Publications by authors named "Mélanie Gallois"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Epidemiology and genetic diversity of Anaplasma ovis in goats in Corsica, France.

Parasit Vectors 2019 Jan 3;12(1). Epub 2019 Jan 3.

BIOEPAR, INRA, Oniris, 44307, Nantes, France.

Background: Anaplasma ovis is a major cause of small ruminant anaplasmosis, a tick-borne disease mainly affecting small ruminants in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Due to health and production problems in dairy goat flocks in Corsica, France, and the demonstration of A. ovis infection in some animals, an extensive survey was conducted in the island in spring 2016. The aim of the survey was to determine the prevalence and geographical distribution of A. ovis infections in goats and ticks as well as possible relationships with anaemia and other health indicators. In addition, the genetic diversity of A. ovis was evaluated.

Methods: Blood and faecal samples were collected in 55 clinically healthy flocks (10 goats per flock) for A. ovis qPCR, haematocrit determination, paratuberculosis ELISA seropositivity and gastrointestinal nematode egg excretion quantification. Ticks were collected, identified and processed for A. ovis DNA detection.

Results: A high prevalence of A. ovis DNA detection was found at the individual (52.0%) and flock levels (83.6%) with a within-flock prevalence ranging between 0-100%. Rhipicephalus bursa was the only tick species collected on goats (n = 355) and the detection rate of A. ovis DNA in ticks was 20.3%. Anaplasma ovis DNA prevalence was higher in flocks located at an altitude above 168 m, in goats of Corsican/crossbred breed and in goats > 3 years-old. No relationship was found between A. ovis DNA detection at the individual or flock level and haematocrit, paratuberculosis seropositivity or gastrointestinal parasites. Positive A. ovis goat samples were used for amplification of gltA and msp4 genes for species confirmation and strain identification, respectively. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of these genes confirmed the detection of A. ovis and allowed identification of six different strains of this pathogen (named Corsica 1-6 (COR1-6). While the msp4 sequence of strain COR1 had 100% identity with strains previously reported, COR2 to 6 were found to be novel strains. The strain COR1 was the most represented, corresponding to 94.6% of the msp4 sequences obtained.

Conclusions: The results showed a relatively high genetic diversity of A. ovis associated with high bacterial prevalence in goats.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-018-3269-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6318933PMC
January 2019

Bluetongue virus serotype 27: detection and characterization of two novel variants in Corsica, France.

J Gen Virol 2016 09 19;97(9):2073-2083. Epub 2016 Jul 19.

Université Paris Est, ANSES, ENVA, INRA, UMR 1161 VIROLOGIE, Laboratoire de Santé Animale d'Alfort, Maisons-Alfort, France.

During the compulsory vaccination programme against bluetongue virus serotype 1 (BTV-1) in Corsica (France) in 2014, a BTV strain belonging to a previously uncharacterized serotype (BTV-27) was isolated from asymptomatic goats. The present study describes the detection and molecular characterization of two additional distinct BTV-27 variants found in goats in Corsica in 2014 and 2015. The full coding genome of these two novel BTV-27 variants show high homology (90-93 % nucleotide/93-95 % amino acid) with the originally described BTV-27 isolate from Corsican goats in 2014. These three variants constitute the novel serotype BTV-27 ('BTV-27/FRA2014/v01 to v03'). Phylogenetic analyses with the 26 other established BTV serotypes revealed the closest relationship to BTV-25 (SWI2008/01) (80 % nucleotide/86 % amino acid) and to BTV-26 (KUW2010/02) (73-74 % nucleotide/80-81 % amino acid). However, highest sequence homologies between individual segments of BTV-27/FRA2014/v01-v03 with BTV-25 and BTV-26 vary. All three variants share the same segment 2 nucleotype with BTV-25. Neutralization assays of anti-BTV27/FRA2014/v01-v03 sera with a reassortant virus containing the outer capsid proteins of BTV-25 (BTV1VP2/VP5 BTV25) further confirmed that BTV-27 represents a distinct BTV serotype. Relationships between the variants and with BTV-25 and BTV-26, hypotheses about their origin, reassortment events and evolution are discussed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/jgv.0.000557DOI Listing
September 2016

Comparative effect of orally administered sodium butyrate before or after weaning on growth and several indices of gastrointestinal biology of piglets.

Br J Nutr 2009 Nov 1;102(9):1285-96. Epub 2009 Jun 1.

INRA, UMR 1079, Systèmes d'Elevage, Nutrition Animale et Humaine, Domaine de la Prise, Rennes, France.

Sodium butyrate (SB) provided orally favours body growth and maturation of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) in milk-fed pigs. In weaned pigs, conflicting results have been obtained. Therefore, we hypothesised that the effects of SB (3 g/kg DM intake) depend on the period (before v. after weaning) of its oral administration. From the age of 5 d, thirty-two pigs, blocked in quadruplicates within litters, were assigned to one of four treatments: no SB (control), SB before (for 24 d), or after (for 11-12 d) weaning and SB before and after weaning (for 35-36 d). Growth performance, feed intake and various end-point indices of GIT anatomy and physiology were investigated at slaughter. The pigs supplemented with SB before weaning grew faster after weaning than the controls (P < 0.05). The feed intake was higher in pigs supplemented with SB before or after weaning (P < 0.05). SB provided before weaning improved post-weaning faecal digestibility (P < 0.05) while SB after weaning decreased ileal and faecal digestibilities (P < 0.05). Gastric digesta retention was higher when SB was provided before weaning (P < 0.05). Post-weaning administration of SB decreased the activity of three pancreatic enzymes and five intestinal enzymes (P < 0.05). IL-18 gene expression tended to be lower in the mid-jejunum in SB-supplemented pigs. The small-intestinal mucosa was thinner and jejunal villous height lower in all SB groups (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the pre-weaning SB supplementation was the most efficient to stimulate body growth and feed intake after weaning, by reducing gastric emptying and intestinal mucosa weight and by increasing feed digestibility.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114509990213DOI Listing
November 2009

Testing the efficacy of medium chain fatty acids against rabbit colibacillosis.

Vet Microbiol 2008 Sep 16;131(1-2):192-8. Epub 2008 Mar 16.

INRA, UMR1289, F-31326 Castanet-Tolosan Cedex, France.

Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) represents a major cause of lethal diarrhea in young mammals. Although the pathogenicity mechanisms of EPEC are now well understood, the intrinsic and environmental factors that control the expression of EPEC virulence remain largely unknown. In the rabbit, suckling reduces pups' sensitivity to EPEC infection. Hence, we have hypothesized that uncharacterized factors present in doe milk may mediate this protection. Medium chain fatty acids (MCFA), known to possess antimicrobial properties, are highly abundant in doe milk. We demonstrate that caprylic acid exhibits a clear bacteriostatic effect in vitro against the rabbit EPEC strain E22 (O103:H2:K-), in a dose-dependent manner. In vivo, the dietary inclusion of triglycerides of MCFA did not however reduce the sensitivity of young rabbits challenged with this EPEC strain. The mortality and fecal excretion of EPEC were not reduced, and the bacterial adhesion to ileum was not inhibited. Amount of MCFA reaching the ileal level might have been too low and/or their association to other milk antimicrobials may have been required to observe a positive effect on disease evolution in a context of a highly virulent challenge.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2008.03.004DOI Listing
September 2008

Maternal milk contains antimicrobial factors that protect young rabbits from enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infection.

Clin Vaccine Immunol 2007 May 7;14(5):585-92. Epub 2007 Mar 7.

INRA, UMR 1289 TANDEM, Chemin de Borde-Rouge-Auzeville, Castanet-Tolosan, Toulouse, France.

Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) colibacillosis represents a major cause of lethal diarrhea in young children in developing countries. EPEC strains also infect numerous mammal species and represent a major economical problem in rabbit industry. Protection against this pathogen is a challenging goal both in humans and in other mammal species. Despite a good knowledge of the pathogenicity mechanisms of EPEC, the intrinsic and environmental factors that control the expression of EPEC virulence in mammals remain unknown. For instance, the exacerbated sensitivity of young mammals to EPEC infection is still unexplained. Our goal was to investigate if age or other factors, like milk consumption, could be determinants that trigger the disease. We used rabbits as an animal model to study the role of milk in the sensitivity to an EPEC infection. Weaned and suckling rabbits were orally inoculated with EPEC strain E22 (O103:H2:K-) at 28 days of age, and the evolution of the disease was investigated in the two groups. In addition, in order to better characterize the interactions between milk and EPEC, we determined in vitro bacterial growth and the abilities of EPEC cells to adhere to epithelial cells in the presence of milk. Our results demonstrate a protective role of milk in vivo in association with in vitro antibacterial activity. These effects are independent of the presence of specific anti-EPEC antibodies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/CVI.00468-06DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1865632PMC
May 2007

An early stimulation of solid feed intake slightly influences the morphological gut maturation in the rabbit.

Reprod Nutr Dev 2005 Jan-Feb;45(1):109-22

Station de Recherches Cunicoles, INRA, BP 52627, 31326 Castanet-Tolosan, France.

The impact of dietary factors on the gut morphological maturation is poorly documented in rabbits. The weights of the digestive segments as well as the morphology of villi and crypts along the small intestine were analysed weekly from day 14 till day 49, in two rabbit groups weaned at either 21 (W21 group, n = 12 litters) or 35 days (W35 group, n = 12 litters) of age. From 21 till 35 days, the W21 group ate 57% more solid feed than the W35 group (P < 0.01), and presented slighter body weights from day 28 till day 49 (-9%, P < 0.05). Tissue weights of the empty digestive segments, as expressed relative to the body weights, were higher in the W21 than in the W35 group from day 28 till day 49 (P < 0.001), whereas absolute tissue weights appeared similar (except for the proximal colon). From day 28 to day 49, small intestinal villi grew in height and surface area (P < 0.05) whereas the crypts deepened. Villous height followed a proximo-distal decreasing gradient from the duodenum to the ileum (P < 0.05) from day 28 onward. The villous height to width ratio changed with the beginning of significant solid feed intake: from a thin shape until day 21, villi became wider from day 28 on. The effect of weaning age on mucosal morphology was insignificant, except for the jejunal crypts whose surface area and depth were higher in the W21 group. The present results showed that morphological changes in the digestive tract of young rabbits were weakly influenced by an early stimulation of solid feed intake.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/rnd:2005008DOI Listing
July 2005