Publications by authors named "Márcio Vinícius Fagundes Donadio"

69 Publications

Comparison of physical fitness between healthy and mild-to-moderate asthmatic children with exercise symptoms: A cross-sectional study.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2021 Jun 1. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Faculty of Sport Sciences, European University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

Objective: Asthma is a chronic disease that may affect physical fitness, although its primary effects on exercise capacity, muscle strength, functionality and lifestyle, in children and adolescents, are still poorly understood. This study aimed to evaluate the differences in cardiorespiratory fitness, muscle strength, lifestyle, lung function, and functionality between asthmatics with exercise symptoms and healthy children. In addition, we have analyzed the association between clinical history and the presence of asthma.

Study Design: Cross-sectional study including 71 patients with a diagnosis of asthma and 71 healthy children and adolescents (7-17 years of age). Anthropometric data, clinical history, disease control, lifestyle (KIDMED and physical activity questionnaires), lung function (spirometry), exercise-induced bronchoconstriction test, aerobic fitness (cardiopulmonary exercise test), muscle strength and functionality (timed up and go; timed up and down stairs) were evaluated.

Results: Seventy-one patients with asthma (mean age 11.5 ± 2.7) and 71 healthy subjects (mean age 10.7 ± 2.5) were included. All asthmatic children had mild to moderate and stable asthma. EIB occurred in 56.3% of asthmatic children. Lung function was significantly (p < .05) lower in the asthmatic group when compared to healthy peers, as well as the cardiorespiratory fitness, muscle strength, lifestyle and functionality. Moreover, asthmatic children were more likely to have atopic dermatitis, allergic reactions, food allergies, and a family history of asthma when compared to healthy children.

Conclusions: Children with mild-to-moderate asthma presenting exercise symptoms show a reduction in cardiorespiratory fitness, muscle strength, lung function, functionality, and lifestyle when compared to healthy peers. The study provides data for pediatricians to support exercise practice aiming to improve prognosis and quality of life in asthmatic children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.25506DOI Listing
June 2021

Prenatal stress and KCl-induced depolarization modulate cell death, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis genes, oxidative and inflammatory response in primary cortical neurons.

Neurochem Int 2021 Jul 5;147:105053. Epub 2021 May 5.

Laboratory of Pediatric Physical Activity, Infant Center, Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, Brazil; Laboratory of Cellular Biophysics and Inflammation, Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, Brazil. Electronic address:

Maternal stress has been described as an important component in the offspring's cerebral development, altering the susceptibility to diseases in later life. Moreover, the postnatal period is essential for the development and integration of several peripheral and central systems related to the control of homeostasis. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of prenatal stress on the activation of cortical neurons, by performing experiments both under basal conditions and after KCl-induced depolarization. Female mice were divided in two groups: control and prenatal restraint stress. Cortical neurons from the offspring were obtained at gestational day 18. The effects of prenatal stress and KCl stimulations on cellular mortality, autophagy, gene expression, oxidative stress, and inflammation were evaluated. We found that neurons from PNS mice have decreased necrosis and autophagy after depolarization. Moreover, prenatal stress modulated the HPA axis, as observed by the increased GR and decreased 5HTr1 mRNA expression. The BDNF is an important factor for neuronal function and results demonstrated that KCl-induced depolarization increased the gene expression of BDNF I, BDNF IV, and TRκB. Furthermore, prenatal stress and KCl treatment induced significant alterations in oxidative and inflammatory markers. In conclusion, prenatal stress and stimulation with KCl may influence several markers related to neurodevelopment in cortical neurons from neonate mice, supporting the well-known long-term effects of maternal stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuint.2021.105053DOI Listing
July 2021

Cystic fibrosis in Brazil: achievements in survival.

J Bras Pneumol 2021 04 30;47(2):e20210140. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

. Centro Infant, Escola de Medicina, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (RS) Brasil.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.36416/1806-3756/e20210140DOI Listing
April 2021

Effects of a Short-Term Resistance-Training Program on Heart Rate Variability in Children With Cystic Fibrosis-A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Front Physiol 2021 30;12:652029. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Faculty of Sport Sciences, Universidad Europea de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

Cystic fibrosis (CF) affects the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and exercise in healthy children modulates the interaction between sympathetic and parasympathetic activity. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a short-term resistance exercise program on heart rate variability (HRV) in children and adolescents with CF. A randomized controlled trial was carried out in children diagnosed with CF aged 6-18 years. Individuals were divided into two groups: control (CON) and resistance-training (EX). Individuals in the EX group completed an individualized guided resistance program (5-RM-60-80%) for 8 weeks (3 sessions of 60 min/week). Upper and lower limbs exercises (seated bench press, seated lateral row, and leg press) were used. HRV was measured using a Suunto watch with subjects in lying position. Nineteen subjects (13 boys) were included (CON = 11; and EX = 8). Mean age was 12.2 ± 3.3, FEV (forced expiratory volume in the first second) z-score was 1.72 ± 1.54 and peak oxygen consumption (VOpeak) 42.7 ± 7.4 mL.Kg.min. Exercise induced significant changes in the frequency-domain variables, including a decrease in LF power ( = 0.001, = 0.98) and LF/HF ratio ( = 0.020, = 0.92), and an increase in HF power ( = 0.001, = -0.97), compared to the CON group. No significant changes were found for time-domain variables, although increases with a moderate effect size were seen for SDNN ( = 0.152, = -0.41) and RMSSD ( = 0.059, = -0.49) compared to the CON group. A short-term resistance exercise-training program was able to modulate HRV in children and adolescents with CF presenting mild to moderate lung function impairment and good physical condition. www.ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier NCT04293926.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2021.652029DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8042150PMC
March 2021

Continuous positive airway pressure acutely increases exercise duration in children with severe therapy-resistant asthma: a randomized crossover trial.

World J Pediatr 2021 Apr 17;17(2):189-196. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Laboratory of Pediatric Physical Activity, Centro Infant, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Av. Ipiranga, 6690, 2º andar, Porto Alegre, RS, CEP 90610-000, Brazil.

Background: Lower exercise tolerance is an important component of asthma and the possible effects of non-invasive ventilation on exercise capacity in individuals with severe therapy-resistant asthma (STRA) are unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the immediate effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on exercise tolerance in children with STRA.

Methods: We performed a controlled, randomized, crossover clinical trial including subjects aged 6 to 18 years old diagnosed with STRA. Clinical, anthropometric and lung function data were collected. The participants in the intervention group (IG) used CPAP (PEEP 10cmHO and FiO 0.21) for a period of 40 min. Subjects in the control group (CG) used CPAP with minimum PEEP at 1 cmH0 also for 40 min. Afterwards, subjects from both groups underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). After a 15-day washout period, on a subsequent visit, subjects participated in the opposite group to the initial one.

Results: Thirteen subjects with a mean age of 12.30 ± 1.7 years were included. The variables of peak expiratory flow (PEF) and forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV) before using CPAP and after performing CPET did not show significant differences. Regarding CPET results, there was no significant difference (P = 0.59) between groups at peak exercise for oxygen consumption-VO (CG: 33.4 ± 6.3 and IG: 34.5 ± 5.9, mL kg min). However, the IG (12.4 ± 2.1) presented a total test time (min) significantly (P = 0.01) longer than the CG (11.5 ± 1.3).

Conclusion: The results suggest that the use of CPAP before physical exercise increases exercise duration in children and adolescents with STRA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12519-021-00425-0DOI Listing
April 2021

Clinical use of the modified shuttle test in children with cystic fibrosis: Is one test sufficient?

Pediatr Pulmonol 2021 Jun 13;56(6):1550-1557. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

João Paulo II Pediatric Hospital, Fundação Hospital of the State of Minas Gerais-FHEMIG, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

Objective: To evaluate the reproducibility of the modified shuttle test (MST) and to determine whether the test needs to be performed more than once to assess the exercise capacity of children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis (CF).

Methods: This was a longitudinal study including patients diagnosed with CF aged more than 6 years. The participants were followed for a period of 9 months and were evaluated at three different time points (visits 1, 2, and 3). Spirometric, anthropometric, clinical, and genetic data were collected, and two MSTs were performed at each visit.

Results: Forty-eight clinically stable volunteers with a mean age of 10.1 ± 2.7 years were initially included. The reproducibility of the test was evaluated using the distance achieved (DA) as the main variable. There were no significant differences in the DA (visit 1, p = .23; visit 2, p = .24; visit 3, p = .85), baseline heart rate (HR) (visit 1, p = .35; visit 2, p = .20; visit 3, p = .98), and peak HR (visit 1, p = .16; visit 2, p = .94; visit 3, p = .23) between the tests performed at each visit. The test-retest reliability demonstrated a high intraclass correlation coefficient at all visits (visit 1, 2, and 3: 0.83, 0.90, and 0.80, respectively) and the variation in HR was the main factor associated with the DA in the MST over time.

Conclusion: The MST was found to be a reproducible and reliable test. The data presented here support the use of a single MST to evaluate and monitor exercise capacity of patients with CF during clinic visits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.25348DOI Listing
June 2021

Peripheral muscle strength is associated with aerobic fitness and use of antibiotics in patients with cystic fibrosis.

Int J Clin Pract 2021 May 2;75(5):e14050. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Laboratory of Pediatric Physical Activity, Centro Infant, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

Aims: Individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF) may develop muscle abnormalities, although little is known on its clinical and functional impact. This study aimed to evaluate the association of peripheral muscle strength with aerobic fitness, habitual physical activity, lung function and the use of antibiotics (ATB) in patients with CF.

Methods: A cross-sectional study where individuals aged ≥6 years underwent peripheral muscle strength evaluation (biceps, quadriceps and hamstrings) and performed a cardiopulmonary exercise test. Demographic, anthropometric, genetic, lung function and total days of ATB use within 1 year of tests were also collected.

Results: Correlation was found for biceps (r = .45; P = .002) strength with the peak oxygen consumption (VO peak). Muscle strength (biceps and quadriceps) also correlated with the ventilatory equivalent for oxygen consumption (V /VO ) at anaerobic threshold (AT) and with the ventilatory equivalent for carbon dioxide production (V /VCO ) both at AT and peak exercise. Negative correlations were found for quadriceps (r = -.39) and hamstrings (r = -.42) with the total days of ATB use in the following year. Patients needing to use ATB presented lower biceps strength (P = .05) and individuals with VO peak lower than 37 mL·kg ·min presented lower muscle strength for both biceps (P = .01) and quadriceps (P = .02).

Conclusions: The results have shown that peripheral muscle strength is associated with aerobic fitness and the use of antibiotics in patients with CF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijcp.14050DOI Listing
May 2021

Effects of running before pregnancy on long-term memory and hippocampal alterations induced by prenatal stress.

Neurosci Lett 2021 02 19;746:135659. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Laboratory of Pediatric Physical Activity, Infant Center, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, Brazil; Laboratory of Cellular Biophysics and Inflammation, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, Brazil. Electronic address:

Studies have shown that an adverse environment in utero influences fetal growth and development, leading to several neuroendocrine and behavioral changes in adult life. Nevertheless, the mechanisms involved in the long-term benefits of pregestational exercise are still poorly understood. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of physical exercise before the gestational period on memory behavior and gene expression in the hippocampus of adult mice submitted to prenatal stress. Female Balb/c mice were divided into three groups: control (CON), prenatal restraint stress (PNS), and exercise before the gestational period plus PNS (EX + PNS). When adults, male and female offspring were submitted to the object recognition test followed by the hippocampal evaluation of BDNF exons I and IV mRNA expression, as well as hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis related genes. Pregestational exercise did not prevent the decreased recognition index, as well as GR and CRHR1 gene expression observed in PNS males. Conversely, prenatal stress did not influence female memory behavior. Moreover, exercise attenuated the effects of prenatal stress on female BDNF IV gene expression. The results indicate that pregestational exercise was able to prevent the effects of maternal stress on hippocampal BDNF IV gene expression in females, although no effects were seen on the stress-induced memory impairment in males.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2021.135659DOI Listing
February 2021

The modified shuttle test as a predictor of risk for hospitalization in youths with cystic fibrosis: A two-year follow-up study

J Cyst Fibros 2021 01 7. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais (PUCMG), Campus Betim and Hospital Infantil João Paulo II, FHEMIG, Brazil.

Background: Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) present exercise intolerance and episodes of pulmonary exacerbations. This study aimed to evaluate the association of the distance covered on the modified shuttle test (MST), as well as other clinical variables (anthropometry, chronic colonization by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, lung function), with the risk of hospitalization for pulmonary exacerbation.

Methods: Cohort study including CF patients older than 6 years, from two specialized CF centers. All patients underwent a MST and a lung function test at the time of inclusion. Demographic, anthropometric and clinical data were collected. Free time until the first hospitalization, total days of hospitalization and use of antibiotics during the two years of follow-up were recorded.

Results: Sixty-seven patients with a mean (SD) age of 12.4 (5.2) years and forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV) of 78.7% (22.4) were included. The mean distance covered (m) in the MST was 775.6 (255.7) (73.4 ± 19.5% of predicted). The distance achieved (MST) was considered as the main independent variable to predict the risk of hospitalization (Cox HR 0.97, p = 0.029). Patients who walked a distance of less than 80% of predicted in the MST showed an increase of 3.9 (95%CI 1.0-15.3) in the relative risk for hospitalization and significantly higher total number of days of hospitalization (p = 0.022).

Conclusion: There is an association between the distance covered in the MST and the risk of hospitalization in youths with CF. Patients with reduced exercise capacity presented a 3.9 times increase in the relative risk for hospitalization due to pulmonary exacerbation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcf.2020.12.014DOI Listing
January 2021

[Diagnostic performance of the physical activity related question of the GINA questionnaire to detect exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in asthma].

An Pediatr (Engl Ed) 2020 Nov 7. Epub 2020 Nov 7.

Laboratorio de Actividad Física Pediátrica, Centro Infant, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil; Hospital Moinhos de Vento, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil.

Introduction: The aim of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the item concerning physical activity of the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) asthma control questionnaire for detection of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) in children and adolescents.

Material And Methods: We divided participants (aged 6 to 18 years) with a diagnosis of asthma into two groups according to the GINA severity classification: mild/moderate asthma (MMA) and severe therapy-resistant asthma (STRA). We collected anthropometric, clinical and functional data (spirometry) and performed an EIB test. We used item 4 of the GINA questionnaire regarding exercise-induced symptoms to assess the diagnostic power of this instrument.

Results: We included 40 patients (17 with MMA and 23 with STRA) with a mean age of 11.3 years and a mean FEVz-score of -0.33, of who 13 (32.5%) were classified as having uncontrolled asthma. Of the patients with uncontrolled asthma, 7 (53.8%) exhibited a decrease in the FEV after the EIB test. We found a higher frequency of EIB in participants with FEV z-score values of less than -1.0 compared to those with a z-score of -1.0 or greater (p = 0.05). There were no significant differences in the frequency of EIB based on disease severity and control. We also found no association of item 4 (GINA) with EIB. The area under the ROC curve demonstrated that the discriminative power of the GINA questionnaire for the detection of EIB is inadequate (p = 0.41), with sensitivity of 42.1% and specificity of 57.1%.

Conclusions: The physical activity related question of GINA has insufficient diagnostic power to detect EIB in children and adolescents with asthma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anpedi.2020.06.031DOI Listing
November 2020

Immediate Effects and Safety of High-Frequency Chest Wall Compression Compared to Airway Clearance Techniques in Non-Hospitalized Infants With Acute Viral Bronchiolitis.

Respir Care 2021 Mar 3;66(3):425-433. Epub 2020 Nov 3.

Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile.

Background: No studies have investigated the use and safety of high-frequency chest wall compression (HFCWC) for non-hospitalized infants with acute viral bronchiolitis (AVB). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the immediate effects and safety of HFCWC as compared to airway clearance techniques in children with AVB.

Methods: In this randomized clinical trial in non-hospitalized infants (0-12 months old) with mild to moderate AVB, children were randomized into 2 groups: airway clearance techniques (20 min of prolonged slow expiration and provoked cough) or HFCWC (15 min). A single session was performed and children were evaluated at baseline and at 10 min and 20 min after treatments. Outcomes measures were the Wang severity score, [Formula: see text], sputum wet-weight, and the presence of adverse events.

Results: A total of 91 infant subjects, mean age 7.9 ± 2.6 months, were included. Significant ( = .004) between-group differences were found in the Wang score, which was 0.28 points lower in the airway clearance techniques group. There was a greater increase of infants classified as normal and a greater decrease of those classified as mild according to the Wang score when airway clearance techniques were used compared to the use of HFCWC ( = .009). The sputum wet-weight was lower in subjects treated with the airway clearance techniques ( < .001). Although [Formula: see text]improved in both groups, no differences were found between them. There was also no difference for adverse events, and the majority of children did not present any adverse events after 20 min.

Conclusions: The use of HFCWC induced similar clinical effects as airway clearance techniques and was safe for non-hospitalized infants with AVB. Both techniques reduced respiratory symptoms and acutely improved [Formula: see text]. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03835936.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4187/respcare.08177DOI Listing
March 2021

Therapeutic effect of uridine phosphorylase 1 (UPP1) inhibitor on liver fibrosis in vitro and in vivo.

Eur J Pharmacol 2021 Jan 22;890:173670. Epub 2020 Oct 22.

Laboratório de Pesquisa Em Biofísica Celular e Inflamação, Pontifícia Universidade Católica Do Rio Grande Do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, 90619-900, Brazil.

Potassium 5-cyano-4-methyl-6-oxo-1,6-dihydropyridine-2-olate (CPBMF65) is a potent inhibitor of the uridine phosphorylase 1 (UPP1) enzyme. Its non-ionized analog has already demonstrated biological properties by reducing adverse effects caused by the chemotherapeutic 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). In addition, it has been demonstrated that uridine inhibits inflammation and fibrosis in bleomycin lung injury, decreasing collagen production. The purpose of this study was to investigate the in vitro and in vivo effects of CPBMF65 on activated hepatic stellate cells (HSC) and on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis in mice. After incubation with CPBMF65, decreased cell proliferation and phenotype reversion were observed in vitro. In addition, CPBMF65 promoted a protective effect on tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis in mice, demonstrated by its antifibrotic and anti-inflammatory actions. The results of the present study indicate that the UPP1 inhibitor (CPBMF65) may have potential as a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of liver fibrosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2020.173670DOI Listing
January 2021

Determinants of exercise capacity in children and adolescents with severe therapy-resistant asthma.

J Asthma 2020 Oct 24:1-11. Epub 2020 Oct 24.

Laboratório de Atividade Física em Pediatria, Centro Infant, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, Brazil.

Objective: To evaluate the exercise capacity of children and adolescents with severe therapy resistant asthma (STRA) aiming to identify its main determinants.

Methods: Cross-sectional study including individuals aged 6-18 years with a diagnosis of STRA. Clinical (age and gender), anthropometric (weight, height and body mass index) and disease control data were collected. Lung function (spirometry), cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) test were performed.

Results: Twenty-four patients aged 11.5 ± 2.6 years were included. The mean forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV) was 91.3 ± 9.2%. EIB occurred in 54.2% of patients. In CPET, the peak oxygen uptake (O) was 34.1 ± 7.8 mL kg min. A significant correlation between ventilatory reserve and FEV ( = 0.57;  = 0.003) was found. Similarly, there was a significant correlation between CPET and percent of FEV fall in the EIB test for both /O ( = 0.47;  = 0.02) and /CO ( = 0.46;  = 0.02). Patients with FEV<80% had lower ventilatory reserve ( = 0.009). In addition, resting heart rate correlated with O (r=-0.40;  = 0.04), /O ( = 0.46;  = 0.02) and /CO ( = 0.48;  = 0.01).

Conclusions: Exercise capacity is impaired in approximately 30% of children and adolescents with STRA. The results indicate that different aspects of aerobic fitness are influenced by distinct determinants, including lung function and EIB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02770903.2020.1833915DOI Listing
October 2020

Extracellular DNA in sputum is associated with pulmonary function and hospitalization in patients with cystic fibrosis.

Respir Med 2020 10 2;172:106144. Epub 2020 Sep 2.

Laboratory of Pediatric Physical Activity, Centro Infant, Pontifícia Universidade Católica Do Rio Grande Do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Electronic address:

Background: Elevated extracellular DNA levels are found in the sputum of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). However, studies investigating the association of extracellular DNA with CF severity are scarce.

Objective: To evaluate the association of extracellular DNA levels with pulmonary function, antibiotic use, and hospitalization in CF patients.

Methods: This cross-sectional study included CF patients aged ≥5 years who were clinically stable and produced spontaneously expectorated sputum. Extracellular DNA in sputum was quantified, and extracellular DNA networks were seen with immunofluorescence microscopy. Also, cell death profile was assessed. Data on pulmonary function, airway colonization, antibiotic use, and hospitalization in the previous year were collected. Patients were divided into two groups based on median DNA level.

Results: Thirty-three patients were included. Their mean age was 16.3 ± 6.2 years, mean forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV) was 67.0 ± 26.7 (% of the predicted), and mean DNA level was 241.9 ± 147.2 μg/mL. There were significant correlations of DNA level with FEV (r = -0.60; p < 0.001) and forced vital capacity (r = -0.59; p < 0.001). Moreover, patients with higher DNA level (>243.0 μg/mL) had lower FEV (52.1 ± 27.8% vs. 81.1 ± 16.2%; p = 0.001) and required more hospitalizations (68.8% vs. 35.3%; p = 0.05). Additional findings were the presence of extracellular DNA networks and low rates of necrosis and apoptosis.

Conclusion: Elevated extracellular DNA levels in CF sputum are associated with reduced pulmonary function and increased hospitalizations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rmed.2020.106144DOI Listing
October 2020

Sleep disorders are distinctively associated with exercise intolerance and sedentary behavior in children with cystic fibrosis.

Sleep Med 2020 10 18;74:145-151. Epub 2020 Jul 18.

Laboratory of Pediatric Physical Activity, Centro Infant, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Electronic address:

Objective: To evaluate the presence of sleep disorders and its associations with exercise capacity and daily physical activity levels among children and adolescents with CF.

Methods: Children age 6-18 years with a diagnosis of CF were recruited. Information regarding sociodemographic profile, pulmonary function and nutritional status were collected. Sleep disorders (polysomnography), exercise capacity (modified shuttle test - MST) and daily physical activity levels (questionnaire and five days accelerometer use) were evaluated.

Results: Thirty-one patients, median age of 9.6 years and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV) of 68.1 ± 24.4%, were included. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) was present in 32.3% and nocturnal hypoxemia in 29%. The MST distance correlated with the mean peripheral oxyhemoglobin saturation (SpO) during sleep (r = 0.40) and the percent of total sleep time with SpO<90% (r = -0.49). The final MST SpO correlated with the occurrence of OSAS (r = -0.48) and mean nocturnal SpO (r = 0.45). Sedentary activities, as measured by accelerometry, correlated with sleep architecture, including the percent of stage II (r = 0.60) and rapid eye movement (REM) stage sleep (r = -0.37). Patients with OSAS and nocturnal hypoxemia presented lower values (p < 0.05) of distance and final SpO in the MST. Nocturnal hypoxemia was the main variable to influence exercise capacity (r = 0.521).

Conclusion: Sleep disorders are distinctively related with exercise capacity and daily physical activity levels, as nocturnal hypoxemia is associated with exercise intolerance and sleep architecture disorders are associated with sedentary physical activity levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sleep.2020.07.004DOI Listing
October 2020

Physical exercise as a tool to minimize the consequences of the Covid-19 quarantine: An overview for cystic fibrosis.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2020 11 1;55(11):2877-2882. Epub 2020 Sep 1.

Faculty of Sport Sciences, Universidad Europea de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak leading to the coronavirus disease (Covid-19) has become a global pandemic. Patients with Cystic fibrosis are considered of major risk, as respiratory tract infections are more severe than in the general population, with a higher risk of complications and a negative impact on lung function. The performance of physical exercise is considered as key for its well-known general benefits and also as a complementary method to help airway clearance. Therefore, physical exercise is also considered as key in the therapeutic strategy during the quarantine period. However, the impossibility to perform exercise with appropriate prescription and monitoring is of considerable worry to health care professionals. Thus, alternative strategies, such as online measures to monitor this therapy and, consequently, to achieve a safe and effective dose are highly needed. Exercise regimens should include strength and endurance, as well as balance and flexibility exercises. Patients are highly encouraged to participate in exercise programs to maintain fitness and exercise should be continued during the quarantine period. This commentary provides a summary of the main effects and benefits of physical exercise, as well as the main recommendations for its adequate execution, including exercise modality, frequency, intensity, and volume.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.25041DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7461195PMC
November 2020

Octyl gallate induces hepatic steatosis in HepG2 cells through the regulation of SREBP-1c and PPAR-gamma gene expression.

EXCLI J 2020 6;19:962-971. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Laboratório de Biofísica Celular e Inflamação, Escola de Ciências da Saúde e da Vida, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Brazil.

Octyl gallate (OG) is an antioxidant commonly used in food, although there is no definition of its acceptable daily intake. There are reports and showing that food additives and drugs can alter lipid metabolism. Lipid droplet accumulation in hepatic cells is one of the main findings in the unregulated lipid metabolism and is strongly related to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In this study, we investigated the effects of OG on lipid metabolism in the hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2). The results have shown, for the first time, that treatment with OG increased the overall amount of lipids, the triglyceride concentration, the lipid droplet area, and SREBP-1c and PPAR-γ gene expression. Taken together, the findings indicate that OG induces lipid droplet accumulation in HepG2 cells through the regulation of SREBP-1c and PPAR-γ gene expression without involving mTOR/S6K1 and may contribute to NAFLD when used as a food additive.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.17179/excli2020-2214DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7415935PMC
July 2020

FUNCTIONAL PERFORMANCE IN THE MODIFIED SHUTTLE TEST IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS WITH CYSTIC FIBROSIS.

Rev Paul Pediatr 2021 10;39:e2019322. Epub 2020 Aug 10.

Campus Betim, Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais, Betim, MG, Brazil.

Objective: To evaluate factors associated with the performance of children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis (CF) in the Modified Shuttle Test (MST) and compare it with healthy children and adolescents.

Methods: This is a cross-sectional study, with children and adolescents divided into two groups: cystic fibrosis (CFG) and control (CG). Variables evaluated in the MST: walking distance, test level, heart rate variation (∆Hr), post-test mean arterial pressure (MAP Pt) and peripheral oxygen saturation variation (∆SPO2). Statistical analysis included Mann Whitney and Spearman coefficient tests, being significant p<0.05.

Results: Sixty individuals aged 6-16 years old were evaluated. Anthropometric data was similar between groups. Differences between groups were shown for: baseline heart rate (BHr), peak heart rate (PHr), ∆Hr, recovery heart rate (RHr), post-test respiratory rate (PtBr), saturation variables, peripheral oxygen level (SpO2B) and level test. The ∆Hr and MAP Pt had a moderate positive correlation with distance and level test for both groups (respectively: r=0.6 / p<0.001; r=0.6 / p<0.001). In CFG, the level test had a significant association (r=0.4 - p=0.02) with %FEV1.

Conclusions: Children with cystic fibrosis presented functional limitation in the Modified Shuttle Test, which was influenced by lung function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1984-0462/2021/39/2019322DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7418338PMC
August 2020

Maternal separation induces long-term oxidative stress alterations and increases anxiety-like behavior of male Balb/cJ mice.

Exp Brain Res 2020 Sep 12;238(9):2097-2107. Epub 2020 Jul 12.

Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience Lab (DCNL), Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, Avenida Ipiranga, 6681, prédio 11, sala 936-Partenon, Porto Alegre, RS, 90619-900, Brazil.

Early life stress (ELS) exposure is a well-known risk factor for the development of psychiatric conditions, including anxiety disorder. Preclinical studies show that maternal separation (MS), a classical model of ELS, causes hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis alterations, a key contributor to the stress response modulation. Given that HPA axis activation has been shown to induce oxidative stress, it is possible to hypothesize that oxidative stress mediates the relationship between chronic ELS exposure and the development of several disorders. Here, we investigate the effects of MS in the oxidative status [plasma and brain reduced glutathione, catalase and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)], metabolism (glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol) and anxiety-like behaviors in adult Balb/cJ mice. In short, we found that MS increased anxiety-like behaviors in the open field, light/dark test but not in the elevated-plus maze. Animals also presented increased circulating cholesterol, increased TBARS in the plasma and decreased catalase in the hippocampus. Our findings suggest that MS induces long-term alterations in oxidative stress and increased anxiety-like behaviors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00221-020-05859-yDOI Listing
September 2020

Effect of an interdisciplinary intervention with motivational approach on exercise capacity in obese adolescents: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

Einstein (Sao Paulo) 2020 18;18:eAO5268. Epub 2020 May 18.

Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.

Objective To evaluate the effect of an interdisciplinary intervention with a motivational approach on exercise capacity and usual physical activity levels in overweight and obese adolescents. Methods This is a randomized, controlled clinical trial with single blinding of subjects. Adolescents aged 15 to 18 years with overweight and obesity (body mass index ≥ 85 percentile) were included. The adolescents were randomized into two groups: interdisciplinary intervention or control - traditional approach aiming at lifestyle modifications. The initial evaluations were carried out, including the cardiopulmonary exercise test and the physical activity level measurement by using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and a pedometer. The evaluations were performed in two moments: time zero (time of inclusion in the study) and after 3 months (end of intervention). There were 12 sessions with weekly meetings. Results A total of 37 participants were included, 19 in the Intervention Group. There were no significant differences in the baseline demographic, anthropometric and physical activity characteristics between groups, with mean age of 17.3±1.0 years in the Control Group, and 16.8±0.9 years in the Intervention Group (p=0.14). The motivational intervention did not cause significant differences (p>0.05) in the comparison of the variables of exercise capacity and usual physical activity (questionnaire and pedometer) between groups. Conclusion The intervention with a motivational approach did not alter exercise capacity and levels of usual physical activity in overweight and obese adolescents. Clinical Trial Registry: NCT02455973 and REBEC: RBR-234nb5.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.31744/einstein_journal/2020ao5268DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7233282PMC
June 2020

Sex-dependent metabolic effects of pregestational exercise on prenatally stressed mice.

J Dev Orig Health Dis 2021 Apr 14;12(2):271-279. Epub 2020 May 14.

Laboratory of Pediatric Physical Activity, Infant Center, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, Brazil.

Stressful events during the prenatal period have been related to hyperactive hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses as well as metabolic changes in adult life. Moreover, regular exercise may contribute to the improvement of the symptoms associated with stress and stress-related chronic diseases. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the effects of exercise, before the gestation period, on the metabolic changes induced by prenatal stress in adult mice. Female Balb/c mice were divided into three groups: control (CON), prenatal restraint stress (PNS) and exercise before the gestational period plus PNS (EX + PNS). When adults, the plasmatic biochemical analysis, oxidative stress, gene expression of metabolic-related receptors and sex differences were assessed in the offspring. Prenatal stress decreased neonatal and adult body weight when compared to the pregestational exercise group. Moreover, prenatal stress was associated with reduced body weight in adult males. PNS and EX + PNS females showed decreased hepatic catalase. Pregestational exercise prevented the stress-induced cholesterol increase in females but did not prevent the liver mRNA expression reduction on the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) α and γ in PNS females. Conversely, PNS and EX + PNS males showed an increased PPARα mRNA expression. In conclusion, pregestational exercise prevented some effects of prenatal stress on metabolic markers in a sex-specific manner.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S2040174420000343DOI Listing
April 2021

BRAZILIAN VERSION OF THE SHRINERS HOSPITAL UPPER EXTREMITY EVALUATION (SHUEE): TRANSLATION, CULTURAL ADAPTATION, AND EVALUATION OF PSYCHOMETRIC PROPERTIES.

Rev Paul Pediatr 2020 30;38:e2018328. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.

Objective: To validate the upper limb assessments tool, Shriners Hospital Upper Extremity Evaluation (SHUEE), for individuals with hemiplegic cerebral palsy in the Brazilian population.

Methods: Validation study to translate and culturally adapt the Manual and the instrument. The psychometric properties evaluated were reliability and convergent validity. Reliability was determined by internal consistency (Cronbach's α coefficient), ceiling and floor effect, sensitivity to changes, and intra- and interobserver agreement. Convergent validity was performed using the Pediatric Motor Activity Log, the self-care scale of the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory, and the Manual Ability Classification System.

Results: We evaluated 21 individuals with hemiplegic cerebral palsy, with a mean age of 8.7±4.0 years. After the instrument was translated, there was no need for cultural adaptation. The total Cronbach's α coefficient was 0.887 (95% confidence interval [95%CI] 0.745-0.970). We calculated sensitivity to changes in five subjects who underwent treatment with Botulinum Toxin Type A and physical therapy, with a significant difference between pre- and post-treatment evaluations in the Spontaneous Functional Analysis and Dynamic Positional Analysis. Convergent validity showed a significant correlation of the Spontaneous Functional Analysis and Dynamic Positional Analysis with the scales evaluated. All items of SHUEE presented high intra- and interobserver agreement.

Conclusions: The results revealed that the Brazilian version of the SHUEE demonstrated good reliability and convergent validity, suggesting that it is an adequate and reliable tool for individuals with hemiplegic cerebral palsy in the Brazilian population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1984-0462/2020/38/2018328DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7197370PMC
March 2021

CPBMF65, a synthetic human uridine phosphorylase-1 inhibitor, reduces HepG2 cell proliferation through cell cycle arrest and senescence.

Invest New Drugs 2020 12 4;38(6):1653-1663. Epub 2020 May 4.

Laboratório de Pesquisa em Biofísica Celular e Inflamação, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most prevalent type of tumor among primary liver tumors and is the second highest cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Current therapies are controversial, and more research is needed to identify effective treatments. A new synthetic compound, potassium 5-cyano-4-methyl-6-oxo-1,6-dihydropyridine-2-olate (CPBMF65), is a potent inhibitor of the human uridine phosphorylase-1 (hUP1) enzyme, which controls the cell concentration of uridine (Urd). Urd is a natural pyrimidine nucleoside involved in cellular processes, such as RNA synthesis. In addition, it is considered a promising biochemical modulator, as it may reduce the toxicity caused by chemotherapeutics without impairing its anti-tumor activity. Thus, the objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of CPBMF65 on the proliferation of the human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2). Cell proliferation, cytotoxicity, apoptosis, senescence, autophagy, intracellular Urd levels, cell cycle arrest, and drug resistance were analyzed. Results demonstrate that, after incubation with CPBMF65, HepG2 cell proliferation decreased, mainly through cell cycle arrest and senescence, increasing the levels of intracellular Urd and maintaining cell proliferation reduced during chronic treatment. In conclusion, results show, for the first time, the ability of a hUP1 inhibitor (CPBMF65) to reduce HepG2 cell proliferation through cell cycle arrest and senescence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10637-020-00941-2DOI Listing
December 2020

Sleep-disordered breathing and markers of morbidity in children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2020 08 4;55(8):1974-1983. Epub 2020 May 4.

Laboratory of Pediatric Physical Activity, Centro Infant, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

Background: Studies have shown that sleep disorders occur in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and may be present before daytime clinical manifestations.

Objectives: To evaluate the presence of sleep disorders among children and adolescents with CF, attempting to identify associations with pulmonary function, nutritional status, days in hospital, and days taking antibiotics.

Methods: Individuals with a diagnosis of CF aged between 6 and 18 years were included. Information on sociodemographic, clinical profile, history of hospitalizations, and use of antibiotics in the last year were collected. Spirometry, bioimpedance, and polysomnography were performed. The presence of nocturnal hypoxemia and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) were evaluated and participants divided according to their presence.

Results: Thirty-one patients were included. The prevalence of OSAS was 32.3% and nocturnal hypoxemia was 29.0%. Average nocturnal peripheral oxyhemoglobin saturation (SpO ) correlated (P < .001) with forced vital capacity (r = .55) and forced expiratory volume in the first second (r = .62). The higher the percentage of total sleep time (TST) with SpO less than 90%, the lower the pulmonary function. Individuals with OSAS and nocturnal hypoxemia had lower spirometric values compared to patients without these disorders, but the nocturnal hypoxemia group also had lower Shwachman-Kulczycki score, longer hospitalization time and antibiotic use. TST with SpO less than 90% was associated with length of hospitalization (r  = .53).

Conclusion: Children and adolescents with CF have sleep disorders, including OSAS (32.3%) and nocturnal hypoxemia (29%). Individuals with nocturnal hypoxemia presented lower lung function, worse clinical score, and higher morbidity. TST with SpO less than 90% was associated with length of hospitalization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.24780DOI Listing
August 2020

Effect of a combined exercise program on physical fitness, lung function, and quality of life in patients with controlled asthma and exercise symptoms: A randomized controlled trial.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2020 07 30;55(7):1608-1616. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Faculty of Sport Sciences, Universidad Europea de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

Background: Asthmatic patients may benefit from exercise training, although the effects of a combined aerobic and resistance training program are still poorly investigated in children and adolescents.

Objective: To analyze the effects of a combined exercise training (resistance and aerobic) program on aerobic fitness, lung function, asthma control and quality of life in a group of mild-moderate asthmatic children with exercise symptoms.

Methods: This was a 12-week randomized controlled trial including children and adolescents diagnosed with mild-moderate asthma and presenting exercise-induced symptoms. The intervention group (IG) performed the exercise training (resistance and aerobic) 3 days/week, for 60 minutes. The control group (CG) followed routine clinical orientations. The main outcomes were cardiorespiratory fitness, muscle strength, lung function, quality of life, asthma control, and functional tests after 3 months of the intervention.

Results: Fifty-three patients (IG = 25 and CG = 28) with a mean age of 11.5 ± 2.6 years were included. No significant differences were found between groups regarding lung function, asthma control, quality of life, and functional tests. Ventilatory equivalent for oxygen consumption at ventilatory threshold (P = .025;  = 0.083), peak oxygen consumption (P = .008;  = 0.116) and test duration (P = .014;  = 0.1) presented greater improvements in the IG. In addition, improvements were observed in leg press (P < .001;  = 0.36), hamstring curl (P = .001;  = 0.217), high row (P = .003;  = .167), low row (P = .009;  = 0.128) and quadriceps leg extension (P = .015;  = 0.108) in the IG.

Conclusion: Combined exercise training (resistance and aerobic) improved cardiorespiratory fitness and muscle strength in children and adolescents with controlled asthma and exercise symptoms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.24798DOI Listing
July 2020

Determinants of Exercise Capacity Assessed With the Modified Shuttle Test in Individuals With Cystic Fibrosis.

Respir Care 2020 May 11;65(5):643-649. Epub 2020 Feb 11.

Laboratory of Pediatric Physical Activity, Centro Infant, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

Background: Patients with cystic fibrosis develop decreased exercise capacity. However, the main factors responsible for this decline are still unclear. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the factors influencing exercise capacity assessed with the modified shuttle test (MST) in individuals with cystic fibrosis.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in subjects with a diagnosis of cystic fibrosis who were 6-26 y old and were regularly monitored at 2 cystic fibrosis reference centers in Brazil. Individuals who were unable to perform the tests or who exhibited hemodynamic instability and exacerbation of respiratory symptoms were excluded. Anthropometric, clinical, and genotype data were collected. In addition, lung function and exercise capacity were evaluated with the MST.

Results: 73 subjects (mean age 12.2 ± 4.9 y and FEV 76.8 ± 23.3%) were included. The mean distance achieved in the MST was 765 ± 258 m (71.6% of predicted). The distance achieved on the MST correlated significantly with age (r = 0.49, < .001), body mass index (r = 0.41, < .001), resting heart rate (r = -0.51, < .001), and FEV (r = 0.24, = .042). Subjects with FEV > 67% of predicted ( = .02) and those with resting heart rate < 100 beats/min ( = .01) had a greater exercise capacity. Resting heart rate, age, and FEV (%) were found as significant variables to explain the distance achieved on the MST (R = 0.48, standard error = 191.0 m).

Conclusions: The main determinants of exercise capacity assessed with the MST in individuals with cystic fibrosis were resting heart rate, age, and lung function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4187/respcare.07326DOI Listing
May 2020

Anti-inflammatory effect of octyl gallate in alveolar macrophages cells and mice with acute lung injury.

J Cell Physiol 2020 09 22;235(9):6073-6084. Epub 2020 Jan 22.

Laboratório de Pesquisa em Biofísica Celular e Inflamação, Departamento de Biologia Celular e Molecular, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, Brazil.

Acute lung injury (ALI) is an inflammatory process, and has high incidence and mortality. ALI and the acute respiratory distress syndrome are two common complications worldwide that result in acute lung failure, sepsis, and death. Pro-inflammatory substances, such as cytokines and chemokines, are responsible for activating the body's defense mechanisms and usually mediate inflammatory processes. Therefore, the research of substances that decrease the uncontrolled response of organism is seen as potential for patients with ALI. Octyl gallate (OG) is a phenolic compound with therapeutic actions namely antimicrobial, antiviral, and antifungal. In this study, we evaluated its action on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated alveolar macrophages RAW 264.7 cells and ALI in male mice. Our results demonstrated protective effects of OG in alveolar macrophages activated with LPS and mice with ALI. The OG treatment significantly decreased the inflammatory markers in both studies in vitro and in vivo. The data suggested that OG can act as an anti-inflammatory agent for ALI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcp.29536DOI Listing
September 2020

Evaluation of the exercise intensity generated by active video gaming in patients with cystic fibrosis and healthy individuals.

J Cyst Fibros 2020 05 9;19(3):434-441. Epub 2020 Jan 9.

Laboratory of Pediatric Physical Activity, Infant Center, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Av. Ipiranga, 6690, 2º andar Porto Alegre CEP 90610-000, RS, Brasil. Electronic address:

Background: Adherence of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) to exercise is challenging. Here we compared the physiological responses during the use of interactive video games (VG) with the cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) in healthy and CF subjects.

Methods: Cross-sectional study including CF and healthy (CON) subjects older than 6 years. Individuals were evaluated in two visits. At visit one, anthropometric measures, spirometry and CPET were performed. In the second visit, a physical activity questionnaire was applied and gas analyses performed during the use (10 min) of both Nintendo Wii (Wii Fit Plus: (1) Obstacle Course, (2) Rhythm Boxing and (3) Free Run) and Xbox One (Just Dance 2015: (1) Love Me Again, (2) Summer and (3) Happy).

Results: Twenty-five CON and 30 CF patients were included. The mean FEV (%) was significantly lower in the CF group compared to CON. There were no differences between groups at peak exercise (CPET) for heart rate (HR), oxygen consumption (VO) and minute ventilation (V). In the CON group, games 2 and 3 (Xbox) and game 3 (Nintendo) increased HR to values similar to the anaerobic threshold (AT), while for the CF group this occurred for games 2 (Xbox) and 3 (Nintendo). As for VO and V, both groups obtained similar responses as compared to AT values in games 2 (Xbox) and 3 (Nintendo).

Conclusion: The use of VG generated a cardiorespiratory response similar to AT levels found during CPET, indicating that it may be an alternative for exercise training of CF individuals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcf.2020.01.001DOI Listing
May 2020

Exercise before pregnancy attenuates the effects of prenatal stress in adult mice in a sex-dependent manner.

Int J Dev Neurosci 2020 Apr 5;80(2):86-95. Epub 2020 Feb 5.

Laboratory of Pediatric Physical Activity, Infant Center, Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, Brazil.

The present study aimed to investigate the long-term effects of exercise before pregnancy on changes induced by prenatal stress. Female and male Balb/c mice were divided into three groups: control (CON), prenatal restraint stress (PNS), and exercise before the gestational period plus PNS (EX + PNS). As adult, fear/anxiety behavior, corticosterone secretion, expression of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-related genes, as well as epigenetic modifications were evaluated. Exercise before gestation did not prevent the increased fear/anxiety behavior in PNS mice. A nearly significant (p = .06) basal corticosterone increase was observed in PNS males and the exercise before pregnancy reduced the stress-induced corticosterone increase in PNS females. In addition, an increase on prefrontal cortex (PFC) CRHR1 gene expression was observed in PNS females, which was attenuated by the exercise before gestation. We have also found a glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene expression decrease in the prefrontal cortex in PNS males, as well as a histone H3 acetylation decrease (p = .06) close to the significance level. In conclusion, pregestational exercise may attenuate developmental changes induced by prenatal stress in a sex-dependent manner.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jdn.10001DOI Listing
April 2020