on DCs is severely detrimental to the host, leading to rapid disease progression, and increased survival of parasites in infected DCs due to reduced killing effector functions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003699DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3812013PMC
October 2013

Leishmania RNA virus controls the severity of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis.

Science 2011 Feb;331(6018):775-8

Department of Biochemistry, University of Lausanne, 1066 Epalinges, Switzerland.

Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis is caused by infections with intracellular parasites of the Leishmania Viannia subgenus, including Leishmania guyanensis. The pathology develops after parasite dissemination to nasopharyngeal tissues, where destructive metastatic lesions form with chronic inflammation. Currently, the mechanisms involved in lesion development are poorly understood. Here we show that metastasizing parasites have a high Leishmania RNA virus-1 (LRV1) burden that is recognized by the host Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) to induce proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Paradoxically, these TLR3-mediated immune responses rendered mice more susceptible to infection, and the animals developed an increased footpad swelling and parasitemia. Thus, LRV1 in the metastasizing parasites subverted the host immune response to Leishmania and promoted parasite persistence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1199326DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3253482PMC
February 2011

PKCδ regulates IL-12p40/p70 production by macrophages and dendritic cells, driving a type 1 healer phenotype in cutaneous leishmaniasis.

Eur J Immunol 2011 Mar 1;41(3):706-15. Epub 2011 Feb 1.

International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (ICGEB) and Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine (IIDMM), Division of Immunology, Health Science Faculty, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.

The protein kinase C (PKC) family is involved in the regulation of many intracellular signalling pathways. Here, we report that the PKCδ isoform regulates IL-12p40/p70 production in macrophages and DC and that PKCδ deficiency in mice transforms the 129/Sv healer to a non-healer strain during cutaneous leishmaniasis. Leishmania major-infected PKCδ(-/-) 129/Sv mice developed a rapid increase in footpad swelling and parasite burden with disease progression, leading to necrosis and ulceration similar to non-healer BALB/c mice. Moreover, PKCδ(-/-) mice failed to develop delayed-type hypersensitivity responses against Leishmania antigen. PKCδ(-/-) macrophages were fully functional with normal MHC class II surface expression and GM-CSF production, recruitment to the draining lymph node and killing effector functions by NO production. In contrast, macrophages and DC produced significantly reduced IL-12p40 and IL-12p70 compared to the WT cells. Decreased IL-12 production resulted in diminished Th1 differentiation, as determined by a striking reduction in IFN-γ by antigen-specific stimulated CD4(+) T cells isolated from popliteal lymph nodes of L. major-infected PKCδ(-/-) mice, explaining the "non-healer" phenotype. We conclude from these data that PKCδ is a regulator of IL-12p40/p70 production by DC and macrophages, driving the healer phenotype during cutaneous leishmaniasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/eji.201040985DOI Listing
March 2011

The MyD88 protein 88 pathway is differently involved in immune responses induced by distinct substrains of Leishmania major.

Eur J Immunol 2010 Jun;40(6):1697-707

WHO-IRTC, Epalinges, Switzerland.

Host resistance to Leishmania major is highly dependent on the development of a Th1 immune response. The TLR adaptator myeloid differentiation protein 88 (MyD88) has been implicated in the Th1 immune response associated with the resistant phenotype observed in C57BL/6 mice after infection with L. major. To investigate whether the MyD88 pathway is differentially used by distinct substrains of parasites, MyD88(-/-) C57BL/6 mice were infected with two substrains of L. major, namely L. major LV39 and L. major IR75. MyD88(-/-) mice were susceptible to both substrains of L. major, although with different kinetics of infection. The mechanisms involved during the immune response associated with susceptibility of MyD88(-/-) mice to L. major is however, parasite substrain-dependent. Susceptibility of MyD88(-/-) mice infected with L. major IR75 is a consequence of Th2 immune-deviation, whereas susceptibility of MyD88(-/-) mice to infection with L. major LV39 resulted from an impaired Th1 response. Depletion of regulatory T cells (Treg) partially restored IFN-gamma secretion and the Th1 immune response in MyD88(-/-) mice infected with L. major LV39, demonstrating a role of Treg activity in the development of an impaired Th1 response in these mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/eji.200939821DOI Listing
June 2010

Regulatory B cells shape the development of Th2 immune responses in BALB/c mice infected with Leishmania major through IL-10 production.

J Immunol 2010 Jan 4;184(2):886-94. Epub 2009 Dec 4.

World Health Organization Immunology Research and Training Center, University of Lausanne, Epalinges, Switzerland.

Recent evidence indicates that B cells are required for susceptibility to infection with Leishmania major in BALB/c mice. In this study, we analyzed the role of the IL-10 produced by B cells in this process. We showed that B cells purified from the spleen of BALB/c mice produced IL-10 in response to stimulation with L. major in vitro. In vivo, early IL-10 mRNA expression is detected after L. major infection in B cells from draining lymph nodes of susceptible BALB/c, but not of resistant C57BL/6 mice. Although adoptive transfer of naive wild-type B cells prior to infection in B cell-deficient BALB/c mice restored Th2 cell development and susceptibility to infection with L. major of these otherwise resistant mice, adoptive transfer of IL-10(-/-) B cells mice did not. B cells stimulated by L. major, following in vitro or in vivo encounter, express the CD1d and CD5 molecules and the IL-10 produced by these cells downregulate IL-12 production by L. major-stimulated dendritic cells. These observations indicate that IL-10 secreting B cells are phenotypically and functionally regulatory B cells. Altogether these results demonstrate that the IL-10 produced by regulatory CD1d+ CD5+ B cells in response to L. major is critical for Th2 cell development in BALB/c mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.0901114DOI Listing
January 2010

Leishmania major-specific B cells are necessary for Th2 cell development and susceptibility to L. major LV39 in BALB/c mice.

J Immunol 2008 Apr;180(7):4825-35

World Health Organization-Immunology Research and Training Centre, University of Lausanne, Epalinges, Switzerland.

B lymphocytes are considered to play a minimal role in host defense against Leishmania major. In this study, the contribution of B cells to susceptibility to infection with different strains of L. major was investigated in BALB/c mice lacking mature B cells due to the disruption of the IgM transmembrane domain (microMT). Whereas BALB/c microMT remained susceptible to infection with L. major IR173 and IR75, they were partially resistant to infection with L. major LV39. Adoptive transfer of naive B cells into BALB/c microMT mice before infection restored susceptibility to infection with L. major LV39, demonstrating a role for B cells in susceptibility to infection with this parasite. In contrast, adoptive transfer of B cells that express an IgM/IgD specific for hen egg lysozyme (HEL), an irrelevant Ag, did not restore disease progression in BALB/c microMT mice infected with L. major LV39. This finding was likely due to the inability of HEL Tg B cells to internalize and present Leishmania Ags to specific T cells. Furthermore, specific Ig did not contribute to disease progression as assessed by transfer of immune serum in BALB/c microMT mice. These data suggest that direct Ag presentation by specific B cells and not Ig effector functions is involved in susceptibility of BALB/c mice to infection with L. major LV39.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.180.7.4825DOI Listing
April 2008