Publications by authors named "Mélanie Migaud"

39 Publications

Human gut mycobiota tune immunity via CARD9-dependent induction of anti-fungal IgG antibodies.

Cell 2021 Feb 5;184(4):1017-1031.e14. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Gastroenterology and Hepatology Division, Joan and Sanford I. Weill Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY 10021, USA; The Jill Roberts Institute for Research in Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY 10021, USA; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY 10065, USA; Immunology and Microbial Pathogenesis Program, Weill Cornell Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Weill Cornell Medicine, Cornell University, New York, NY 10065, USA. Electronic address:

Antibodies mediate natural and vaccine-induced immunity against viral and bacterial pathogens, whereas fungi represent a widespread kingdom of pathogenic species for which neither vaccine nor neutralizing antibody therapies are clinically available. Here, using a multi-kingdom antibody profiling (multiKAP) approach, we explore the human antibody repertoires against gut commensal fungi (mycobiota). We identify species preferentially targeted by systemic antibodies in humans, with Candida albicans being the major inducer of antifungal immunoglobulin G (IgG). Fungal colonization of the gut induces germinal center (GC)-dependent B cell expansion in extraintestinal lymphoid tissues and generates systemic antibodies that confer protection against disseminated C. albicans or C. auris infection. Antifungal IgG production depends on the innate immunity regulator CARD9 and CARD9CX3CR1 macrophages. In individuals with invasive candidiasis, loss-of-function mutations in CARD9 are associated with impaired antifungal IgG responses. These results reveal an important role of gut commensal fungi in shaping the human antibody repertoire through CARD9-dependent induction of host-protective antifungal IgG.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2021.01.016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7936855PMC
February 2021

Pediatric Demodicosis Associated with Gain-of-Function Variant in STAT1 Presenting as Rosacea-Type Rash.

J Clin Immunol 2021 Apr 6;41(3):698-700. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Laboratory of Clinical Immunology, Inflammation and Allergy, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy of Casablanca, Hassan II University, Casablanca, Morocco.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10875-020-00942-zDOI Listing
April 2021

Autoantibodies against type I IFNs in patients with life-threatening COVID-19.

Authors:
Paul Bastard Lindsey B Rosen Qian Zhang Eleftherios Michailidis Hans-Heinrich Hoffmann Yu Zhang Karim Dorgham Quentin Philippot Jérémie Rosain Vivien Béziat Jérémy Manry Elana Shaw Liis Haljasmägi Pärt Peterson Lazaro Lorenzo Lucy Bizien Sophie Trouillet-Assant Kerry Dobbs Adriana Almeida de Jesus Alexandre Belot Anne Kallaste Emilie Catherinot Yacine Tandjaoui-Lambiotte Jeremie Le Pen Gaspard Kerner Benedetta Bigio Yoann Seeleuthner Rui Yang Alexandre Bolze András N Spaan Ottavia M Delmonte Michael S Abers Alessandro Aiuti Giorgio Casari Vito Lampasona Lorenzo Piemonti Fabio Ciceri Kaya Bilguvar Richard P Lifton Marc Vasse David M Smadja Mélanie Migaud Jérome Hadjadj Benjamin Terrier Darragh Duffy Lluis Quintana-Murci Diederik van de Beek Lucie Roussel Donald C Vinh Stuart G Tangye Filomeen Haerynck David Dalmau Javier Martinez-Picado Petter Brodin Michel C Nussenzweig Stéphanie Boisson-Dupuis Carlos Rodríguez-Gallego Guillaume Vogt Trine H Mogensen Andrew J Oler Jingwen Gu Peter D Burbelo Jeffrey I Cohen Andrea Biondi Laura Rachele Bettini Mariella D'Angio Paolo Bonfanti Patrick Rossignol Julien Mayaux Frédéric Rieux-Laucat Eystein S Husebye Francesca Fusco Matilde Valeria Ursini Luisa Imberti Alessandra Sottini Simone Paghera Eugenia Quiros-Roldan Camillo Rossi Riccardo Castagnoli Daniela Montagna Amelia Licari Gian Luigi Marseglia Xavier Duval Jade Ghosn John S Tsang Raphaela Goldbach-Mansky Kai Kisand Michail S Lionakis Anne Puel Shen-Ying Zhang Steven M Holland Guy Gorochov Emmanuelle Jouanguy Charles M Rice Aurélie Cobat Luigi D Notarangelo Laurent Abel Helen C Su Jean-Laurent Casanova

Science 2020 10 24;370(6515). Epub 2020 Sep 24.

Laboratory of Human Genetics of Infectious Diseases, Necker Branch, INSERM U1163, Necker Hospital for Sick Children, Paris, France.

Interindividual clinical variability in the course of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is vast. We report that at least 101 of 987 patients with life-threatening coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia had neutralizing immunoglobulin G (IgG) autoantibodies (auto-Abs) against interferon-ω (IFN-ω) (13 patients), against the 13 types of IFN-α (36), or against both (52) at the onset of critical disease; a few also had auto-Abs against the other three type I IFNs. The auto-Abs neutralize the ability of the corresponding type I IFNs to block SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro. These auto-Abs were not found in 663 individuals with asymptomatic or mild SARS-CoV-2 infection and were present in only 4 of 1227 healthy individuals. Patients with auto-Abs were aged 25 to 87 years and 95 of the 101 were men. A B cell autoimmune phenocopy of inborn errors of type I IFN immunity accounts for life-threatening COVID-19 pneumonia in at least 2.6% of women and 12.5% of men.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.abd4585DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7857397PMC
October 2020

Three Copies of Four Interferon Receptor Genes Underlie a Mild Type I Interferonopathy in Down Syndrome.

J Clin Immunol 2020 08 22;40(6):807-819. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Laboratory of Human Genetics of Infectious Diseases, Necker Branch, INSERM U1163, Imagine Institute, Necker Hospital for Sick Children, Paris, France.

Down syndrome (DS) is characterized by the occurrence of three copies of human chromosome 21 (HSA21). HSA21 contains a cluster of four interferon receptor (IFN-R) genes: IFNAR1, IFNAR2, IFNGR2, and IL10RB. DS patients often develop mucocutaneous infections and autoimmune diseases, mimicking patients with heterozygous gain-of-function (GOF) STAT1 mutations, which enhance cellular responses to three types of interferon (IFN). A gene dosage effect at these four loci may contribute to the infectious and autoimmune manifestations observed in individuals with DS. We report high levels of IFN-αR1, IFN-αR2, and IFN-γR2 expression on the surface of monocytes and EBV-transformed-B (EBV-B) cells from studying 45 DS patients. Total and phosphorylated STAT1 (STAT1 and pSTAT1) levels were constitutively high in unstimulated and IFN-α- and IFN-γ-stimulated monocytes from DS patients but lower than those in patients with GOF STAT1 mutations. Following stimulation with IFN-α or -γ, but not with IL-6 or IL-21, pSTAT1 and IFN-γ activation factor (GAF) DNA-binding activities were significantly higher in the EBV-B cells of DS patients than in controls. These responses resemble the dysregulated responses observed in patients with STAT1 GOF mutations. Concentrations of plasma type I IFNs were high in 12% of the DS patients tested (1.8% in the healthy controls). Levels of type I IFNs, IFN-Rs, and STAT1 were similar in DS patients with and without recurrent skin infections. We performed a genome-wide transcriptomic analysis based on principal component analysis and interferon modules on circulating monocytes. We found that DS monocytes had levels of both IFN-α- and IFN-γ-inducible ISGs intermediate to those of monocytes from healthy controls and from patients with GOF STAT1 mutations. Unlike patients with GOF STAT1 mutations, patients with DS had normal circulating Th17 counts and a high proportion of terminally differentiated CD8 T cells with low levels of STAT1 expression. We conclude a mild interferonopathy in Down syndrome leads to an incomplete penetrance at both cellular and clinical level, which is not correlate with recurrent skin bacterial or fungal infections. The constitutive upregulation of type I and type II IFN-R, at least in monocytes of DS patients, may contribute to the autoimmune diseases observed in these individuals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10875-020-00803-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7418179PMC
August 2020

Functional analysis of two STAT1 gain-of-function mutations in two Iranian families with autosomal dominant chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis.

Med Mycol 2021 Feb;59(2):180-188

Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Candidiasis is characterized by susceptibility to recurrent or persistent infections caused by Candida spp., typically Candida albicans, of cutaneous and mucosal surfaces. In this report, function and frequency of Th17 cells as well as genetics of patients susceptible to mucocutaneous candidiasis were studied. For patients, T-cell proliferation tests in response to Candida antigen, Th17 cell proportions, and STAT1 phosphorylation were evaluated through flow cytometry. Expression of IL17A, IL17F and IL22 genes were measured by real-time quantitative PCR. At the same time, whole exome sequencing was performed for all patients. We identified two heterozygous substitutions, one: c.821G > A (p. R274Q) was found in a multiplex family with three individuals affected, the second one: c.812A > C (p. Q271P) was found in a sporadic case. Both mutations are located in the coiled-coil domain (CCD) of STAT1. The frequency of Th17 cells, IL17A, IL17F, and IL22 gene expression in patients' peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and T-cell proliferation to Candida antigens were significantly reduced in the patients as compared to healthy controls. An increased STAT1 phosphorylation was observed in patients' PBMCs upon interferon (IFN)-γ stimulation as compared to healthy controls. We report two different but neighboring heterozygous mutations, located in exon 10 of the STAT1 gene, in four Iranian patients with CMC, one of whom also had hypothyroidism. These mutations were associated with impaired T cell proliferation to Candida antigen, low Th17 cell proportions, and increased STAT1 phosphorylation upon IFN-γ. We suggest that interfering with STAT1 phosphorylation might be a promising way for potential therapeutic measurements for such patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/mmy/myaa043DOI Listing
February 2021

Dominant-negative mutations in human IL6ST underlie hyper-IgE syndrome.

J Exp Med 2020 06;217(6)

Laboratory of Human Genetics of Infectious Diseases, Necker Branch, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM) U1163, Paris, France.

Autosomal dominant hyper-IgE syndrome (AD-HIES) is typically caused by dominant-negative (DN) STAT3 mutations. Patients suffer from cold staphylococcal lesions and mucocutaneous candidiasis, severe allergy, and skeletal abnormalities. We report 12 patients from 8 unrelated kindreds with AD-HIES due to DN IL6ST mutations. We identified seven different truncating mutations, one of which was recurrent. The mutant alleles encode GP130 receptors bearing the transmembrane domain but lacking both the recycling motif and all four STAT3-recruiting tyrosine residues. Upon overexpression, the mutant proteins accumulate at the cell surface and are loss of function and DN for cellular responses to IL-6, IL-11, LIF, and OSM. Moreover, the patients' heterozygous leukocytes and fibroblasts respond poorly to IL-6 and IL-11. Consistently, patients with STAT3 and IL6ST mutations display infectious and allergic manifestations of IL-6R deficiency, and some of the skeletal abnormalities of IL-11R deficiency. DN STAT3 and IL6ST mutations thus appear to underlie clinical phenocopies through impairment of the IL-6 and IL-11 response pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1084/jem.20191804DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7971136PMC
June 2020

Inherited CARD9 Deficiency in a Patient with Both Exophiala spinifera and Aspergillus nomius Severe Infections.

J Clin Immunol 2020 02 15;40(2):359-366. Epub 2020 Jan 15.

Mycology Unit of the Infectious Diseases Hospital F.J. Muñiz, Reference Center of Mycology of Buenos Aires City, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Purpose: Caspase-associated recruitment domain-9 (CARD9) deficiency is an inborn error of immunity that typically predisposes otherwise healthy patients to single fungal infections and the occurrence of multiple invasive fungal infections is rare. It has been described as the first known condition that predisposes to extrapulmonary Aspergillus infection with preserved lungs. We present a patient that expands the clinical variability of CARD9 deficiency.

Materials And Methods: Genetic analysis was performed by Sanger sequencing. Neutrophils and mononuclear phagocyte response to fungal stimulation were evaluated through luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence and whole blood production of the proinflammatory mediator interleukin (IL)-6, respectively.

Results: We report a 56-year-old Argentinean woman, whose invasive Exophiala spinifera infection at the age of 32 years was unexplained and reported in year 2004. At the age of 49 years, she presented with chronic pulmonary disease due to Aspergillus nomius. After partial improvement following treatment with caspofungin and posaconazole, right pulmonary bilobectomy was performed. Despite administration of multiple courses of antifungals, sustained clinical remission could not be achieved. We recently found that the patient's blood showed an impaired production of IL-6 when stimulated with zymosan. We also found that she is homozygous for a previously reported CARD9 loss-of-function mutation (Q289*).

Conclusions: This is the first report of a patient with inherited CARD9 deficiency and chronic invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) due to A. nomius. Inherited CARD9 deficiency should be considered in otherwise healthy children and adults with one or more invasive fungal diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10875-019-00740-2DOI Listing
February 2020

Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis and connective tissue disorder in humans with impaired JNK1-dependent responses to IL-17A/F and TGF-β.

Sci Immunol 2019 11;4(41)

St. Giles Laboratory of Human Genetics of Infectious Diseases, Rockefeller Branch, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10065, USA.

Genetic etiologies of chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) disrupt human IL-17A/F-dependent immunity at mucosal surfaces, whereas those of connective tissue disorders (CTDs) often impair the TGF-β-dependent homeostasis of connective tissues. The signaling pathways involved are incompletely understood. We report a three-generation family with an autosomal dominant (AD) combination of CMC and a previously undescribed form of CTD that clinically overlaps with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS). The patients are heterozygous for a private splice-site variant of , the gene encoding c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1), a component of the MAPK signaling pathway. This variant is loss-of-expression and loss-of-function in the patients' fibroblasts, which display AD JNK1 deficiency by haploinsufficiency. These cells have impaired, but not abolished, responses to IL-17A and IL-17F. Moreover, the development of the patients' T17 cells was impaired ex vivo and in vitro, probably due to the involvement of JNK1 in the TGF-β-responsive pathway and further accounting for the patients' CMC. Consistently, the patients' fibroblasts displayed impaired JNK1- and c-Jun/ATF-2-dependent induction of key extracellular matrix (ECM) components and regulators, but not of EDS-causing gene products, in response to TGF-β. Furthermore, they displayed a transcriptional pattern in response to TGF-β different from that of fibroblasts from patients with Loeys-Dietz syndrome caused by mutations of or , further accounting for the patients' complex and unusual CTD phenotype. This experiment of nature indicates that the integrity of the human JNK1-dependent MAPK signaling pathway is essential for IL-17A- and IL-17F-dependent mucocutaneous immunity to and for the TGF-β-dependent homeostasis of connective tissues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciimmunol.aax7965DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7014825PMC
November 2019

Delay in the Diagnosis of APECED: A Case Report and Review of Literature from Iran.

Immunol Invest 2020 Apr 7;49(3):299-306. Epub 2019 Oct 7.

Clinical Tuberculosis and Epidemiology Research Centre, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy candidiasis ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) syndrome is a rare monogenic autosomal recessive disorder caused by biallelic mutations in the (autoimmune regulator) gene. Patients with APECED present with heterogeneous endocrine and non-endocrine manifestations. In this study, we report an Iranian patient who presented with Addison disease, chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, alopecia totalis, keratopathy and asplenia treated as an isolated endocrinopathy for 25 years. In the adulthood, the diagnosis of APECED was made by genetic analysis which demonstrated homozygous nonsense p.R257* (c.769C>T) mutation of AIRE. APECED has been shown to be frequent in some ethnicities including Iranian Jews. Therefore, we reviewed 39 Iranian APECED patients published in the literature. We found that most of the Iranian patients were of Jewish ethnic background and presented hypoparathyroidism, adrenal insufficiency, and candidiasis as the main clinical manifestation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08820139.2019.1671451DOI Listing
April 2020

Deficiency of Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist: A Case with Late Onset Severe Inflammatory Arthritis, Nail Psoriasis with Onychomycosis and Well Responsive to Adalimumab Therapy.

Case Reports Immunol 2019 4;2019:1902817. Epub 2019 Aug 4.

Ege University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatric Immunology and Rheumatology, Izmir, Turkey.

DIRA (deficiency of the IL-1Ra) is a rare condition that usually presents in the neonatal period. Patients with DIRA present with systemic inflammation, respiratory distress, joint swelling, pustular rash, multifocal osteomyelitis, and periostitis. Previously, we reported a patient with a novel mutation in with a healthy neonatal period, a late-onset of pustular dermatosis, inflammatory arthritis, and excellent response to canakinumab treatment. Herein, we are presenting a new case of late-onset DIRA syndrome, carrying a different mutation and showing different clinical findings. This patient is the first one in the literature with the inflammatory arthritis, nail psoriasis, and onychomycosis and with her remarkable response to monoclonal antibodies. The case responded well and fully recovered after treatment with adalimumab, but not with canakinumab. The DIRA disease can lead to death from multiple organ failures and if recognized early, the treatment with replacement of the deficient protein with biologic agents induces rapid and complete remission. Therefore, clinical symptoms should be learned exactly by the pediatricians, pediatric rheumatologists, and immunologists; and molecular analysis targeting this defect must be performed as early as possible.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/1902817DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6699325PMC
August 2019

Human IFN-γ immunity to mycobacteria is governed by both IL-12 and IL-23.

Sci Immunol 2018 12;3(30)

St. Giles Laboratory of Human Genetics of Infectious Diseases, Rockefeller Branch, Rockefeller University, New York, NY, USA.

Hundreds of patients with autosomal recessive, complete IL-12p40 or IL-12Rβ1 deficiency have been diagnosed over the last 20 years. They typically suffer from invasive mycobacteriosis and, occasionally, from mucocutaneous candidiasis. Susceptibility to these infections is thought to be due to impairments of IL-12-dependent IFN-γ immunity and IL-23-dependent IL-17A/IL-17F immunity, respectively. We report here patients with autosomal recessive, complete IL-12Rβ2 or IL-23R deficiency, lacking responses to IL-12 or IL-23 only, all of whom, unexpectedly, display mycobacteriosis without candidiasis. We show that αβ T, γδ T, B, NK, ILC1, and ILC2 cells from healthy donors preferentially produce IFN-γ in response to IL-12, whereas NKT cells and MAIT cells preferentially produce IFN-γ in response to IL-23. We also show that the development of IFN-γ-producing CD4 T cells, including, in particular, mycobacterium-specific T1* cells (CD45RACCR6), is dependent on both IL-12 and IL-23. Last, we show that , , and have similar frequencies of deleterious variants in the general population. The comparative rarity of symptomatic patients with IL-12Rβ2 or IL-23R deficiency, relative to IL-12Rβ1 deficiency, is, therefore, due to lower clinical penetrance. There are fewer symptomatic IL-23R- and IL-12Rβ2-deficient than IL-12Rβ1-deficient patients, not because these genetic disorders are rarer, but because the isolated absence of IL-12 or IL-23 is, in part, compensated by the other cytokine for the production of IFN-γ, thereby providing some protection against mycobacteria. These experiments of nature show that human IL-12 and IL-23 are both required for optimal IFN-γ-dependent immunity to mycobacteria, both individually and much more so cooperatively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciimmunol.aau6759DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6380365PMC
December 2018

A Founder Mutation Disrupts NF-κB Signaling by Inhibiting BCL10 and MALT1 Recruitment and Signalosome Formation.

Front Immunol 2018 31;9:2366. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Primary Immunodeficiency Research Lab, Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Centre for Primary Immunodeficiencies, Jeffrey Modell Diagnosis and Research Centre, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium.

Inherited CARD9 deficiency constitutes a primary immunodeficiency predisposing uniquely to chronic and invasive fungal infections. Certain mutations are shown to negatively impact CARD9 protein expression and/or NF-κB activation, but the underlying biochemical mechanism remains to be fully understood. To investigate a possible founder origin of a known CARD9 R70W mutation in five families of Turkish origin. To explore the biochemical mechanism of immunodeficiency by R70W CARD9. We performed haplotype analysis using microsatellite markers and SNPs. We designed a model system exploiting a gain-of-function (GOF) CARD9 L213LI mutant that triggers constitutive NF-κB activation, analogous to an oncogenic CARD11 mutant, to study NF-κB signaling and signalosome formation. We performed reporter assays, immunoprecipitation and confocal imaging on HEK cells overexpressing different CARD9 variants. We identified a common haplotype, thus providing evidence for a common Turkish founder. CARD9 R70W failed to activate NF-κB and abrogated NF-κB activation by WT CARD9 and by GOF CARD9. Notably, R70W CARD9 also exerted negative effects on NF-κB activation by CARD10, CARD11, and CARD14. Consistent with the NF-κB results, the R70W mutation prevented GOF CARD9 to pull down the signalosome partner proteins BCL10 and MALT1. This reflected into drastic reduction of BCL10 filamentous assemblies in a cellular context. Indeed, structural analysis revealed that position R70 in CARD9 maps at the putative interface between successive CARD domains in CARD9 filaments. The R70W mutation in CARD9 prevents NF-κB activation by inhibiting productive interactions with downstream BCL10 and MALT1, necessary for assembly of the filamentous CARD9-BCL10-MALT1 signalosome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2018.02366DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6220056PMC
October 2019

A Variety of Alu-Mediated Copy Number Variations Can Underlie IL-12Rβ1 Deficiency.

J Clin Immunol 2018 07 11;38(5):617-627. Epub 2018 Jul 11.

Laboratory of Human Genetics of Infectious Diseases, Necker Branch, INSERM UMR1163, Necker Hospital for Sick Children, Paris, France.

Purpose: Inborn errors of IFN-γ immunity underlie Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease (MSMD). Autosomal recessive complete IL-12Rβ1 deficiency is the most frequent genetic etiology of MSMD. Only two of the 84 known mutations are copy number variations (CNVs), identified in two of the 213 IL-12Rβ1-deficient patients and two of the 164 kindreds reported. These two CNVs are large deletions found in the heterozygous or homozygous state. We searched for novel families with IL-12Rβ1 deficiency due to CNVs.

Methods: We studied six MSMD patients from five unrelated kindreds displaying adverse reactions to BCG vaccination. Three of the patients also presented systemic salmonellosis, two had mucocutaneous candidiasis, and one had disseminated histoplasmosis. We searched for CNVs and other variations by IL12RB1-targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS).

Results: We identified six new IL-12Rβ1-deficient patients with a complete loss of IL-12Rβ1 expression on phytohemagglutinin-activated T cells and/or EBV-transformed B cells. The cells of these patients did not respond to IL-12 and IL-23. Five different CNVs encompassing IL12RB1 (four deletions and one duplication) were identified in these patients by NGS coverage analysis, either in the homozygous state (n = 1) or in trans (n = 4) with a single-nucleotide variation (n = 3) or a small indel (n = 1). Seven of the nine mutations are novel. Interestingly, four of the five CNVs were predicted to be driven by nearby Alu elements, as well as the two previously reported large deletions. The IL12RB1 locus is actually enriched in Alu elements (44.7%), when compared with the rest of the genome (10.5%).

Conclusion: The IL12RB1 locus is Alu-enriched and therefore prone to rearrangements at various positions. CNVs should be considered in the genetic diagnosis of IL-12Rβ1 deficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10875-018-0527-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6329663PMC
July 2018

A recessive form of hyper-IgE syndrome by disruption of ZNF341-dependent STAT3 transcription and activity.

Sci Immunol 2018 06;3(24)

Laboratory of Human Genetics of Infectious Diseases, Necker Branch, INSERM U1163, 75015 Paris, France.

Heterozygosity for human () dominant-negative (DN) mutations underlies an autosomal dominant form of hyper-immunoglobulin E syndrome (HIES). We describe patients with an autosomal recessive form of HIES due to loss-of-function mutations of a previously uncharacterized gene, ZNF341 is a transcription factor that resides in the nucleus, where it binds a specific DNA motif present in various genes, including the promoter. The patients' cells have low basal levels of STAT3 mRNA and protein. The autoinduction of STAT3 production, activation, and function by STAT3-activating cytokines is strongly impaired. Like patients with DN mutations, ZNF341-deficient patients lack T helper 17 (T17) cells, have an excess of T2 cells, and have low memory B cells due to the tight dependence of STAT3 activity on ZNF341 in lymphocytes. Their milder extra-hematopoietic manifestations and stronger inflammatory responses reflect the lower ZNF341 dependence of STAT3 activity in other cell types. Human ZNF341 is essential for the transcription-dependent autoinduction and sustained activity of STAT3.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciimmunol.aat4956DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6141026PMC
June 2018

Gain-of-Function Mutations in : A Recently Defined Cause for Chronic Mucocutaneous Candidiasis Disease Mimicking Combined Immunodeficiencies.

Case Reports Immunol 2017 13;2017:2846928. Epub 2017 Nov 13.

Ege University Medical Faculty, Department of Pediatric Immunology, Izmir, Turkey.

Chronic Mucocutaneous Candidiasis (CMC) is the chronic, recurrent, noninvasive Candida infections of the skin, mucous membranes, and nails. A 26-month-old girl was admitted with the complaints of recurrent oral Candidiasis, diarrhea, and respiratory infections. grew in oral mucosa swab. CMV and EBV DNA titers were elevated. She had hypergammaglobulinemia; IgE level, percentages of lymphocyte subgroups, and in vitro T-cell proliferation responses were normal. She had parenchymal nodules within the lungs and a calcific nodule in the liver. Chronic-recurrent infections with different pathogens leading to significant morbidity suggested combined immunodeficiency, CMC, or Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial diseases. Genetic analysis revealed a predefined heterozygous gain-of-function mutation (GOF) (c.1154 C>T, p.Thr385Met) in the gene coding STAT1 molecule. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) was planned because of severe recurring infections. Patients with GOF mutations may exhibit diverse phenotypes including infectious and noninfectious findings. HSCT should be considered as an early treatment option before permanent organ damage leading to morbidity and mortality develops. This case is presented to prompt clinicians to consider GOF mutations in the differential diagnosis of patients with chronic Candidiasis and recurrent infections with multiple organisms, since these mutations are responsible for nearly half of CMC cases reported.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2017/2846928DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5702932PMC
November 2017

Genetic, immunological, and clinical features of patients with bacterial and fungal infections due to inherited IL-17RA deficiency.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2016 12 7;113(51):E8277-E8285. Epub 2016 Dec 7.

Laboratory of Human Genetics of Infectious Diseases, Necker Branch, INSERM UMR 1163, 75015 Paris, France;

Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) is defined as recurrent or persistent infection of the skin, nails, and/or mucosae with commensal Candida species. The first genetic etiology of isolated CMC-autosomal recessive (AR) IL-17 receptor A (IL-17RA) deficiency-was reported in 2011, in a single patient. We report here 21 patients with complete AR IL-17RA deficiency, including this first patient. Each patient is homozygous for 1 of 12 different IL-17RA alleles, 8 of which create a premature stop codon upstream from the transmembrane domain and have been predicted and/or shown to prevent expression of the receptor on the surface of circulating leukocytes and dermal fibroblasts. Three other mutant alleles create a premature stop codon downstream from the transmembrane domain, one of which encodes a surface-expressed receptor. Finally, the only known missense allele (p.D387N) also encodes a surface-expressed receptor. All of the alleles tested abolish cellular responses to IL-17A and -17F homodimers and heterodimers in fibroblasts and to IL-17E/IL-25 in leukocytes. The patients are currently aged from 2 to 35 y and originate from 12 unrelated kindreds. All had their first CMC episode by 6 mo of age. Fourteen patients presented various forms of staphylococcal skin disease. Eight were also prone to various bacterial infections of the respiratory tract. Human IL-17RA is, thus, essential for mucocutaneous immunity to Candida and Staphylococcus, but otherwise largely redundant. A diagnosis of AR IL-17RA deficiency should be considered in children or adults with CMC, cutaneous staphylococcal disease, or both, even if IL-17RA is detected on the cell surface.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1618300114DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5187691PMC
December 2016

Visceral leishmaniasis in two patients with IL-12p40 and IL-12Rβ1 deficiencies.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2017 06 22;64(6). Epub 2016 Nov 22.

Laboratory of Human Genetics of Infectious Diseases, Necker Branch, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, Paris, France.

Mutations of the IL12B and IL12RB1 genes underlie the development of IL-12 p40 and IL-12Rβ1 deficiencies, respectively, both of which cause predisposition to infection with weakly virulent mycobacteria and Salmonella. Infections with other intramacrophagic organisms have only been rarely observed. We identified two patients with visceral leishmaniasis who had autosomal recessive IL-12 p40 and IL-12Rβ1 deficiencies, respectively. This finding demonstrates the importance of IFN-γ immunity in the control of leishmaniasis. We also searched the literature for similar reports in patients with these and other primary immunodeficiencies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.26362DOI Listing
June 2017

Chronic and Invasive Fungal Infections in a Family with CARD9 Deficiency.

J Clin Immunol 2016 Apr 9;36(3):204-9. Epub 2016 Mar 9.

Clinical Immunology Research Laboratory, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium.

Chronic mucocutaneous or invasive fungal infections are generally the result of primary or secondary immune dysfunction. Patients with autosomal recessive CARD9 mutations are also predisposed to recurrent mucocutaneous and invasive fungal infections with Candida spp., dermatophytes (e.g., Trichophyton spp.) and phaeohyphomycetes (Exophiala spp., Phialophora verrucosa). We study a consanguineous family of Turkish origin in which three members present with distinct clinical phenotypes of chronic mucocutaneous and invasive fungal infections, ranging from chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) in one patient, treatment-resistant cutaneous dermatophytosis and deep dermatophytosis in a second patient, to CMC with Candida encephalitis and endocrinopathy in a third patient. Two patients consented to genetic testing and were found to have a previously reported homozygous R70W CARD9 mutation. Circulating IL-17 and IL-22 producing T cells were decreased as was IL-6 and granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) secretion upon stimulation with Candida albicans. Patients with recurrent fungal infections in the absence of known immunodeficiencies should be analyzed for CARD9 gene mutations as the cause of fungal infection predisposition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10875-016-0255-8DOI Listing
April 2016

Mycobacterial disease in patients with chronic granulomatous disease: A retrospective analysis of 71 cases.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2016 07 28;138(1):241-248.e3. Epub 2016 Feb 28.

Laboratory of Human Genetics of Infectious Diseases, Necker Branch, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, Paris, France; Paris Descartes University, Imagine Institute, Paris, France; Center for the Study of Primary Immunodeficiencies, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP), Necker Hospital for Sick Children, Paris, France; St Giles Laboratory of Human Genetics of Infectious Diseases, Rockefeller Branch, the Rockefeller University, New York, NY. Electronic address:

Background: Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a rare primary immunodeficiency caused by inborn errors of the phagocyte nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase complex. From the first year of life onward, most affected patients display multiple, severe, and recurrent infections caused by bacteria and fungi. Mycobacterial infections have also been reported in some patients.

Objective: Our objective was to assess the effect of mycobacterial disease in patients with CGD.

Methods: We analyzed retrospectively the clinical features of mycobacterial disease in 71 patients with CGD. Tuberculosis and BCG disease were diagnosed on the basis of microbiological, pathological, and/or clinical criteria.

Results: Thirty-one (44%) patients had tuberculosis, and 53 (75%) presented with adverse effects of BCG vaccination; 13 (18%) had both tuberculosis and BCG infections. None of these patients displayed clinical disease caused by environmental mycobacteria, Mycobacterium leprae, or Mycobacterium ulcerans. Most patients (76%) also had other pyogenic and fungal infections, but 24% presented solely with mycobacterial disease. Most patients presented a single localized episode of mycobacterial disease (37%), but recurrence (18%), disseminated disease (27%), and even death (18%) were also observed. One common feature in these patients was an early age at presentation for BCG disease. Mycobacterial disease was the first clinical manifestation of CGD in 60% of these patients.

Conclusion: Mycobacterial disease is relatively common in patients with CGD living in countries in which tuberculosis is endemic, BCG vaccine is mandatory, or both. Adverse reactions to BCG and severe forms of tuberculosis should lead to a suspicion of CGD. BCG vaccine is contraindicated in patients with CGD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2015.11.041DOI Listing
July 2016

Infectious diseases, autoimmunity and midline defect in a patient with a novel bi-allelic mutation in IL12RB1 gene.

Turk J Pediatr 2016 ;58(3):331-336

Laboratory of Human Genetics of Infectious Diseases, Necker Branch, Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, INSERM-U1163, Paris, France.

Clinical disease caused by weakly pathogenic mycobacterial species, which is known as Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease (MSMD), is a rare entity. IFN-γ and IL-17 production are defective due to insufficient response to IL-2 and IL-23 in IL-12Rβ1 deficiency; so this also causes tendency to intracellular microorganisms and candidal diseases. Here, we present a patient who suffers IL-12Rβ1 deficiency caused by a novel bi-allelic mutation with recurrent salmonellosis, mycobacterial, fungal infections and remained asymptomatic during 13 months of follow-up after hIFN-γ treatment. In addition she had hemolytic anemia and midline defects like cleft lip and palate which have not been reported in a patient with MSMD in the literature prior to this case report. In conclusion, diagnosis of MSMD should be kept in mind in patients with recurrent salmonellosis, mycobacterial and fungal infections especially in countries with a high consanguinity rate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.24953/turkjped.2016.03.019DOI Listing
June 2017

Human TYK2 deficiency: Mycobacterial and viral infections without hyper-IgE syndrome.

J Exp Med 2015 Sep 24;212(10):1641-62. Epub 2015 Aug 24.

St. Giles Laboratory of Human Genetics of Infectious Diseases, Rockefeller Branch, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10065 Laboratory of Human Genetics of Infectious Diseases, Necker Branch, INSERM U1163, Necker Enfants Malades Hospital, 75015 Paris, France University Paris Descartes, Imagine Institute, 75006 Paris, France

Autosomal recessive, complete TYK2 deficiency was previously described in a patient (P1) with intracellular bacterial and viral infections and features of hyper-IgE syndrome (HIES), including atopic dermatitis, high serum IgE levels, and staphylococcal abscesses. We identified seven other TYK2-deficient patients from five families and four different ethnic groups. These patients were homozygous for one of five null mutations, different from that seen in P1. They displayed mycobacterial and/or viral infections, but no HIES. All eight TYK2-deficient patients displayed impaired but not abolished cellular responses to (a) IL-12 and IFN-α/β, accounting for mycobacterial and viral infections, respectively; (b) IL-23, with normal proportions of circulating IL-17(+) T cells, accounting for their apparent lack of mucocutaneous candidiasis; and (c) IL-10, with no overt clinical consequences, including a lack of inflammatory bowel disease. Cellular responses to IL-21, IL-27, IFN-γ, IL-28/29 (IFN-λ), and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) were normal. The leukocytes and fibroblasts of all seven newly identified TYK2-deficient patients, unlike those of P1, responded normally to IL-6, possibly accounting for the lack of HIES in these patients. The expression of exogenous wild-type TYK2 or the silencing of endogenous TYK2 did not rescue IL-6 hyporesponsiveness, suggesting that this phenotype was not a consequence of the TYK2 genotype. The core clinical phenotype of TYK2 deficiency is mycobacterial and/or viral infections, caused by impaired responses to IL-12 and IFN-α/β. Moreover, impaired IL-6 responses and HIES do not appear to be intrinsic features of TYK2 deficiency in humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1084/jem.20140280DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4577846PMC
September 2015

IMMUNODEFICIENCIES. Impairment of immunity to Candida and Mycobacterium in humans with bi-allelic RORC mutations.

Science 2015 Aug 9;349(6248):606-613. Epub 2015 Jul 9.

St. Giles Laboratory of Human Genetics of Infectious Diseases, Rockefeller Branch, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10065, USA.

Human inborn errors of immunity mediated by the cytokines interleukin-17A and interleukin-17F (IL-17A/F) underlie mucocutaneous candidiasis, whereas inborn errors of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) immunity underlie mycobacterial disease. We report the discovery of bi-allelic RORC loss-of-function mutations in seven individuals from three kindreds of different ethnic origins with both candidiasis and mycobacteriosis. The lack of functional RORγ and RORγT isoforms resulted in the absence of IL-17A/F-producing T cells in these individuals, probably accounting for their chronic candidiasis. Unexpectedly, leukocytes from RORγ- and RORγT-deficient individuals also displayed an impaired IFN-γ response to Mycobacterium. This principally reflected profoundly defective IFN-γ production by circulating γδ T cells and CD4(+)CCR6(+)CXCR3(+) αβ T cells. In humans, both mucocutaneous immunity to Candida and systemic immunity to Mycobacterium require RORγ, RORγT, or both.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aaa4282DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4668938PMC
August 2015

A homozygous CARD9 mutation in a Brazilian patient with deep dermatophytosis.

J Clin Immunol 2015 Jul 5;35(5):486-90. Epub 2015 Jun 5.

Outpatient Group of Recurrent Infections, Faculty of Medicine ABC, Santo Andre, SP, Brazil,

Deep dermatophytosis has been described in HIV and immunosuppressed patients. Recently, CARD9 (caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 9) deficiency has been reported in individuals with deep dermatophytosis previously classified as "immunocompetent". We report a 24-year-old Brazilian male patient with deep dermatophytosis born to an apparently non-consanguineous family. The symptoms started with oral candidiasis when he was 3 years old, persistent although treated. At 11 years old, well delimited, desquamative and pruriginous skin lesions appeared in the mandibular area; ketoconazole and itraconazole were introduced and maintained for 5 years. At 12 years of age, the lesions, which initially affected the face, started to spread to thoracic and back of the body (15 cm of diameter) and became ulcerative, secretive and painful. Terbinafine was introduced without any improvement. Trichophyton mentagrophytes was isolated from the skin lesions. A novel homozygous mutation in CARD9 (R101L) was identified in the patient, resulting in impaired neutrophil fungal killing. Both parents, one brother (with persistent superficial but not deep dermatophytosis) and one sister were heterozygous for this mutation, while another brother was found to be homozygous for the CARD9 wild-type allele. This is the first report of CARD9 deficiency in Latin America.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10875-015-0170-4DOI Listing
July 2015

Inherited IL-17RC deficiency in patients with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis.

J Exp Med 2015 May 27;212(5):619-31. Epub 2015 Apr 27.

Laboratory of Human Genetics of Infectious Diseases, Necker Branch, French Institute of Health and Medical Research (INSERM) U1163, 75015 Paris, France Imagine Institute, Paris Descartes University, 75015 Paris, France St. Giles Laboratory of Human Genetics of Infectious Diseases, Rockefeller Branch, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10065

Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) is characterized by recurrent or persistent infections of the skin, nail, oral, and genital mucosae with Candida species, mainly C. albicans. Autosomal-recessive (AR) IL-17RA and ACT1 deficiencies and autosomal-dominant IL-17F deficiency, each reported in a single kindred, underlie CMC in otherwise healthy patients. We report three patients from unrelated kindreds, aged 8, 12, and 37 yr with isolated CMC, who display AR IL-17RC deficiency. The patients are homozygous for different nonsense alleles that prevent the expression of IL-17RC on the cell surface. The defect is complete, abolishing cellular responses to IL-17A and IL-17F homo- and heterodimers. However, in contrast to what is observed for the IL-17RA- and ACT1-deficient patients tested, the response to IL-17E (IL-25) is maintained in these IL-17RC-deficient patients. These experiments of nature indicate that human IL-17RC is essential for mucocutaneous immunity to C. albicans but is otherwise largely redundant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1084/jem.20141065DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4419340PMC
May 2015

Inherited CARD9 deficiency in otherwise healthy children and adults with Candida species-induced meningoencephalitis, colitis, or both.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2015 Jun 19;135(6):1558-68.e2. Epub 2015 Feb 19.

Laboratory of Human Genetics of Infectious Diseases, Necker Branch, INSERM UMR 1163, Paris, France; Paris Descartes University, Imagine Institute, Paris, France. Electronic address:

Background: Invasive infections of the central nervous system (CNS) or digestive tract caused by commensal fungi of the genus Candida are rare and life-threatening. The known risk factors include acquired and inherited immunodeficiencies, with patients often displaying a history of multiple infections. Cases of meningoencephalitis, colitis, or both caused by Candida species remain unexplained.

Objective: We studied 5 previously healthy children and adults with unexplained invasive disease of the CNS, digestive tract, or both caused by Candida species. The patients were aged 39, 7, 17, 37, and 26 years at the time of infection and were unrelated, but each was born to consanguineous parents of Turkish (2 patients), Iranian, Moroccan, or Pakistani origin. Meningoencephalitis was reported in 3 patients, meningoencephalitis associated with colitis was reported in a fourth patient, and the fifth patient had colitis only.

Methods: Inherited caspase recruitment domain family, member 9 (CARD9) deficiency was recently reported in otherwise healthy patients with other forms of severe disease caused by Candida, Trichophyton, Phialophora, and Exophiala species, including meningoencephalitis but not colitis caused by Candida and Exophiala species. Therefore we sequenced CARD9 in the 5 patients.

Results: All patients were found to be homozygous for rare and deleterious mutant CARD9 alleles: R70W and Q289* for the 3 patients with Candida albicans-induced meningoencephalitis, R35Q for the patient with meningoencephalitis and colitis caused by Candida glabrata, and Q295* for the patient with Candida albicans-induced colitis. Regardless of their levels of mutant CARD9 protein, the patients' monocyte-derived dendritic cells responded poorly to CARD9-dependent fungal agonists (curdlan, heat-killed C albicans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Exophiala dermatitidis).

Conclusion: Invasive infections of the CNS or digestive tract caused by Candida species in previously healthy children and even adults might be caused by inherited CARD9 deficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2014.12.1930DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4831587PMC
June 2015

Tuberculin skin test negativity is under tight genetic control of chromosomal region 11p14-15 in settings with different tuberculosis endemicities.

J Infect Dis 2015 Jan 20;211(2):317-21. Epub 2014 Aug 20.

Laboratory of Human Genetics of Infectious Diseases, Necker Branch, INSERM U.1163 University Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Imagine Institute St. Giles Laboratory of Human Genetics of Infectious Diseases, Rockefeller Branch.

A substantial proportion of subjects exposed to a contagious tuberculosis case display lack of tuberculin skin test (TST) reactivity. We previously mapped a major locus (TST1) controlling lack of TST reactivity in families from an area in South Africa where tuberculosis is hyperendemic. Here, we conducted a household tuberculosis contact study in a French area where the endemicity of tuberculosis is low. A genome-wide analysis of TST negativity identified a significant linkage signal (P < 3 × 10(-5)) in close vicinity of TST1. Combined analysis of the 2 samples increased evidence of linkage (P = 2.4 × 10(-6)), further implicating genetic factors located on 11p14-15. This region overlaps the TNF1 locus controlling mycobacteria-driven tumor necrosis factor α production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiu446DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4279780PMC
January 2015

Mycobacterium simiae infection in two unrelated patients with different forms of inherited IFN-γR2 deficiency.

J Clin Immunol 2014 Nov 19;34(8):904-9. Epub 2014 Aug 19.

St. Giles Laboratory of Human Genetics of Infectious Diseases, Rockefeller Branch, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY, USA.

Interferon-γ receptor 2 (IFN-γR2) deficiency is a rare primary immunodeficiency characterized by predisposition to infections with weakly virulent mycobacteria, such as environmental mycobacteria and BCG vaccines. We describe here two children with IFN-γR2 deficiency, from unrelated, consanguineous kindreds of Arab and Israeli descent. The first patient was a boy who died at the age of 4.5 years, from recurrent, disseminated disease caused by Mycobacterium simiae. His IFN-γR2 defect was autosomal recessive and complete. The second patient was a girl with multiple disseminated mycobacterial infections, including infection with M. simiae. She died at the age of 5 years, a short time after the transplantation of umbilical cord blood cells from an unrelated donor. Her IFN-γR2 defect was autosomal recessive and partial. Autosomal recessive IFN-γR2 deficiency is life-threatening, even in its partial form, and genetic diagnosis and familial counseling are therefore particularly important for this condition. These two cases are the first of IFN-γR2 deficiency associated with M. simiae infection to be described.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10875-014-0085-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4241769PMC
November 2014