Publications by authors named "Lynne Klasko-Foster"

16 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Locating the Risk: Using Participatory Mapping to Contextualize Perceived HIV Risk across Geography and Social Networks among Men Who Have Sex with Men in the Deep South.

J Sex Res 2021 Apr 7:1-8. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Psychiatry, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University.

HIV incidence among African American (AA) young men who have sex with men (YMSM) has remained stable even though they made up the largest number of new HIV diagnoses among men who have sex with men (MSM) in 2017. HIV spreads at increased rates in dense sexual networks. Identifying the location of risk behaviors "activity spaces" could inform geographically circumscribed HIV prevention interventions. Utilizing the modified social ecological model we completed five semi-structured focus groups incorporating a modified social mapping technique, based on Singer et al.'s approach. Participants included 27 AA YMSM. Focus groups explored how and where HIV transmission happens in Jackson, Mississippi. Result themes included: 1) location of sexual behaviors, 2) knowledge of geographic hotspots of HIV infection in Jackson, and 3) traveling to meet partners: at home and away. HIV transmission or "activity spaces" may be occurring outside identified HIV hot spots. Mixed geospatial and qualitative methods offered a comprehensive assessment of where HIV transmission occurs, and suggests that geographically circumscribed interventions may need to focus on where individuals living with HIV reside and in specific geographic locations where they engage in behaviors that raise their HIV acquisition risks.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224499.2021.1906397DOI Listing
April 2021

Validating the Psychosocial Functioning during COVID-19 Questionnaire among a Sample of Informal Caregivers.

Gerontol Geriatr Med 2021 Jan-Dec;7:2333721421997200. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

University of Rhode Island, Kingston, USA.

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a dramatic impact on global economies and societies. Although social distancing policies are needed to contain the spread and impact of COVID-19, they also impose a psychological and economic burden on people who are already experiencing increased distress such as caregivers. Yet, few measures have been developed and validated to measure the psychosocial impact of COVID-19. Utilizing item response theory (IRT), the purpose of this study was to develop and psychometrically validate a measure of psychosocial functioning-the Psychosocial Functioning during COVID-19 (PFC-19) Questionnaire-to assess changes in social interaction, mental health, health behavior, and global functioning among a sample of informal caregivers during the COVID-19 pandemic. The analytic sample ( = 733) was recruited from Amazon Mechanic Turk (MTurk) (69% male, 55% white). Results suggest a two-factor measure, assessing global functioning (14 items) and affective response (8 items), with strong evidence for reliability, validity, and dimensionality. Future research should replicate this factor structure in other samples.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2333721421997200DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7903817PMC
February 2021

Strengthening resilience to reduce HIV risk in Indian MSM: a multicity, randomised, clinical efficacy trial.

Lancet Glob Health 2021 04;9(4):e446-e455

Fenway Institute, Fenway Health, Boston, MA, USA; Department of Epidemiology, UCLA Fielding School of Public Health, Los Angeles, CA, USA; Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioural Sciences, UCLA David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Background: Men who have sex with men (MSM) in India are extremely marginalised and stigmatised, and therefore experience immense psychosocial stress. As current HIV prevention interventions in India do not address mental health or resilience to these stressors, we aimed to evaluate a resilience-based psychosocial intervention in the context of HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention.

Methods: We did a multicity, randomised, clinical efficacy trial in Chennai (governmental tuberculosis research institute) and Mumbai (non-governmental organisation for MSM), India. Inclusion criteria were MSM, aged 18 years or older, who were at risk of HIV acquisition or transmission, defined as having any of the following in the 4 months before screening: anal sex with four or more male partners (protected or unprotected), diagnosis of an STI, history of transactional sex activity, or condomless anal sex with a man who was of unknown HIV status or serodiscordant. Participants were required to speak English, Tamil (in Chennai), or Hindi (in Mumbai) fluently. Eligible individuals were randomly assigned (1:1) to either a resilience-based psychosocial HIV prevention intervention, consisting of group (four sessions) and individual (six sessions) counselling alongside HIV and STI voluntary counselling and testing, or a standard-of-care control comprising voluntary counselling and testing alone. The primary outcomes were number of condomless anal sex acts with male partners during the past month (at baseline and 4 months, 8 months, and 12 months after randomisation), and incident bacterial STIs (at 12 months after randomisation). Resilience-related mediators included self-esteem, self-acceptance, and depression. Recruitment is now closed. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02556294.

Findings: Between Sept 4, 2015, and June 28, 2018, we enrolled 608 participants; 305 (50%) were assigned to the psychosocial intervention condition and 303 (50%) were assigned to the control condition. 510 (84%) of 608 men completed an assessment at 4 months after randomisation, 483 (79%) at 8 months, and 515 (85%) at 12 months. 512 (99%) of 515 men had STI data from the 12-month assessment. The intervention condition had a 56% larger reduction in condomless anal sex acts (95% CI 35-71; p<0·0001) from baseline to 4-month follow-up, 72% larger reduction (56-82; p<0·0001) from baseline to 8-month follow-up, and 72% larger reduction (53-83; p<0·0001) from baseline to 12-month follow-up, compared with the standard-of-care control condition (condition by time interaction; χ=40·29, 3 df; p<0·0001). Improvements in self-esteem and depressive symptoms both mediated 9% of the intervention effect on condomless anal sex acts. Bacterial STI incidence did not differ between study conditions at 12-month follow-up.

Interpretation: A resilience-based psychosocial intervention for MSM at risk of HIV acquisition or transmission in India was efficacious in reducing condomless anal sex acts, with evidence for mediation effects in two key target resilience variables. HIV prevention programmes for MSM in India should address mental health resilience to augment reductions in the risk of sexually transmitted HIV.

Funding: National Institute of Mental Health.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(20)30547-7DOI Listing
April 2021

HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) knowledge, familiarity, and attitudes among United States healthcare professional students: A cross-sectional study.

Prev Med Rep 2021 Jun 23;22:101334. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Rochester School of Medicine & Dentistry, Rochester, NY, United States.

The United States' initiative to End the HIV Epidemic by 2030 includes a primary goal to reduce new HIV infections by 90 percent. One key contributor to this plan is HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). While knowledge and acceptance of PrEP among clinicians is growing, few studies have assessed knowledge and awareness among future healthcare professionals in academic training programs. The present study aimed to assess and compare healthcare trainees' awareness, knowledge, and familiarity with PrEP prescribing guidelines to better understand and prevent gaps in academic training regarding PrEP. A cross-sectional web-based survey of medical, nurse practitioner, and pharmacy students enrolled at two universities was conducted between October 2017 and January 2018. The study assessed participants' awareness, knowledge, and familiarity with PrEP prescribing guidelines and willingness to prescribe PrEP and refer to another healthcare provider. The survey was completed by 744 participants (response rate = 36.2%). Overall, PrEP awareness was high though PrEP knowledge was low. There were significant differences among student groups in domains of interest. Pharmacy students had the greatest PrEP knowledge, awareness, and familiarity with prescribing guidelines. However, medical students reported the greatest comfort with performing PrEP-related clinical activities and willingness to refer a candidate to another provider. Study findings enhance our understanding of healthcare professional students' perspectives of PrEP as a biomedical prevention strategy for HIV. The gaps in students' knowledge offer opportunities for the development of educational strategies to support HIV prevention among future healthcare professionals.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pmedr.2021.101334DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7930580PMC
June 2021

Psychosocial Problems and Vulnerability to HIV in a Multi-City Prospective Cohort of Young Transgender Women in the United States: A Structural Equation Modeling Study.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2021 Apr;86(5):544-551

Department of Behavioral and Social Sciences, Brown University School of Public Health, Providence, RI.

Background: Gender-based stigma contributes to increased HIV prevalence, but little is known about psychosocial mechanisms linking stigma and HIV risk among young transgender women (YTW).

Setting: This study uses data from Project LifeSkills, a randomized controlled efficacy trial of an empowerment-based HIV prevention intervention for YTW (N = 233). YTW were recruited in Boston, MA, and Chicago, IL, between 2012 and 2015 and completed study assessment visits at baseline and months 4 and 12.

Methods: Using autoregressive structural equation modeling, we examined whether poor social support and psychological distress at 4 months mediate the prospective relationship between gender-based stigma at baseline and condomless anal and vaginal sex (CAVS) acts at 4 and 12 months; all models were adjusted for treatment arm, HIV serostatus, study site, and sociodemographics.

Results: Gender-based stigma at baseline was directly associated with increased CAVS at 4 months [adjusted incidence rate ratio (aIRR) = 1.18, 95% confidence interval (CI): (1.05 to 1.33)] and 12 months [aIRR = 1.17, 95% CI: (1.02 to 1.34)]. Gender-based stigma was also associated with higher psychological distress at 4 months [b = 0.70, 95% CI: (0.13 to 1.27)], which in turn was marginally associated with increased CAVS at 12 months [aIRR = 1.03, 95% CI: (1.00 to 1.06)]. Contrary to expectations, poor social support at 4 months was associated with decreased CAVS at 12 months [aIRR = 0.40, 95% CI: (0.28 to 0.59)].

Conclusions: Future HIV prevention interventions with YTW should consider addressing experiences of gender-based stigma and the psychological distress that may ensue from gender-based stigma. More research is needed to understand the influence of poor social support on sexual behaviors in this population.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAI.0000000000002615DOI Listing
April 2021

Human papillomavirus vaccine guideline adherence among Arizona's Medicaid beneficiaries.

Vaccine 2021 01 25;39(4):682-686. Epub 2020 Dec 25.

Arizona State University, College of Health Solutions, Arizona State University, 425 N 5th Street, Phoenix, AZ 85004, United States.

Cancers caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) can be prevented with the timely uptake and completion of the HPV vaccine series. Series completion is associated with increased vaccine effectiveness and longevity of protection. Medicaid beneficiaries are among populations with higher HPV vaccine uptake; however, little research describes factors that influence their HPV vaccine series completion. This study reports on a secondary data analysis of Arizona Medicaid data (Arizona Health Care Cost Containment System) from years 2008-2016. We summarized patient data using descriptive statistics and explored relationships between demographic variables and HPV vaccine administration information using bivariate logistic regression. Results of this analysis showed that females were more likely to complete the series as compared to males, and the age group that had the greatest odd of vaccine completion were 13-17-year-olds, the catch-up vaccine population. White Medicaid beneficiaries were most likely to adhere to HPV vaccine guidelines, followed by Hispanic beneficiaries. Patients receiving care in urban settings were more likely to complete the HPV vaccine series than people receiving care in rural areas of the state. Although statistically insignificant, people living with HIV were less likely to complete the 3-dose series. Future work should focus on ensuring that HPV vaccine age-eligible Medicaid, including people living with HIV, adhere to HPV vaccine guidelines. Expanding programs such as Vaccines for Children and scope of practice for dental professionals to offer the vaccine may provide additional options for Medicaid beneficiaries to vaccinate.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2020.12.041DOI Listing
January 2021

Sexual orientation and social network size moderate associations between stigma and problematic alcohol use among male sex workers in the US Northeast: an observational study.

Sex Health 2020 11;17(5):429-436

Department of Behavioral and Social Sciences, Brown University School of Public Health, 121 South Main Street, 4th Floor, Providence, RI 02912, USA; and Center for Health Promotion and Health Equity, Brown University School of Public Health, 121 South Main Street, 8th Floor, Providence, RI 02912, USA; and Department of Epidemiology, Brown University School of Public Health, 121 South Main Street, 2nd Floor, Providence, RI 02912, USA; and The Fenway Institute, Fenway Health, 1340 Boylston Street, Boston, MA 02215, USA; and Corresponding author. Email:

Background Stigma is associated with poor health among sexual minority individuals. However, no studies have examined the relationship between stigma and problematic drinking among male sex workers (MSWs). This study examined the relationship between sex work stigma and problematic alcohol use among MSWs.

Methods: Using baseline data from a cohort of 98 MSWs in the US Northeast enrolled between 2015 and 2016, we used logistic regression to examine associations between sex work stigma and hazardous drinking (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) score ≥8) and sex work while drunk, and tested whether sexual orientation (gay vs non-gay identified) and social network size moderated these associations.

Results: Almost half the sample (n = 46; 44%) reported hazardous drinking and 56 MSWs (57%) reported engaging in sex work while drunk. Sex work stigma was associated with hazardous drinking (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05-1.36). Sexual orientation marginally moderated this relationship (P = 0.07), such that it was only significant among gay-identified MSWs (aOR 1.91, 95% CI 1.11-3.28), not among non-gay MSW. Similarly, sexual orientation moderated the effect of sex work stigma on sex work while drunk (P = 0.02), which was only significant among gay-identified MSWs (aOR 1.65, 95% CI 1.05-1.60). Social network size also moderated the effect of sex work stigma on sex work while drunk (P = 0.02), which was only significant among MSWs with small networks (aOR 1.26, 95% CI 1.00-1.58), suggesting large networks can be protective.

Conclusions: Gay MSWs may be particularly vulnerable to alcohol-related effects of stigma. Future interventions should consider engaging social networks to curb problematic drinking among MSWs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/SH20137DOI Listing
November 2020

Substance Use, Mental Health Problems, and Physical and Sexual Violence Additively Increase HIV Risk Between Male Sex Workers and Their Male Clients in Northeastern United States.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2021 Mar;86(3):305-312

The Fenway Institute, Fenway Health, Boston, MA.

Background: Male sex workers (MSW) are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS, with an estimated HIV prevalence in the United States of 19.3%. Existing research suggests that MSW are also at risk of adverse psychosocial problems. Cross-sectional studies of MSW have suggested that co-occurring epidemics or a "syndemic" of psychosocial problems may increase vulnerability to HIV acquisition/transmission by elevated sexual risk. To the best of our knowledge, there are no published studies examining this relationship longitudinally among MSW. This study examined how a syndemic of 6 psychosocial problems result in additive risk for condomless anal sex (CAS) with male clients among a multicity, longitudinal cohort of MSW.

Setting: Community-based organization and health center in 2 Northeastern US cities.

Methods: Between 2015 and 2017, 100 MSW from Boston, MA and Providence, RI completed behavioral/psychosocial surveys at baseline, 6 months, and 12months. Generalized estimating equation modeling was used to examine the prospective relationship of additive psychosocial problems and subsequent CAS with male clients, adjusting for age, site, race/ethnicity, MSW-type, and HIV serostatus.

Results: Mean age = 34.7 (SD = 11.8); 62% racial/ethnic minority; and 20% HIV+. The prevalence of 6 psychosocial syndemic problems was substantial at baseline and remained high at each time point (all within the past 6 months): 74% problematic depressive symptoms, 27% polydrug use (3+ drugs, not including stimulants), 57% stimulant (methamphetamine/cocaine/crack) use, 44% hazardous drinking, 15% experienced client-specific physical/sexual violence, and 57% childhood sexual abuse. Looking at the number of psychosocial problems experienced, 7% had zero, 27% had 1, 24% had 2, 27% had 3, and 15% had 4 or more. We identified a statistically significant positive "dose-response" relationship between the number of psychosocial problems and CAS with male clients over time, with the greatest odds of engaging in CAS with a male client over follow-up among those with 4 or more psychosocial problems (adjusted odds ratio = 5.18, 95% CI: 1.61 to 16.62).

Conclusions: Internet escorts and street-based MSW are likely to experience psychosocial problems and engaging in HIV sexual risk with male clients. The accumulation of psychosocial problems additively predicted CAS with male clients in a prospective cohort of MSW. The specification of psychosocial problems presents distinct treatment targets for HIV prevention among MSW in the United States.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAI.0000000000002563DOI Listing
March 2021

Alcohol mixed energy drink usage and risk-taking among college students in Western New York State.

J Am Coll Health 2020 Oct 13:1-14. Epub 2020 Oct 13.

Community Health and Health Behavior, School of Public Health and Health Professions, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York, USA.

Alcohol mixed energy drinks (AmED) may promote excessive alcohol intake and risk-taking among college students. To understand the relationship between AmED use and risky behavior as well as attitudes and motivations for AmED use. Undergraduate college students N = 422 (Study 1), N = 37 (Study 2). Using a mixed-methods approach, we first surveyed undergraduate students about their AmED and alcohol consumption and a series of risk behaviors, self-efficacy, and beliefs (Study 1). We then conducted focus groups within the same population to better understand attitudes, knowledge, and motivations for using AmED (Study 2). Recent AmED use was significantly associated with an increased number of reported binge drinking occasions and self-reported driving while intoxicated events. Our qualitative data analyses revealed two major themes associated with AmED consumption: factors encouraging AmED use and decisions about driving while under the influence of alcohol. These findings add to the literature of beliefs and motivations for AmED use among college students.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07448481.2020.1817036DOI Listing
October 2020

The influence of affect on HPV vaccine decision making in an HPV vaccine naïve college student population.

Prev Med Rep 2020 Dec 29;20:101195. Epub 2020 Aug 29.

University of Kentucky, United States.

The HPV vaccine is recommended for all adolescents starting at age 11, but coverage is low, especially in the young adult population. The CDC is prioritizing catch-up vaccination and has expanded recommendations for all young adults to age 26. College students may be ideal targets for HPV vaccine interventions as they typically have on-site clinics that offer prevention services and students are in the position to make decisions about their own healthcare. We examined the risk perceptions of 101 HPV vaccine-naïve college students, both in terms of risk cognition (beliefs about susceptibility to HPV-related cancers and genital warts) and affect (worry and fear regarding HPV-related health outcomes) as they relate to HPV vaccine intentions. Participants completed an online survey, reporting absolute and comparative risk perceptions for HPV-related cancers/genital warts, fear and worry related to getting HPV-related cancer and/or genital warts, desire for positive emotions, affective associations with the HPV vaccine, and intentions to get the HPV vaccine. More fear/worry about vaccination was directly associated with increased vaccine intentions. The perceived risk to intentions relation included an indirect effect via fear/worry. Desire for positive affect strengthened this relation. Positive affective associations with the HPV vaccine were also related to increased vaccine intentions. Given the public health impact of increasing HPV vaccine coverage for young adults, educational strategies framing the HPV vaccine positively while decreasing fear/worry related to negative health outcomes might increase interest in on-campus catch-up vaccination.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pmedr.2020.101195DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7498828PMC
December 2020

Is it disgusting or am I just easily disgusted? The relation between situational disgust, dispositional disgust, and colonoscopy intentions.

Eur J Cancer Care (Engl) 2020 Sep 29;29(5):e13244. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Health, Behavior, and Society, College of Public Health, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA.

Objective: While early detection is an effective way to reduce mortality from colorectal cancer, screening rates are low. An underlying factor in screening completion failure may be experiences of disgust when learning about screening and/or dispositional disgust.

Method: Participants recruited via Amazon MTurk (N = 296) read information about colonoscopy and completed an online survey assessing both dispositional forms of disgust (i.e. trait disgust and disgust sensitivity) and situational forms, including state disgust and disgust associated with colonoscopy. Participants reported intentions to discuss colonoscopy with a provider and to prepare for and complete screening.

Results: Greater state disgust and the degree to which one associated disgust with colonoscopy predicted lower screening, preparation and provider discussion intentions. By contrast, neither trait disgust nor disgust sensitivity was associated with intentions. Both disgust sensitivity and trait disgust moderated the state disgust to intentions relation.

Conclusions: This is one of few investigations of disgust examining the relation between specific types and colonoscopy intentions. Screening uptake may be improved by identifying specific components of disgust that have an effect on colonoscopy intentions. Future work focusing on the interplay between different disgust mechanisms as they relate to colonoscopy behaviour is important for intervention development.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ecc.13244DOI Listing
September 2020

Affective components of perceived risk mediate the relation between cognitively-based perceived risk and colonoscopy screening.

J Behav Med 2020 02 7;43(1):121-130. Epub 2019 May 7.

Department of Cancer Prevention and Control, Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center, Elm and Carlton Streets, Buffalo, NY, 14263, USA.

Perceived risk is a common component of health decision making theory. When affective components of risk are assessed as predictors of a behavior, they are usually examined separately from cognitive components. Less frequently examined are more complex interplays between affect and cognition. We hypothesized that cognitive and affective risk components would both have direct effects on colonoscopy behavior/intentions and that affective components would mediate the relationship of cognitively-based perceived risk to colonoscopy screening. In two secondary analyses, participants reported their cognitive and affective perceived risk for colorectal cancer, past colonoscopy behavior, and future screening intentions. In both studies, cognitive and affective risk components were associated with increased screening behavior/intentions and cognitive risk components were mediated through affective risk. Given the impact of early detection on colorectal cancer prevention, educational strategies highlighting both components of risk may be important to increase screening rates.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10865-019-00049-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6834895PMC
February 2020

Predicting Colonoscopy Screening Behavior and Future Screening Intentions for African Americans Older than 50 Years.

Behav Med 2019 Jul-Sep;45(3):221-230. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

d Department of Health, Behavior, and Society, College of Public Health, University of Kentucky , Lexington , KY , USA.

African Americans experience a disproportionate burden of morbidity and mortality from colorectal cancer, which may be due to low adherence to screening recommendations. Previous studies have found relationships between decision-making factors and screening behavior, but few have looked at both cognitive and affective factors or within a specifically African American sample. To better understand determinants that drive screening behavior, this study examines affective, cognitive, and social variables as predictors of colonoscopy in an age-eligible African American population. Participants completed surveys assessing affective associations with colonoscopy, perceived benefits and barriers, self-efficacy, knowledge, fear of colonoscopy, perceived risk, and colorectal cancer worry and fear. Regression analysis was used to model decision-making constructs as predictors of screening behavior/intentions. Affective, cognitive, and health care experience variables predicted colonoscopy completion and intentions. Provider-level factors and previous cancer screenings predicted prior screening only, but not intentions. Affective and cognitive components of perceived risk were associated with decreased likelihood of colonoscopy behavior, but increased likelihood of colonoscopy intentions. These findings suggest that colonoscopy decision making involves a complex array of both cognitive and affective determinants. This work extends our knowledge of colorectal cancer screening decision making by evaluating the effects of these multiple determinants on screening behavior in an African American sample. Future work exploring the interplay of affect and cognitions as influences on colonoscopy decision making and how health care experiences may moderate this effect is needed to develop effective intervention approaches and reduce screening disparities.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08964289.2018.1510365DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6517076PMC
February 2020

Decision-making and socioeconomic disparities in colonoscopy screening in African Americans.

Health Psychol 2018 05 29;37(5):481-490. Epub 2018 Mar 29.

Department of Oncological Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai.

Background: Socioeconomic status (SES) disparities in colorectal cancer screening are persistent. Lower education and income are both associated with lower screening rates. Both cognitive (e.g., perceived barriers) and affective (e.g., disgust, fear) decision-making constructs are known determinants of colorectal cancer screening behavior. This study tests the hypotheses that SES may be related to decision-making constructs and that this SES-decision-making construct relation may contribute to explaining the SES-screening behavior disparity.

Method: Surveys assessing perceived benefits and barriers to screening, self-efficacy, positive and negative affective associations with colonoscopy, fear of colonoscopy, colorectal cancer knowledge, past screening behavior, and demographics including education and income were completed by 2,015 African American participants ages 50 and older. Both univariable and multivariable relations of SES to decision-making constructs were examined, as were univariable and multivariable models of the indirect effect of SES on screening via decision-making constructs.

Results: Socioeconomic status was related to both screening compliance and the decision-making constructs. Bootstrap modeling of the indirect effect showed that the total effect of the SES-screening behavior relation included an indirect effect via social cognitive decision-making constructs.

Conclusion: These findings suggest that cognitive and affective decision-making constructs account for at least some of the SES disparities in colorectal cancer screening behavior. As such, more research is needed to explore the intra individual-level influences of disparities in colorectal cancer screening. In addition, work is needed to develop effective intervention approaches to address the relation of SES to decision-making constructs. (PsycINFO Database Record
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/hea0000603DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5920714PMC
May 2018

Designing a randomized controlled trial to evaluate a community-based narrative intervention for improving colorectal cancer screening for African Americans.

Contemp Clin Trials 2018 02 1;65:8-18. Epub 2017 Dec 1.

Department of Community Health and Health Behavior, School of Public Health and Health Professions, University at Buffalo, SUNY, Buffalo, NY 14214, United States.

Objective: To describe the methodology of a 2-arm randomized controlled trial that compared the effects of a narrative and didactic version of the Witness CARES (Community Awareness, Reach, & Empowerment for Screening) intervention on colorectal cancer screening behavior among African Americans, as well as the cognitive and affective determinants of screening.

Methods: Witness CARES targeted cognitive and affective predictors of screening using a culturally competent, community-based, narrative or didactic communication approach. New and existing community partners were recruited in two New York sites. Group randomization allocated programs to the narrative or didactic arm. Five phases of data collection were conducted: baseline, post-intervention, three-month, six-month, and qualitative interviews. The primary outcome was screening behavior; secondary outcomes included cognitive and affective determinants of screening.

Results: A total of 183 programs were conducted for 2655 attendees. Of these attendees, 19.4% (N=516) across 158 programs (50% narrative; 50% didactic) were study-eligible and consented to participate. Half (45.6%) of the programs were delivered to new community partners and 34.8% were delivered at faith-based organizations. Mean age of the total sample was 64.7years and 75.4% were female.

Conclusion: The planned number of programs was delivered, but the proportion of study-eligible attendees was lower than predicted. This community-based participatory research approach was largely successful in involving the community served in the development and implementation of the intervention and study.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cct.2017.11.019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5803387PMC
February 2018

Lactation Consultants' Perceived Barriers to Providing Professional Breastfeeding Support.

J Hum Lact 2018 Feb 18;34(1):51-67. Epub 2017 Aug 18.

1 Department of Community and Family Health, College of Public Health, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA.

Background: Addressing suboptimal breastfeeding initiation and duration rates is a priority in the United States. To address challenges to improving these rates, the voices of the providers who work with breastfeeding mothers should be heard. Research aim: The purpose of this study was to explore lactation consultants' perceived barriers to managing early breastfeeding problems.

Methods: This qualitative study was conducted with a grounded theory methodological approach. In-depth interviews were conducted with 30 International Board Certified Lactation Consultants across Florida. Lactation consultants were from a range of practice settings, including hospitals, Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children clinics, private practice, and pediatric offices. Data were digitally recorded, transcribed, and analyzed in Atlas.ti.

Results: A range of barriers was identified and grouped into the following categories/themes: indirect barriers (social norms, knowledge, attitudes); direct occupational barriers (institutional constraints, lack of coordination, poor service delivery); and direct individual barriers (social support, mother's self-efficacy). A model was developed illustrating the factors that influence the role enactment of lactation consultants in managing breastfeeding problems.

Conclusion: Inadequate support for addressing early breastfeeding challenges is compounded by a lack of collaboration among various healthcare providers and the family. Findings provide insight into the professional management issues of early breastfeeding problems faced by lactation consultants. Team-based, interprofessional approaches to breastfeeding support for mothers and their families are needed; improving interdisciplinary collaboration could lead to better integration of lactation consultants who are educated and experienced in providing lactation support and management of breastfeeding problems.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0890334417726305DOI Listing
February 2018