Publications by authors named "Lynne Cochrane"

9 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Introduction of a prescribing ward round to reduce prescribing errors on a paediatric intensive care unit.

Arch Dis Child Educ Pract Ed 2021 08 3;106(4):251-254. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Paediatric Intensive Care Unit, Great Ormond Street Hospital For Children NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

Our paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) performs active surveillance for prescribing errors and detects a mean of 1.66 with an SD of 0.18 total prescription errors per occupied bed day. The primary aim of this project was to reduce the number of prescribing errors in PICU. The secondary aims were to improve the workflow in the unit and reduce the time staff spent on medication queries/prescribing. We introduced a daily multidisciplinary prescribing round to our PICU. Prescribing errors reduced, with the mean number of total prescription errors per bed day falling from 1.66 (0.18) to 1.19 (0.13), the mean number of clinical prescription errors per bed day falling from 0.46 (0.09) to 0.3 (0.07), and the mean number of non-clinical prescribing errors per bed day falling from 1.12 (0.15) to 0.67 (0.1). Forty-eight staff responded to the survey, 39 of whom had been directly involved in the rounds. The majority (37 of 39; 95%) said the prescribing round reduced the overall time they spent on prescribing/medication queries during their shift, and 9 of 10 (90%) prescribers said that they were interrupted fewer times for medication queries while doing other tasks. Almost all (47 of 48; 98%) said that they thought the prescribing ward round should continue. Introduction of a prescribing round with senior medical and pharmacist involvement was associated with a reduction in prescribing errors as well as reduction in the overall time staff spent on medication queries and prescribing. The round was well received by staff, with 98% wanting it to continue.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/archdischild-2019-318732DOI Listing
August 2021

Functionality of promoter microsatellites of arginine vasopressin receptor 1A (AVPR1A): implications for autism.

Mol Autism 2011 Mar 31;2(1). Epub 2011 Mar 31.

Neuropsychiatric Genetics Research Group, Department of Psychiatry, Institute of Molecular Medicine, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.

Background: Arginine vasopressin (AVP) has been hypothesized to play a role in aetiology of autism based on a demonstrated involvement in the regulation of social behaviours. The arginine vasopressin receptor 1A gene (AVPR1A) is widely expressed in the brain and is considered to be a key receptor for regulation of social behaviour. Moreover, genetic variation at AVPR1A has been reported to be associated with autism. Evidence from non-human mammals implicates variation in the 5'-flanking region of AVPR1A in variable gene expression and social behaviour.

Methods: We examined four tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs3803107, rs1042615, rs3741865, rs11174815) and three microsatellites (RS3, RS1 and AVR) at the AVPR1A gene for association in an autism cohort from Ireland. Two 5'-flanking region polymorphisms in the human AVPR1A, RS3 and RS1, were also tested for their effect on relative promoter activity.

Results: The short alleles of RS1 and the SNP rs11174815 show weak association with autism in the Irish population (P = 0.036 and P = 0.008, respectively). Both RS1 and RS3 showed differences in relative promoter activity by length. Shorter repeat alleles of RS1 and RS3 decreased relative promoter activity in the human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y.

Conclusions: These aligning results can be interpreted as a functional route for this association, namely that shorter alleles of RS1 lead to decreased AVPR1A transcription, which may proffer increased susceptibility to the autism phenotype.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/2040-2392-2-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3080300PMC
March 2011

Lack of association between markers in the ITGA3, ITGAV, ITGA6 and ITGB3 and autism in an Irish sample.

Autism Res 2010 Dec 3;3(6):342-4. Epub 2010 Dec 3.

Neuropsychiatric Genetics Research Group, Department of Psychiatry, Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland.

Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairments in three core areas--language, social interaction and restricted/repetitive behaviours. It is generally accepted that genetics plays a large role in the aetiology of autism, but the exact mechanism is still unknown. We recently published evidence of an association between autism and the ITGA4 gene [Conroy et al., 2008]. Two genomic regions have shown evidence of linkage to autism in multiple studies--2q31-q33 and 17q21-q22. Both of these regions harbour multiple integrin subunit genes. We tested markers in ITGA3, ITGA6, ITGAV and ITGB3 for association with autism in the Irish autism sample. No markers in ITGA3, ITGA6, ITGAV and ITGB3 were found to be associated with autism. Three 3-marker haplotypes in ITGAV, ITGA3 and ITGA6 were found to be nominally associated (0.01 < P < 0.05) and to have unremarkable findings. Our data indicates that in the Irish autism sample the integrin genes tested here do not play an important role in the aetiology of autism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aur.157DOI Listing
December 2010

A genome-wide scan for common alleles affecting risk for autism.

Hum Mol Genet 2010 Oct 27;19(20):4072-82. Epub 2010 Jul 27.

Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Trinity College, Dublin 8, Ireland.

Although autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have a substantial genetic basis, most of the known genetic risk has been traced to rare variants, principally copy number variants (CNVs). To identify common risk variation, the Autism Genome Project (AGP) Consortium genotyped 1558 rigorously defined ASD families for 1 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and analyzed these SNP genotypes for association with ASD. In one of four primary association analyses, the association signal for marker rs4141463, located within MACROD2, crossed the genome-wide association significance threshold of P < 5 × 10(-8). When a smaller replication sample was analyzed, the risk allele at rs4141463 was again over-transmitted; yet, consistent with the winner's curse, its effect size in the replication sample was much smaller; and, for the combined samples, the association signal barely fell below the P < 5 × 10(-8) threshold. Exploratory analyses of phenotypic subtypes yielded no significant associations after correction for multiple testing. They did, however, yield strong signals within several genes, KIAA0564, PLD5, POU6F2, ST8SIA2 and TAF1C.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddq307DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2947401PMC
October 2010

Functional impact of global rare copy number variation in autism spectrum disorders.

Nature 2010 Jul 9;466(7304):368-72. Epub 2010 Jun 9.

The Centre for Applied Genomics and Program in Genetics and Genomic Biology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1L7, Canada.

The autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a group of conditions characterized by impairments in reciprocal social interaction and communication, and the presence of restricted and repetitive behaviours. Individuals with an ASD vary greatly in cognitive development, which can range from above average to intellectual disability. Although ASDs are known to be highly heritable ( approximately 90%), the underlying genetic determinants are still largely unknown. Here we analysed the genome-wide characteristics of rare (<1% frequency) copy number variation in ASD using dense genotyping arrays. When comparing 996 ASD individuals of European ancestry to 1,287 matched controls, cases were found to carry a higher global burden of rare, genic copy number variants (CNVs) (1.19 fold, P = 0.012), especially so for loci previously implicated in either ASD and/or intellectual disability (1.69 fold, P = 3.4 x 10(-4)). Among the CNVs there were numerous de novo and inherited events, sometimes in combination in a given family, implicating many novel ASD genes such as SHANK2, SYNGAP1, DLGAP2 and the X-linked DDX53-PTCHD1 locus. We also discovered an enrichment of CNVs disrupting functional gene sets involved in cellular proliferation, projection and motility, and GTPase/Ras signalling. Our results reveal many new genetic and functional targets in ASD that may lead to final connected pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature09146DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3021798PMC
July 2010

Oxytocin receptor (OXTR) does not play a major role in the aetiology of autism: genetic and molecular studies.

Neurosci Lett 2010 May 18;474(3):163-167. Epub 2010 Mar 18.

Neuropsychiatric Genetics Research Group, Department of Psychiatry, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 8, Ireland.

Oxytocin (OXT) has been hypothesized to play a role in aetiology of autism based on a demonstrated involvement in the regulation of social behaviours. It is postulated that OXT reduces activation of the amygdala, inhibiting social anxiety, indicating a neural mechanism for the effects of OXT in social cognition. Genetic variation at the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) has been reported to be associated with autism. We examined 18 SNPs at the OXTR gene for association in three independent autism samples from Ireland, Portugal and the United Kingdom. We investigated cis-acting genetic effects on OXTR expression in lymphocytes and amygdala region of the brain using an allelic expression imbalance (AEI) assay and by investigating the correlation between RNA levels and genotype in the amygdala region. No marker survived multiple correction for association with autism in any sample or in a combined sample (n=436). Results from the AEI assay performed in the lymphoblast cell lines highlighted two SNPs associated with relative allelic abundance in OXTR (rs237897 and rs237895). Two SNPs were found to be effecting cis-acting variation through AEI in the amygdala. One was weakly correlated with total gene expression (rs13316193) and the other was highlighted in the lymphoblast cell lines (rs237895). Data presented here does not support the role of common genetic variation in OXTR in the aetiology of autism spectrum disorders in Caucasian samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2010.03.035DOI Listing
May 2010

Fine mapping and association studies in a candidate region for autism on chromosome 2q31-q32.

Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 2009 Jun;150B(4):535-44

Neuropsychiatric Genetics Research Group, Trinity Centre for Health Sciences, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.

Autism (OMIM %209850) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with a strong genetic component. We previously reported a de novo rearrangement of chromosome 2q31 in a patient with autism [Gallagher et al. (2003); J Autism Dev Disord 33(1):105-108]. Further cytogenetic analysis revealed this to be a 46,XY, t(9;2)(q31.1;q32.2q31.3) translocation. Association mapping with microsatellite and SNP markers of this translocated region on 2q revealed association with markers in Integrin alpha-4 (ITGA4; GeneID 3676). ITGA4 was tested for association in a sample of 179 trio-based families. SNP markers in exons 16 and 17 showed evidence of association. Mutation screening revealed a G to A synonymous variation in the last nucleotide of exon 16 (rs12690517), significantly associated with autism in the Irish sample (OR = 1.6; P = 0.04). The location of this SNP at a putative splice donor site may affect the splicing of the ITGA4 protein. Haplotype analysis showed significant overtransmission of haplotypes surrounding this marker. These markers were investigated in two additional samples, 102 families from Vanderbilt University (VT) (n = 102), and AGRE (n = 267). A non-significant trend towards overtransmission of the associated allele of rs12690517 in the Irish sample (OR = 1.2; P = 0.067) and haplotypes at the 3' end of ITGA4 was observed in the AGRE sample. The VT sample showed association with markers and haplotypes across the gene, but no association with the rs12690517 marker or its surrounding haplotypes. The combined sample showed evidence of association with rs12690517 (OR = 1.3; P = 0.008) and surrounding haplotypes. The findings indicate some evidence for the role of ITGA4 as candidate gene for autism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.b.30854DOI Listing
June 2009

Protein kinase C-beta 1 gene variants are not associated with autism in the Irish population.

Psychiatr Genet 2007 Feb;17(1):39-41

Department of Psychiatry, Trinity Centre for Health Sciences, St James's Hospital, Dublin, Ireland, and Laboratory of Disorder Genes, Chongqing University of Medical Sciences, Chongqing, PR China.

Some evidences indicate that protein kinase C-beta 1 (PRKCB1) gene may be a predisposition locus of autism. A recent study reported evidence of association between autism and two haplotypes made up of six noncoding single nucleotide polymorphisms in the PRKCB1. To attempt replication of their findings, we examined the same six single nucleotide polymorphisms of PRKCB1 in 171 Irish autism trios. The haploview program was used to calculate D' as a measure of linkage disequilibrium. The transmission disequilibrium test for single nucleotide polymorphism markers and haplotypes was carried out using the TDTPHASE and PDTPHASE from the UNPHASED version 2.404 programs. Transmission disequilibrium test analysis showed no evidence of association for any of the six single nucleotide polymorphisms at the PRKCB1 that we studied, or any of their haplotypes. Our data do not support the finding that the PRKCB1 gene variants contribute risk for the development of autism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/YPG.0b013e3280115428DOI Listing
February 2007

Tolerance to self gangliosides is the major factor restricting the antibody response to lipopolysaccharide core oligosaccharides in Campylobacter jejuni strains associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome.

Infect Immun 2002 Sep;70(9):5008-18

University Department of Neurology, Institute of Neurological Sciences, Southern General Hospital, Glasgow, Scotland G51 4TF.

Guillain-Barré syndrome following Campylobacter jejuni infection is frequently associated with anti-ganglioside autoantibodies mediated by molecular mimicry with ganglioside-like oligosaccharides on bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The regulation of antibody responses to these T-cell-independent antigens is poorly understood, and only a minority of Campylobacter-infected individuals develop anti-ganglioside antibodies. This study investigates the response to gangliosides and LPS in strains of mice by using a range of immunization strategies. In normal mice following intraperitoneal immunization, antibody responses to gangliosides and LPS are low level but can be enhanced by the antigen format or coadministration of protein to recruit T-cell help. Class switching from the predominant immunoglobulin M (IgM) response to IgG3 occurs at low levels, suggesting B1-cell involvement. Systemic immunization results in poor responses. In GalNAc transferase knockout mice that lack all complex gangliosides and instead express high levels of GM3 and GD3, generation of anti-ganglioside antibodies upon immunization with either complex gangliosides or ganglioside-mimicking LPS is greatly enhanced and exhibits class switching to T-cell-dependent IgG isotypes and immunological memory, indicating that tolerance to self gangliosides is a major regulatory factor. Responses to GD3 are suppressed in knockout mice compared with wild-type mice, in which responses to GD3 are induced specifically by GD3 and as a result of polyclonal B-cell activation by LPS. The anti-ganglioside response generated in response to LPS is also dependent on the epitope density of the ganglioside mimicked and can be further manipulated by providing secondary signals via lipid A and CD40 ligation.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC128228PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/IAI.70.9.5008-5018.2002DOI Listing
September 2002
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