Publications by authors named "Lynne McIntyre"

47 Publications

Articulating the effect of food systems innovation on the Sustainable Development Goals.

Lancet Planet Health 2021 01 9;5(1):e50-e62. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria.

Food system innovations will be instrumental to achieving multiple Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). However, major innovation breakthroughs can trigger profound and disruptive changes, leading to simultaneous and interlinked reconfigurations of multiple parts of the global food system. The emergence of new technologies or social solutions, therefore, have very different impact profiles, with favourable consequences for some SDGs and unintended adverse side-effects for others. Stand-alone innovations seldom achieve positive outcomes over multiple sustainability dimensions. Instead, they should be embedded as part of systemic changes that facilitate the implementation of the SDGs. Emerging trade-offs need to be intentionally addressed to achieve true sustainability, particularly those involving social aspects like inequality in its many forms, social justice, and strong institutions, which remain challenging. Trade-offs with undesirable consequences are manageable through the development of well planned transition pathways, careful monitoring of key indicators, and through the implementation of transparent science targets at the local level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2542-5196(20)30277-1DOI Listing
January 2021

Vertical farms bear fruit.

Nat Biotechnol 2020 02;38(2):160-162

CSIRO Agriculture and Food, Queensland Biosciences Precinct, St. Lucia, Queensland, Australia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41587-019-0400-zDOI Listing
February 2020

Genetic control of some plant growth characteristics of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under aluminum stress.

Genes Genomics 2020 03 12;42(3):245-261. Epub 2019 Dec 12.

CSIRO Agriculture, Queensl and Bioscience Precinct, 306 Carmody Rd, St Lucia, QLD, 4067, Australia.

Background: Biomass yield is an important trait for wheat breeding programs. Enhancing the yield of the aerial components of wheat cultivars will be an integral part of future wheat improvement. Aluminum (Al) toxicity is one of the main factors limiting wheat growth and production in acid soils, which occur on up to 50% of the arable lands of the world especially in tropical and subtropical regions.

Objective: Our objective was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) of plant growth characteristics and yield in wheat.

Methods: A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population consisting of 167 lines, derived from a cross between SeriM82 and Babax were evaluated under two Al treatments (+ Al, 800 µM of Al; -Al, 0 µM of Al) in the field based on an alpha lattice design with two replications for two consecutive crop seasons.

Results: A total of 40 QTLs including nine putative and 31 suggestive QTLs were found for all traits using the composite interval mapping (CIM) method. By mixed model-based composite interval mapping (MCIM) method, 42 additive QTLs and nine pairs of epistatic effects were detected for studied traits, of which 20 additive and six pairs of epistatic QTLs showed significant QTL × environment interactions. Most of the detected QTLs across environments were stable, and the highest number of stable QTLs was related to A genome. Co-localization of QTL was found on linkage groups (LGs) 2B, 4B, 6A-a, and 7A (CIM method) and 2A-d, and 6A-a (MCIM method).

Conclusion: These results have implications for selection strategies in biomass yield and for increasing the yield of the aerial part of wheat following further evaluations in various genetic backgrounds and environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13258-019-00895-7DOI Listing
March 2020

The More Dialogue, the Better.

J Hum Lact 2018 08 21;34(3):584. Epub 2018 Jun 21.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0890334418778509DOI Listing
August 2018

Overexpression of TaCML20, a calmodulin-like gene, enhances water soluble carbohydrate accumulation and yield in wheat.

Physiol Plant 2019 Apr 13;165(4):790-799. Epub 2018 Sep 13.

CSIRO Agriculture and Food, St. Lucia, Queensland, 4067, Australia.

Calcium (Ca ) is a universal messenger that mediates intracellular responses to extracellular stimuli in living organisms. Calmodulin (CaM) and calmodulin-like (CML) proteins are the important Ca sensors in plants that decode Ca -signatures to execute downstream intracellular level responses. Several studies indicate the interlinking of Ca and sugar signaling in plants; however, no genes have been functionally characterized to provide molecular evidence. Our study found that expression of TaCML20 was significantly correlated with water soluble carbohydrate (WSC) concentrations in recombinant inbred lines in wheat. TaCML20 has four EF-hand motifs that may facilitate the binding of Ca . To explore the role of CML20, we generated TaCML20 overexpressing transgenic lines in wheat. These lines accumulated higher WSC concentrations in the shoots, and we also found a significantly increased transcript level of sucrose:sucrose-1-fructosyltransferase (1-SST) in the internodes compared with the control plants. In addition, TaCML20 overexpressing plants showed significantly increased tillers per plant and also increased about 19% of grain weight per plant compared with control plants. The results also suggested a role for TaCML20 in drought stress, as its transcripts significantly increased in the shoots of wild-type plants under water deficit. These results uncovered the role of CML20 in determining multiple traits in wheat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ppl.12786DOI Listing
April 2019

Breast Is Best . . . Except When It's Not.

J Hum Lact 2018 Aug 22;34(3):575-580. Epub 2018 May 22.

3 University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0890334418774011DOI Listing
August 2018

Overexpression of a predominantly root-expressed NAC transcription factor in wheat roots enhances root length, biomass and drought tolerance.

Plant Cell Rep 2018 Feb 27;37(2):225-237. Epub 2017 Oct 27.

CSIRO Agriculture and Food, 306 Carmody Rd., St Lucia, QLD, 4067, Australia.

Key Message: TaRNAC1 is a constitutively and predominantly root-expressed NAC transcription factor. TaRNAC1 overexpression in wheat roots confers increased root length, biomass and drought tolerance and improved grain yield under water limitation. A large and deep root system is an important trait for yield sustainability of dryland cereal crops in drought-prone environments. This study investigated the role of a predominantly root-expressed NAC transcription factor from wheat (TaRNAC1) in the root growth. Expression analysis showed that TaRNAC1 was a constitutively expressed gene with high level expression in the roots and was not drought-upregulated. Overexpression of TaRNAC1 in wheat using a predominantly root-expressed promoter resulted in increased root length and biomass observed at the early growth stage and a marked increase in the maturity root biomass with dry root weight of > 70% higher than that of the wild type plants. Analysis of some root growth-related genes revealed that the expression level of GA3-ox2, which encodes GIBBERELLIN 3-OXIDASE catalysing the conversion of inactive gibberellin (GA) to active GA, was elevated in the roots of transgenic wheat. TaRNAC1 overexpressing transgenic wheat showed more dehydration tolerance under polyethylene glycol (PEG) treatment and produced more aboveground biomass and grain under water-limited conditions than the wild type plants. These data suggest that TaRNAC1 may play a role in root growth and be used as a molecular tool for potential enlargement of root system in wheat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00299-017-2224-yDOI Listing
February 2018

Mapping QTLs associated with agronomic and physiological traits under terminal drought and heat stress conditions in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

Genome 2017 Jan 15;60(1):26-45. Epub 2016 Sep 15.

c CSIRO Agriculture, Queensland Bioscience Precinct, St. Lucia, QLD, 4068, Australia.

Wheat crops frequently experience a combination of abiotic stresses in the field, but most quantitative trait loci (QTL) studies have focused on the identification of QTLs for traits under single stress field conditions. A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from SeriM82 × Babax was used to map QTLs under well-irrigated, heat, drought, and a combination of heat and drought stress conditions in two years. A total of 477 DNA markers were used to construct linkage groups that covered 1619.6 cM of the genome, with an average distance of 3.39 cM between adjacent markers. Moderate to relatively high heritability estimates (0.60-0.70) were observed for plant height (PHE), grain yield (YLD), and grain per square meter (GM2). The most important QTLs for days to heading (DHE), thousand grain weight (TGW), and YLD were detected on chromosomes 1B, 1D-a, and 7D-b. The prominent QTLs related to canopy temperature were on 3B. Results showed that common QTLs for DHE, YLD, and TGW on 7D-b were validated in heat and drought trials. Three QTLs for chlorophyll content in SPAD unit (on 1A/6B), leaf rolling (ROL) (on 3B/4A), and GM2 (on 1B/7D-b) showed significant epistasis × environment interaction. Six heat- or drought-specific QTLs (linked to 7D-acc/cat-10, 1B-agc/cta-9, 1A-aag/cta-8, 4A-acg/cta-3, 1B-aca/caa-3, and 1B-agc/cta-9 for day to maturity (DMA), SPAD, spikelet compactness (SCOM), TGW, GM2, and GM2, respectively) were stable and validated over two years. The major DHE QTL linked to 7D-acc/cat-10, with no QTL × environment (QE) interaction increased TGW and YLD. This QTL (5.68 ≤ LOD ≤ 10.5) explained up to 19.6% variation in YLD in drought, heat, and combined stress trials. This marker as a candidate could be used for verification in other populations and identifying superior allelic variations in wheat cultivars or its wild progenitors to increase the efficiency of selection of high yielding lines adapted to end-season heat and drought stress conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/gen-2016-0017DOI Listing
January 2017

Abiotic stress upregulated TaZFP34 represses the expression of type-B response regulator and SHY2 genes and enhances root to shoot ratio in wheat.

Plant Sci 2016 Nov 19;252:88-102. Epub 2016 Jul 19.

CSIRO Agriculture, 306 Carmody Rd., St Lucia, QLD 4067, Australia. Electronic address:

Q-type CH zinc finger proteins (ZFPs) are plant-specific DNA-binding proteins containing a conserved QALGGH motif. This study investigated the function of abiotic stress-inducible and predominantly root-expressed Triticum aestivum ZFPs (TaZFP22, TaZFP34 and TaZFP46) with a focus on TaZFP34. Expression of TaZFP34 in roots was upregulated by high salinity, dehydration, oxidative and cold stresses. Overexpression of TaZFP34 in wheat roots resulted in an increased root-to-shoot ratio, a phenomenon observed during plant adaptation to drying soil. Expression of a number of genes which are potentially involved in modulating root growth was significantly altered in the roots of TaZFP34 overexpressing lines. In particular, the transcript levels of TaRR12B, TaRR12D and TaSHY2 that are homologues of known negative regulators of root growth were significantly reduced. Expression of shoot growth-related genes, such as GA3-ox and expansins, was downregulated in the transgenic shoots. TaZFP34 bound to (C/G)AGT(G/A)-like elements in the promoters of TaZFP34 down-regulated TaRR12D and TaSHY2 and transrepressed the reporter gene expression driven by TaRR12D and TaSHY2 promoters. Expression of the above reporter genes was also repressed by TaZFP46 and TaZFP22. These data suggest that TaZFP34 is a transcriptional repressor and is involved in modulating the root-to-shoot ratio.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plantsci.2016.07.011DOI Listing
November 2016

Drought-Up-Regulated TaNAC69-1 is a Transcriptional Repressor of TaSHY2 and TaIAA7, and Enhances Root Length and Biomass in Wheat.

Plant Cell Physiol 2016 Oct 20;57(10):2076-2090. Epub 2016 Jul 20.

CSIRO Agriculture, 306 Carmody Rd., St Lucia, Qld 4067, Australia

A well-known physiological adaptation process of plants encountering drying soil is to achieve water balance by reducing shoot growth and maintaining or promoting root elongation, but little is known about the molecular basis of this process. This study investigated the role of a drought-up-regulated Triticum aestivum NAC69-1 (TaNAC69-1) in the modulation of root growth in wheat. TaNAC69-1 was predominantly expressed in wheat roots at the early vegetative stage. Overexpression of TaNAC69-1 in wheat roots using OsRSP3 (essentially root-specific) and OsPIP2;3 (root-predominant) promoters resulted in enhanced primary seminal root length and a marked increase in maturity root biomass. Competitive growth analysis under water-limited conditions showed that OsRSP3 promoter-driven TaNAC69-1 transgenic lines produced 32% and 35% more above-ground biomass and grains than wild-type plants, respectively. TaNAC69-1 overexpression in the roots down-regulated the expression of TaSHY2 and TaIAA7, which are from the auxin/IAA (Aux/IAA) transcriptional repressor gene family and are the homologs of negative root growth regulators SHY2/IAA3 and IAA7 in Arabidopsis. The expression of TaSHY2 and TaIAA7 in roots was down-regulated by drought stress and up-regulated by cytokinin treatment, which inhibited root growth. DNA binding and transient expression analyses revealed that TaNAC69-1 bound to the promoters of TaSHY2 and TaIAA7, acted as a transcriptional repressor and repressed the expression of reporter genes driven by the TaSHY2 or TaIAA7 promoter. These data suggest that TaNAC69-1 is a transcriptional repressor of TaSHY2 and TaIAA7 homologous to Arabidopsis negative root growth regulators and is likely to be involved in promoting root elongation in drying soil.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/pcp/pcw126DOI Listing
October 2016

A strong root-specific expression system for stable transgene expression in bread wheat.

Plant Cell Rep 2016 Feb 13;35(2):469-81. Epub 2015 Nov 13.

CSIRO Agriculture, 306 Carmody Rd., St Lucia, QLD, 4067, Australia.

Key Message: A strong, stable and root-specific expression system was developed from a rice root-specific GLYCINE - RICH PROTEIN 7 promoter for use as an enabling technology for genetic manipulation of wheat root traits. Root systems play an important role in wheat productivity. Genetic manipulation of wheat root traits often requires a root-specific or root-predominant expression system as an essential enabling technology. In this study, we investigated promoters from rice root-specific or root-predominant expressed genes for development of a root expression system in bread wheat. Transient expression analysis using a GREEN FLUORESCENT PROTEIN (GFP) reporter gene driven by rice promoters identified six promoters that were strongly expressed in wheat roots. Extensive organ specificity analysis of three rice promoters in transgenic wheat revealed that the promoter of rice GLYCINE-RICH PROTEIN 7 (OsGRP7) gene conferred a root-specific expression pattern in wheat. Strong GFP fluorescence in the seminal and branch roots of wheat expressing GFP reporter driven by the OsGRP7 promoter was detected in epidermal, cortical and endodermal cells in mature parts of the root. The GFP reporter driven by the promoter of rice METALLOTHIONEIN-LIKE PROTEIN 1 (OsMTL1) gene was mainly expressed in the roots with essentially no expression in the leaf, stem or seed. However, it was also expressed in floral organs including glume, lemma, palea and awn. In contrast, strong expression of rice RCg2 promoter-driven GFP was found in many tissues. The GFP expression driven by these three rice promoters was stable in transgenic wheat plants through three generations (T1-T3) examined. These data suggest that the OsGRP7 promoter can provide a strong, stable and root-specific expression system for use as an enabling technology for genetic manipulation of wheat root traits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00299-015-1897-3DOI Listing
February 2016

Brachypodium as an emerging model for cereal-pathogen interactions.

Ann Bot 2015 Apr;115(5):717-31

Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) Agriculture Flagship, Brisbane, QLD 4067, Australia, Queensland Alliance for Agriculture and Food Innovation, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072, Australia, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) Agriculture Flagship, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia, United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS), Western Regional Research Center (WRRC), Albany, CA 94710, USA, Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94710, USA and Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, CA 94598, USA Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) Agriculture Flagship, Brisbane, QLD 4067, Australia, Queensland Alliance for Agriculture and Food Innovation, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072, Australia, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) Agriculture Flagship, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia, United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS), Western Regional Research Center (WRRC), Albany, CA 94710, USA, Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94710, USA and Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, CA 94598, USA.

Background: Cereal diseases cause tens of billions of dollars of losses annually and have devastating humanitarian consequences in the developing world. Increased understanding of the molecular basis of cereal host-pathogen interactions should facilitate development of novel resistance strategies. However, achieving this in most cereals can be challenging due to large and complex genomes, long generation times and large plant size, as well as quarantine and intellectual property issues that may constrain the development and use of community resources. Brachypodium distachyon (brachypodium) with its small, diploid and sequenced genome, short generation time, high transformability and rapidly expanding community resources is emerging as a tractable cereal model.

Scope: Recent research reviewed here has demonstrated that brachypodium is either susceptible or partially susceptible to many of the major cereal pathogens. Thus, the study of brachypodium-pathogen interactions appears to hold great potential to improve understanding of cereal disease resistance, and to guide approaches to enhance this resistance. This paper reviews brachypodium experimental pathosystems for the study of fungal, bacterial and viral cereal pathogens; the current status of the use of brachypodium for functional analysis of cereal disease resistance; and comparative genomic approaches undertaken using brachypodium to assist characterization of cereal resistance genes. Additionally, it explores future prospects for brachypodium as a model to study cereal-pathogen interactions.

Conclusions: The study of brachypodium-pathogen interactions appears to be a productive strategy for understanding mechanisms of disease resistance in cereal species. Knowledge obtained from this model interaction has strong potential to be exploited for crop improvement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcv010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4373291PMC
April 2015

An assessment of heavy ion irradiation mutagenesis for reverse genetics in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

PLoS One 2015 26;10(2):e0117369. Epub 2015 Feb 26.

Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Agriculture Flagship, Queensland Bioscience Precinct, 306 Carmody Rd, St Lucia, Brisbane, QLD, 4067, Australia; Queensland Alliance for Agriculture and Food Innovation, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, QLD, 4072, Australia.

Reverse genetic techniques harnessing mutational approaches are powerful tools that can provide substantial insight into gene function in plants. However, as compared to diploid species, reverse genetic analyses in polyploid plants such as bread wheat can present substantial challenges associated with high levels of sequence and functional similarity amongst homoeologous loci. We previously developed a high-throughput method to identify deletions of genes within a physically mutagenized wheat population. Here we describe our efforts to combine multiple homoeologous deletions of three candidate disease susceptibility genes (TaWRKY11, TaPFT1 and TaPLDß1). We were able to produce lines featuring homozygous deletions at two of the three homoeoloci for all genes, but this was dependent on the individual mutants used in crossing. Intriguingly, despite extensive efforts, viable lines possessing homozygous deletions at all three homoeoloci could not be produced for any of the candidate genes. To investigate deletion size as a possible reason for this phenomenon, we developed an amplicon sequencing approach based on synteny to Brachypodium distachyon to assess the size of the deletions removing one candidate gene (TaPFT1) in our mutants. These analyses revealed that genomic deletions removing the locus are relatively large, resulting in the loss of multiple additional genes. The implications of this work for the use of heavy ion mutagenesis for reverse genetic analyses in wheat are discussed.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0117369PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4342231PMC
January 2016

TaHsfA6f is a transcriptional activator that regulates a suite of heat stress protection genes in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) including previously unknown Hsf targets.

J Exp Bot 2015 Feb 26;66(3):1025-39. Epub 2014 Nov 26.

CSIRO Plant Industry, 306 Carmody Road, St Lucia, Qld 4067, Australia.

Heat stress is a significant environmental factor adversely affecting crop yield. Crop adaptation to high-temperature environments requires transcriptional reprogramming of a suite of genes involved in heat stress protection. This study investigated the role of TaHsfA6f, a member of the A6 subclass of heat shock transcription factors, in the regulation of heat stress protection genes in Triticum aestivum (bread wheat), a poorly understood phenomenon in this crop species. Expression analysis showed that TaHsfA6f was expressed constitutively in green organs but was markedly up-regulated during heat stress. Overexpression of TaHsfA6f in transgenic wheat using a drought-inducible promoter resulted in up-regulation of heat shock proteins (HSPs) and a number of other heat stress protection genes that included some previously unknown Hsf target genes such as Golgi anti-apoptotic protein (GAAP) and the large isoform of Rubisco activase. Transgenic wheat plants overexpressing TaHsfA6f showed improved thermotolerance. Transactivation assays showed that TaHsfA6f activated the expression of reporter genes driven by the promoters of several HSP genes (TaHSP16.8, TaHSP17, TaHSP17.3, and TaHSP90.1-A1) as well as TaGAAP and TaRof1 (a co-chaperone) under non-stress conditions. DNA binding analysis revealed the presence of high-affinity TaHsfA6f-binding heat shock element-like motifs in the promoters of these six genes. Promoter truncation and mutagenesis analyses identified TaHsfA6f-binding elements that were responsible for transactivation of TaHSP90.1-A1 and TaGAAP by TaHsfA6f. These data suggest that TaHsfA6f is a transcriptional activator that directly regulates TaHSP, TaGAAP, and TaRof1 genes in wheat and its gene regulatory network has a positive impact on thermotolerance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jxb/eru462DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4321556PMC
February 2015

More fertile florets and grains per spike can be achieved at higher temperature in wheat lines with high spike biomass and sugar content at booting.

Funct Plant Biol 2014 Apr;41(5):482-495

Facultad de Agronomia, Universidad de Buenos Aires, CONICET and IFEVA, Av. San Martin 4453, (C 1417 DSE) Buenos Aires, Argentina.

An understanding of processes regulating wheat floret and grain number at higher temperatures is required to better exploit genetic variation. In this study we tested the hypothesis that at higher temperatures, a reduction in floret fertility is associated with a decrease in soluble sugars and this response is exacerbated in genotypes low in water soluble carbohydrates (WSC). Four recombinant inbred lines contrasting for stem WSC were grown at 20/10°C and 11h photoperiod until terminal spikelet, and then continued in a factorial combination of 20/10°C or 28/14°C with 11h or 16h photoperiod until anthesis. Across environments, High WSC lines had more grains per spike associated with more florets per spike. The number of fertile florets was associated with spike biomass at booting and, by extension, with glucose amount, both higher in High WSC lines. At booting, High WSC lines had higher fixed 13C and higher levels of expression of genes involved in photosynthesis and sucrose transport and lower in sucrose degradation compared with Low WSC lines. At higher temperature, the intrinsic rate of floret development rate before booting was slower in High WSC lines. Grain set declined with the intrinsic rate of floret development before booting, with an advantage for High WSC lines at 28/14°C and 16h. Genotypic and environmental action on floret fertility and grain set was summarised in a model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/FP13232DOI Listing
April 2014

The heat shock factor family from Triticum aestivum in response to heat and other major abiotic stresses and their role in regulation of heat shock protein genes.

J Exp Bot 2014 Feb 9;65(2):539-57. Epub 2013 Dec 9.

CSIRO Plant Industry, 306 Carmody Rd, St Lucia, Qld 4067, Australia.

Heat shock factors (Hsfs) play a central regulatory role in acquired thermotolerance. To understand the role of the major molecular players in wheat adaptation to heat stress, the Hsf family was investigated in Triticum aestivum. Bioinformatic and phylogenetic analyses identified 56 TaHsf members, which are classified into A, B, and C classes. Many TaHsfs were constitutively expressed. Subclass A6 members were predominantly expressed in the endosperm under non-stress conditions. Upon heat stress, the transcript levels of A2 and A6 members became the dominant Hsfs, suggesting an important regulatory role during heat stress. Many TaHsfA members as well as B1, C1, and C2 members were also up-regulated during drought and salt stresses. The heat-induced expression profiles of many heat shock protein (Hsp) genes were paralleled by those of A2 and A6 members. Transactivation analysis revealed that in addition to TaHsfA members (A2b and A4e), overexpression of TaHsfC2a activated expression of TaHsp promoter-driven reporter genes under non-stress conditions, while TaHsfB1b and TaHsfC1b did not. Functional heat shock elements (HSEs) interacting with TaHsfA2b were identified in four TaHsp promoters. Promoter mutagenesis analysis demonstrated that an atypical HSE (GAACATTTTGGAA) in the TaHsp17 promoter is functional for heat-inducible expression and transactivation by Hsf proteins. The transactivation of Hsp promoter-driven reporter genes by TaHsfC2a also relied on the presence of HSE. An activation motif in the C-terminal domain of TaHsfC2a was identified by amino residue substitution analysis. These data demonstrate the role of HsfA and HsfC2 in regulation of Hsp genes in wheat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jxb/ert399DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3904712PMC
February 2014

TaMYB13-1, a R2R3 MYB transcription factor, regulates the fructan synthetic pathway and contributes to enhanced fructan accumulation in bread wheat.

J Exp Bot 2013 Sep 19;64(12):3681-96. Epub 2013 Jul 19.

CSIRO Plant Industry, 306 Carmody Rd., St Lucia, Brisbane, Qld 4067, Australia.

Fructans are the major component of temporary carbon reserve in the stem of temperate cereals, which is used for grain filling. Three families of fructosyltransferases are directly involved in fructan synthesis in the vacuole of Triticum aestivum. The regulatory network of the fructan synthetic pathway is largely unknown. Recently, a sucrose-upregulated wheat MYB transcription factor (TaMYB13-1) was shown to be capable of activating the promoter activities of sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase (1-SST) and sucrose:fructan 6-fructosyltransferase (6-SFT) in transient transactivation assays. This work investigated TaMYB13-1 target genes and their influence on fructan synthesis in transgenic wheat. TaMYB13-1 overexpression resulted in upregulation of all three families of fructosyltransferases including fructan:fructan 1-fructosyltransferase (1-FFT). A γ-vacuolar processing enzyme (γ-VPE1), potentially involved in processing the maturation of fructosyltransferases in the vacuole, was also upregulated by TaMYB13-1 overexpression. Multiple TaMYB13 DNA-binding motifs were identified in the Ta1-FFT1 and Taγ-VPE1 promoters and were bound strongly by TaMYB13-1. The expression profiles of these target genes and TaMYB13-1 were highly correlated in recombinant inbred lines and during stem development as well as the transgenic and non-transgenic wheat dataset, further supporting a direct regulation of these genes by TaMYB13-1. TaMYB13-1 overexpression in wheat led to enhanced fructan accumulation in the leaves and stems and also increased spike weight and grain weight per spike in transgenic plants under water-limited conditions. These data suggest that TaMYB13-1 plays an important role in coordinated upregulation of genes necessary for fructan synthesis and can be used as a molecular tool to improve the high fructan trait.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jxb/ert205DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3745729PMC
September 2013

A novel and major quantitative trait locus for fusarium crown rot resistance in a genotype of Wild Barley (Hordeum spontaneum L.).

PLoS One 2013 11;8(3):e58040. Epub 2013 Mar 11.

Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) Plant Industry, St Lucia, Queensland, Australia.

Fusarium crown rot (FCR), caused by various Fusarium species, is a destructive disease of cereal crops in semiarid regions worldwide. As part of our contribution to the development of Fusarium resistant cultivars, we identified several novel sources of resistance by systematically assessing barley genotypes representing different geographical origins and plant types. One of these sources of resistance was investigated in this study by generating and analysing two populations of recombinant inbred lines. A major locus conferring FCR resistance, designated as Qcrs.cpi-4H, was detected in one of the populations (mapping population) and the effects of the QTL was confirmed in the other population. The QTL was mapped to the distal end of chromosome arm 4HL and it is effective against both of the Fusarium isolates tested, one F. pseudograminearum and the other F. graminearum. The QTL explains up to 45.3% of the phenotypic variance. As distinct from an earlier report which demonstrated co-locations of loci conferring FCR resistance and plant height in barley, a correlation between these two traits was not detected in the mapping population. However, as observed in a screen of random genotypes, an association between FCR resistance and plant growth rate was detected and a QTL controlling the latter was detected near the Qcrs.cpi-4H locus in the mapping population. Existing data indicate that, although growth rate may affect FCR resistance, different genes at this locus are likely involved in controlling these two traits.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0058040PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3594225PMC
December 2013

QTL for yield and associated traits in the Seri/Babax population grown across several environments in Mexico, in the West Asia, North Africa, and South Asia regions.

Theor Appl Genet 2013 Apr 27;126(4):971-84. Epub 2012 Dec 27.

CIMMYT Int. Apdo., Postal 6-641, DF Mexico 06600, Mexico.

Heat and drought adaptive quantitative trait loci (QTL) in a spring bread wheat population resulting from the Seri/Babax cross designed to minimize confounding agronomic traits have been identified previously in trials conducted in Mexico. The same population was grown across a wide range of environments where heat and drought stress are naturally experienced including environments in Mexico, West Asia, North Africa (WANA), and South Asia regions. A molecular genetic linkage map including 475 marker loci associated to 29 linkage groups was used for QTL analysis of yield, days to heading (DH) and to maturity (DM), grain number (GM2), thousand kernel weight (TKW), plant height (PH), canopy temperature at the vegetative and grain filling stages (CTvg and CTgf), and early ground cover. A QTL for yield on chromosome 4A was confirmed across several environments, in subsets of lines with uniform allelic expression of a major phenology QTL, but not independently from PH. With terminal stress, TKW QTL was linked or pleiotropic to DH and DM. The link between phenology and TKW suggested that early maturity would favor the post-anthesis grain growth periods resulting in increased grain size and yields under terminal stress. GM2 and TKW were partially associated with markers at different positions suggesting different genetic regulation and room for improvement of both traits. Prediction accuracy of yield was improved by 5 % when using marker scores of component traits (GM2 and DH) together with yield in multiple regression. This procedure may provide accumulation of more favorable alleles during selection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00122-012-2030-4DOI Listing
April 2013

Dissecting the molecular basis of the contribution of source strength to high fructan accumulation in wheat.

Plant Mol Biol 2013 Jan 1;81(1-2):71-92. Epub 2012 Nov 1.

CSIRO Plant Industry, St Lucia, QLD 4067, Australia.

Fructans represent the major component of water soluble carbohydrates (WSCs) in the maturing stem of temperate cereals and are an important temporary carbon reserve for grain filling. To investigate the importance of source carbon availability in fructan accumulation and its molecular basis, we performed comparative analyses of WSC components and the expression profiles of genes involved in major carbohydrate metabolism and photosynthesis in the flag leaves of recombinant inbred lines from wheat cultivars Seri M82 and Babax (SB lines). High sucrose levels in the mature flag leaf (source organ) were found to be positively associated with WSC and fructan concentrations in both the leaf and stem of SB lines in several field trials. Analysis of Affymetrix expression array data revealed that high leaf sucrose lines grown in abiotic-stress-prone environments had high expression levels of a number of genes in the leaf involved in the sucrose synthetic pathway and photosynthesis, such as Calvin cycle genes, antioxidant genes involved in chloroplast H(2)O(2) removal and genes involved in energy dissipation. The expression of the majority of genes involved in fructan and starch synthetic pathways were positively correlated with sucrose levels in the leaves of SB lines. The high level of leaf fructans in high leaf sucrose lines is likely attributed to the elevated expression levels of fructan synthetic enzymes, as the mRNA levels of three fructosyltransferase families were consistently correlated with leaf sucrose levels among SB lines. These data suggest that high source strength is one of the important genetic factors determining high levels of WSC in wheat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11103-012-9983-1DOI Listing
January 2013

Genotypic variation in the accumulation of water soluble carbohydrates in wheat.

Funct Plant Biol 2012 Aug;39(7):560-568

CSIRO Plant Industry, 306 Carmody Road, St Lucia, Qld 4067, Australia.

Water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) stored in the stems and leaf sheaths of winter cereals provide an important source of assimilate for remobilisation during grain-filling. Consequently, WSC are a major contributor to wheat grain yield and grain size in all environments but especially where photosynthesis is compromised as occurs where water is limiting. Breeding programs targeting greater WSC should provide improved varieties with greater and more stable yields in stress environments. To facilitate selection for WSC, genetic and genomic approaches are being used to determine the genetic basis of - and define DNA probes for - marker-aided selection for this important drought-adaptive trait. Empirical studies have identified both WSC concentration and content to be under complex genetic control of many genes. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) for WSC have been identified in several wheat populations with individual QTL explaining small amounts of phenotypic variation, typically of less than 20%. Many of these QTL are common across multiple, genetically-unrelated wheat populations. Evaluation of gene expression in high and low WSC wheat progeny lines from a well characterised wheat population has identified significant differences in expression of genes from different gene categories. For example, high WSC progeny lines have higher levels of expression of genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism and lower levels of expression of genes involved in cell wall and amino acid metabolism than low WSC lines. Genetic mapping reveals several candidate genes co-locating with QTL for WSC. In addition, expression QTL (eQTL) for selected candidate genes co-locate with WSC QTL; co-location of the genes and eQTL with WSC QTL make these genes stronger candidate genes for the WSC trait.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/FP12077DOI Listing
August 2012

An intervention to increase high school students' compliance with carrying auto-injectable epinephrine: a MASNRN study.

J Sch Nurs 2012 Jun 4;28(3):230-7. Epub 2012 Jan 4.

Massachusetts General Hospital/Boys & Girls Clubs of Boston, Boston, MA 01904, USA.

Adolescents with life-threatening allergies are at a greater risk for a fatal anaphylactic event since only about half of them carry unexpired epinephrine available for emergency use. The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of school nurse interventions that consisted of either routine or periodic checks during the school year for the availability of unexpired auto-injectable epinephrine. Seventy-seven students from 11 Massachusetts high schools participated in this study. Descriptive and chi-square (χ²) statistics as well as the Fisher's exact test were used to analyze data. Findings suggest that while periodic checks for the availability of epinephrine throughout the school year do not increase the likelihood that students will have epinephrine available, those students who do carry their epinephrine are more likely to have unexpired medication with periodic reminders during the school year.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1059840511431459DOI Listing
June 2012

TaMYB13 is a transcriptional activator of fructosyltransferase genes involved in β-2,6-linked fructan synthesis in wheat.

Plant J 2011 Dec 19;68(5):857-70. Epub 2011 Sep 19.

CSIRO Plant Industry, 306 Carmody Road, St Lucia, Qld 4067, Australia.

Fructans are soluble fructosyl-oligosaccharides deposited in many cool-season grass species as a carbon reserve; they are synthesised by fructosyltransferases. In wheat and barley fructans can accumulate in mature stems at a very high level and serve as an important carbon source for grain filling. Fructan synthesis in temperate cereals is regulated by sucrose level and developmental signals, and functions as a metabolic adjustment for carbon balance between carbon supply and sink demand. In this study the expression levels of a highly homologous group of Triticum aestivumMYB genes (TaMYB13-1, TaMYB13-2 and TaMYB13-3) were found to be positively correlated with the mRNA levels of sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase (1-SST) and sucrose:fructan 6-fructosyltransferase (6-SFT) in wheat stems among recombinant inbred lines with a wide range of fructan concentrations through Affymetrix array expression analysis. This expression correction extended to expression profiles during stem development. TaMYB13 contains an R2R3-type MYB domain. In vitro random DNA-binding site selection followed by base substitution mutagenesis revealed that TaMYB13 bound to a (A/G/T)TT(A/T/C)GGT core sequence, which was present in the promoters of wheat Ta1-SST and Ta6-SFT genes as well as a barley Hv6-SFT gene. Transactivation analysis showed that TaMYB13 was a transcriptional activator and could markedly enhance the expression of 1-SST and 6-SFT promoter-driven reporter genes in wheat. Elimination of TaMYB13-binding sites in Ta6-SFT and Ta1-SST promoters markedly reduced TaMYB13-mediated reporter gene transactivation. These data suggest that TaMYB13 and its orthologues are positive regulators for controlling the expression of major fructosyltransferases involved in the fructan synthetic pathway in temperate cereals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-313X.2011.04737.xDOI Listing
December 2011

Linked gene networks involved in nitrogen and carbon metabolism and levels of water-soluble carbohydrate accumulation in wheat stems.

Funct Integr Genomics 2011 Dec 26;11(4):585-97. Epub 2011 Jul 26.

CSIRO Plant Industry, 306 Carmody Road, St Lucia, QLD 4067, Australia.

High levels of water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) provide an important source of stored assimilate for grain filling in wheat. To better understand the interaction between carbohydrate metabolism and other metabolic processes associated with the WSC trait, a genome-wide expression analysis was performed using eight field-grown lines from the high and low phenotypic tails of a wheat population segregating for WSC and the Affymetrix wheat genome array. The 259 differentially expressed probe sets could be assigned to 26 functional category bins, as defined using MapMan software. There were major differences in the categories to which the differentially expressed probe sets were assigned; for example, probe sets upregulated in high relative to low WSC lines were assigned to category bins such as amino acid metabolism, protein degradation and transport and to be involved in starch synthesis-related processes (carbohydrate metabolism bin), whereas downregulated probe sets were assigned to cell wall-related bins, amino acid synthesis and stress and were involved in sucrose breakdown. Using the set of differentially expressed genes as input, chemical-protein network analyses demonstrated a linkage between starch and N metabolism via pyridoxal phosphate. Twelve C and N metabolism-related genes were selected for analysis of their expression response to varying N and water treatments in the field in the four high and four low WSC progeny lines; the two nitrogen/amino acid metabolism genes demonstrated a consistent negative association between their level of expression and level of WSC. Our results suggest that the assimilation of nitrogen into amino acids is an important factor that influences the levels of WSC in the stems of field-grown wheat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10142-011-0232-5DOI Listing
December 2011

Overexpression of TaNAC69 leads to enhanced transcript levels of stress up-regulated genes and dehydration tolerance in bread wheat.

Mol Plant 2011 Jul 31;4(4):697-712. Epub 2011 Mar 31.

CSIRO Plant Industry, 306 Carmody Road, St Lucia, QLD 4067, Australia.

NAC proteins are plant-specific transcription factors and enriched with members involved in plant response to drought stress. In this study, we analyzed the expression profiles of TaNAC69 in bread wheat using Affymetrix Wheat Genome Array datasets and quantitative RT-PCR. TaNAC69 expression was positively associated with wheat responses to both abiotic and biotic stresses and was closely correlated with a number of stress up-regulated genes. The functional analyses of TaNAC69 in transgenic wheat showed that TaNAC69 driven by a barley drought-inducible HvDhn4s promoter led to marked drought-inducible overexpression of TaNAC69 in the leaves and roots of transgenic lines. The HvDhn4s:TaNAC69 transgenic lines produced more shoot biomass under combined mild salt stress and water-limitation conditions, had longer root and more root biomass under polyethylene glycol-induced dehydration. Analysis of transgenic lines with constitutive overexpression of TaNAC69 showed the enhanced expression levels of several stress up-regulated genes. DNA-binding assays revealed that TaNAC69 and its rice homolog (ONAC131) were capable of binding to the promoter elements of three rice genes (chitinase, ZIM, and glyoxalase I) and an Arabidopsis glyoxalase I family gene, which are homologs of TaNAC69 up-regulated stress genes. These data suggest that TaNAC69 is involved in regulating stress up-regulated genes and wheat adaptation to drought stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/mp/ssr013DOI Listing
July 2011

TaNF-YB3 is involved in the regulation of photosynthesis genes in Triticum aestivum.

Funct Integr Genomics 2011 Jun 16;11(2):327-40. Epub 2011 Feb 16.

CSIRO Plant Industry, 306 Carmody Road, St Lucia, Brisbane, QLD 4067, Australia.

Nuclear factor Y (NF-Y) transcription factor is a heterotrimer comprised of three subunits: NF-YA, NF-YB and NF-YC. Each of the three subunits in plants is encoded by multiple genes with differential expression profiles, implying the functional specialisation of NF-Y subunit members in plants. In this study, we investigated the roles of NF-YB members in the light-mediated regulation of photosynthesis genes. We identified two NF-YB members from Triticum aestivum (TaNF-YB3 & 7) which were markedly upregulated by light in the leaves and seedling shoots using quantitative RT-PCR. A genome-wide coexpression analysis of multiple Affymetrix Wheat Genome Array datasets revealed that TaNF-YB3-coexpressed transcripts were highly enriched with the Gene Ontology term photosynthesis. Transgenic wheat lines constitutively overexpressing TaNF-YB3 had a significant increase in the leaf chlorophyll content, photosynthesis rate and early growth rate. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that the expression levels of a number of TaNF-YB3-coexpressed transcripts were elevated in the transgenic wheat lines. The mRNA level of TaGluTR encoding glutamyl-tRNA reductase, which catalyses the rate-limiting step of the chlorophyll biosynthesis pathway, was significantly increased in the leaves of the transgenic wheat. Significant increases in the expression level in the transgenic plant leaves were also observed for four photosynthetic apparatus genes encoding chlorophyll a/b-binding proteins (Lhca4 and Lhcb4) and photosystem I reaction centre subunits (subunit K and subunit N), as well as for a gene coding for chloroplast ATP synthase γ subunit. These results indicate that TaNF-YB3 is involved in the positive regulation of a number of photosynthesis genes in wheat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10142-011-0212-9DOI Listing
June 2011

Construction of a high-density composite map and comparative mapping of segregation distortion regions in barley.

Mol Genet Genomics 2010 Nov 29;284(5):319-31. Epub 2010 Aug 29.

Tasmanian Institute of Agricultural Research and School of Agricultural Science, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 54, Hobart, TAS, 7001, Australia.

Segregation distortion can negatively impact on gains expected using selection. In order to increase our understanding of genetic factors that may influence the extent and direction of segregation distortion, segregation distortion analyses were conducted in four different doubled haploid (DH) populations. A high-density composite map of barley was then constructed by integrating information from the four populations. The composite map contained 2,111 unique loci, comprising RFLP, SSR and DArT markers and spanned 1,136 cM. In the four populations investigated, the proportion of markers with segregation distortion ranged from 15 to 38%, depending on the population. The highest distortion was observed in populations derived by the microspore culture technique. Distorted loci tended to be clustered, which allowed definition of segregation distortion regions (SDRs). A total of 14 SDRs were identified in the 4 populations. Using the high-density composite map, several SDRs were shown to have consistent map locations in two or more populations; one SDR on chromosome 1H was present in all four populations. The analysis of haplotypes underlying seven SDRs indicated that in three cases the under-represented haplotypes were common across populations, but for four SDRs the under-represented haplotypes varied across populations. Six of the seven centromeric regions harboured SDRs suggesting that genetic processes related to position near a centromere caused the segregation distortion in these SDRs. Other SDRs were most likely due to the methods used to produce the DH populations. The association of the SDRs identified in this study and some of the genes involved in the process of haploid production described in other studies were compared. The composite map constructed in this study provides an additional resource for the barley community via increased genome coverage and the provision of additional marker options. It has also enabled further insights into mechanisms that underpin segregation distortion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00438-010-0570-3DOI Listing
November 2010

Heat and drought adaptive QTL in a wheat population designed to minimize confounding agronomic effects.

Theor Appl Genet 2010 Oct 4;121(6):1001-21. Epub 2010 Jun 4.

CIMMYT, Int. Apdo. Postal 6-641, 06600, Mexico DF, Mexico.

A restricted range in height and phenology of the elite Seri/Babax recombinant inbred line (RIL) population makes it ideal for physiological and genetic studies. Previous research has shown differential expression for yield under water deficit associated with canopy temperature (CT). In the current study, 167 RILs plus parents were phenotyped under drought (DRT), hot irrigated (HOT), and temperate irrigated (IRR) environments to identify the genomic regions associated with stress-adaptive traits. In total, 104 QTL were identified across a combination of 115 traits × 3 environments × 2 years, of which 14, 16, and 10 QTL were associated exclusively with DRT, HOT, and IRR, respectively. Six genomic regions were related to a large number of traits, namely 1B-a, 2B-a, 3B-b, 4A-a, 4A-b, and 5A-a. A yield QTL located on 4A-a explained 27 and 17% of variation under drought and heat stress, respectively. At the same location, a QTL explained 28% of the variation in CT under heat, while 14% of CT variation under drought was explained by a QTL on 3B-b. The T1BL.1RS (rye) translocation donated by the Seri parent was associated with decreased yield in this population. There was no co-location of consistent yield and phenology or height-related QTL, highlighting the utility of using a population with a restricted range in anthesis to facilitate QTL studies. Common QTL for drought and heat stress traits were identified on 1B-a, 2B-a, 3B-b, 4A-a, 4B-b, and 7A-a confirming their generic value across stresses. Yield QTL were shown to be associated with components of other traits, supporting the prospects for dissecting crop performance into its physiological and genetic components in order to facilitate a more strategic approach to breeding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00122-010-1351-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2938441PMC
October 2010

TaNF-YC11, one of the light-upregulated NF-YC members in Triticum aestivum, is co-regulated with photosynthesis-related genes.

Funct Integr Genomics 2010 May 29;10(2):265-76. Epub 2010 Jan 29.

CSIRO Plant Industry, 306 Carmody Road, St. Lucia, QLD, 4067, Australia.

Nuclear factor Y (NF-Y) is a heterotrimeric transcription factor complex. Each of the NF-Y subunits (NF-YA, NF-YB and NF-YC) in plants is encoded by multiple genes. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that five wheat NF-YC members (TaNF-YC5, 8, 9, 11 and 12) were upregulated by light in both the leaf and seedling shoot. Co-expression analysis of Affymetrix wheat genome array datasets revealed that transcript levels of a large number of genes were consistently correlated with those of the TaNF-YC11 and TaNF-YC8 genes in three to four separate Affymetrix array datasets. TaNF-YC11-correlated transcripts were significantly enriched with the Gene Ontology term photosynthesis. Sequence analysis in the promoters of TaNF-YC11-correlated genes revealed the presence of putative NF-Y complex binding sites (CCAAT motifs). Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of a subset of potential TaNF-YC11 target genes showed that ten out of the 13 genes were also light-upregulated in both the leaf and seedling shoot and had significantly correlated expression profiles with TaNF-YC11. The potential target genes for TaNF-YC11 include subunit members from all four thylakoid membrane-bound complexes required for the conversion of solar energy into chemical energy and rate-limiting enzymes in the Calvin cycle. These data indicate that TaNF-YC11 is potentially involved in regulation of photosynthesis-related genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10142-010-0158-3DOI Listing
May 2010

Molecular detection of genomic regions associated with grain yield and yield-related components in an elite bread wheat cross evaluated under irrigated and rainfed conditions.

Theor Appl Genet 2010 Feb 29;120(3):527-41. Epub 2009 Oct 29.

CSIRO Plant Industry, 306 Carmody Rd, St Lucia, QLD 4067, Australia.

Grain yield and grain weight of wheat are often decreased by water-limitation in the north-eastern cropping belt of Australia. Based on knowledge that CIMMYT lines are well-adapted in this region, a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population between two elite CIMMYT bread wheats (Seri M82 and Babax) was evaluated under water-limited environments. Fourteen productivity traits were evaluated in 192 progeny in up to eight trials. For three aggregations of the environments (all, high yield or low yield), multiple quantitative trait loci (QTL) were detected, each explaining <15% of variation. Co-location of multiple trait QTL was greatest on linkage groups 1B-a, 1D-b, 4A-a, 4D-a, 6A-a, 6B-a, 7A-a and an unassigned linkage group. Two putative QTL (LOD > 3) from Seri (6D-b and UA-d) increased grain yield and co-located with a suggestive (2 < LOD < 3) and a putative QTL for increased stem carbohydrate content (WSC), respectively; the latter QTL also co-located with a putative anthesis QTL for earlier flowering. Both QTL were detected only in high yield (>4t ha(-1)) environments. A third increased grain yield QTL (7A-a) from Babax co-located with QTL for increased grain number. Six putative QTL increased grain weight and co-located with QTL for harvest index, grains per spike and spike number. Three putative QTL for increased grains per spike co-located with strong QTL for earlier flowering, increased grain weight and fewer spikes. A group of progeny that exceeded the mean grain yield and grain weight of commercial checks had an increased frequency of QTL for high WSC, large grain size, increased harvest index and greater height, but fewer stems, when compared to low yielding (20% less), low grain weight progeny. These findings were consistent with agronomic analyses of the germplasm and demonstrate that there should be opportunities to independently manipulate grain number and grain size which is typically difficult due to strong negative correlations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00122-009-1173-4DOI Listing
February 2010
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