Publications by authors named "Lynn Snyder-Mackler"

213 Publications

Low Rates of Radiographic Knee Osteoarthritis 5 Years After ACL Reconstruction or Rehabilitation Alone: The Delaware-Oslo ACL Cohort Study.

Orthop J Sports Med 2021 Aug 17;9(8):23259671211027530. Epub 2021 Aug 17.

Department of Sports Medicine, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.

Background: Patients and clinicians often struggle to choose the optimal management strategy for posttraumatic knee osteoarthritis (OA) after an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. An evaluation of radiographic outcomes after a decision-making and treatment algorithm applicable in clinical practice can help to inform future recommendations and treatment choices.

Purpose: To describe and compare 5-year radiographic outcomes and knee pain in individuals who had gone through our decision-making and treatment algorithm and chosen (1) early (<6 months) ACL reconstruction (ACLR) with pre- and postoperative rehabilitation, (2) delayed (>6 months) ACLR with pre- and postoperative rehabilitation, or (3) progressive rehabilitation alone.

Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2.

Methods: We included 276 patients with unilateral ACL injury from a prospective cohort study. Patients chose management using a shared decision-making process and treatment algorithm, and 5-year postoperative radiographs of the index and contralateral knees were assessed using the Kellgren and Lawrence (K&L) classification and minimum joint space width measurements. We defined radiographic tibiofemoral OA as K&L grade ≥2 and knee pain as a Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score for Pain ≤72. To further explore early radiographic changes, we included alternative cutoffs for radiographic knee OA using K&L grade ≥2/osteophyte (definite osteophyte without joint space narrowing) and K&L grade ≥1.

Results: At 5 years, 64% had undergone early ACLR; 11%, delayed ACLR; and 25%, progressive rehabilitation alone. Radiographic examination was attended by 187 patients (68%). Six percent of the cohort had radiographic tibiofemoral OA (K&L grade ≥2) in the index knee; 4%, in the contralateral knee. Using the alternative cutoffs at K&L grade ≥2/osteophyte and K&L grade ≥1, the corresponding numbers were 20% and 33% in the index knee and 18% and 29% in the contralateral knee. Six percent had a painful index knee. There were no statistically significant differences in any radiographic outcomes or knee pain among the 3 management groups.

Conclusion: There were no statistically significant differences in any 5-year radiographic outcomes or knee pain among the 3 management groups. Very few of the patients who participated in our decision-making and treatment algorithm had knee OA or knee pain at 5 years.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/23259671211027530DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8375355PMC
August 2021

Biomechanical Changes During a 90º Cut in Collegiate Female Soccer Players With Participation in the 11.

Int J Sports Phys Ther 2021 Jun 2;16(3):671-680. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Biomechanics and Movement Science, University of Delaware; Physical Therapy, University of Delaware.

Background: Valgus collapse and high knee abduction moments have been identified as biomechanical risk factors for ACL injury. It is unknown if participation in the 11+, a previously established, dynamic warm-up that emphasizes biomechanical technique and reduces ACL injury rates, reduces components of valgus collapse during a 90º cut.

Hypothesis/purpose: To determine whether participation in the 11+ during a single soccer season reduced peak knee abduction moment and components of valgus collapse during a 90º cut in collegiate female soccer players.

Study Design: Prospective cohort study.

Methods: Forty-six participants completed preseason and postseason motion analysis of a 90º cut. During the season, 31 players completed the 11+ and 15 players completed their typical warm-up (control group). Peak knee abduction moment, components of valgus collapse (hip adduction, internal rotation, and knee abduction angles), and a novel measure of knee valgus collapse were analyzed with repeated-measures ANOVAs to determine differences between preseason and postseason. Smallest detectable change (SDC) and minimal important difference (MID) values were applied to contextualize results.

Results: There was a significant main effect of time for non-dominant knee valgus collapse (p=0.03), but decreases in non-dominant knee valgus collapse only exceeded the SDC in the intervention team.

Conclusions: Clinically meaningful decreases in knee valgus collapse may indicate a beneficial biomechanical effect of the 11+. Participation in the 11+ may lower ACL injury risk by reducing valgus collapse during a 90º cut.

Level Of Evidence: 2b.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.26603/001c.22146DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8168994PMC
June 2021

Clinical, Functional, and Physical Activity Outcomes 5 Years Following the Treatment Algorithm of the Delaware-Oslo ACL Cohort Study.

J Bone Joint Surg Am 2021 Aug;103(16):1473-1481

Department of Sports Medicine, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.

Background: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries can be treated with or without ACL reconstruction (ACLR), and more high-quality studies evaluating outcomes after the different treatment courses are needed. The purpose of the present study was to describe and compare 5-year clinical, functional, and physical activity outcomes for patients who followed our decision-making and treatment algorithm and chose (1) early ACLR with preoperative and postoperative rehabilitation, (2) delayed ACLR with preoperative and postoperative rehabilitation, or (3) progressive rehabilitation alone. Early ACLR was defined as that performed ≤6 months after the preoperative rehabilitation program, and late ACLR was defined as that performed >6 months after the preoperative rehabilitation program.

Methods: We included 276 patients from a prospective cohort study. The patients had been active in jumping, pivoting, and cutting sports before the injury and sustained a unilateral ACL injury without substantial concomitant knee injuries. The patients chose their treatment through a shared decision-making process. At 5 years, we assessed the International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Form (IKDC-SKF), Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), Marx Activity Rating Scale, sports participation, quadriceps muscle strength, single-legged hop performance, and new ipsilateral and contralateral knee injuries.

Results: The 5-year follow-up rate was 80%. At 5 years, 64% of the patients had undergone early ACLR, 11% had undergone delayed ACLR, and 25% had had progressive rehabilitation alone. Understandably, the choices that participants made differed by age, concomitant injuries, symptoms, and predominantly level-I versus level-II preinjury activity level. There were no significant differences in any clinical, functional, or physical activity outcomes among the treatment groups. Across treatment groups, 95% to 100% of patients were still active in some kind of sports and 65% to 88% had IKDC-SKF and KOOS scores above the threshold for a patient acceptable symptom state.

Conclusions: Patients with ACL injury who were active in jumping, pivoting, and cutting sports prior to injury; who had no substantial concomitant knee injuries; and who followed our decision-making and treatment algorithm had good 5-year knee function and high sport participation rates. Three of 4 patients had undergone ACLR within 5 years. There were no significant differences in any outcomes among patients treated with early ACLR, delayed ACLR, or progressive rehabilitation alone.

Level Of Evidence: Therapeutic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.20.01731DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8376754PMC
August 2021

Knee cartilage T relaxation times 3 months after ACL reconstruction are associated with knee gait variables linked to knee osteoarthritis.

J Orthop Res 2021 Mar 30. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware, USA.

Osteoarthritis development after ACL reconstruction (ACLR) is not well understood. Investigators have examined associations between knee biomechanical alterations and quantitative MRI (qMRI) variables, reflective of cartilage health, 12-60 months following ACLR; however, none have done so early after surgery. As part of an exploratory study, 45 individuals (age, 23 ± 7 years) underwent motion analysis during walking and qMRI 3 months after ACLR. For each limb, peak knee adduction moment (pKAM) and peak knee flexion moment (pKFM) were determined using inverse dynamics and peak medial compartment force was calculated using a neuromusculoskeletal model. T relaxation times in the medial compartment and linear regressions were used to determine the associations between gait variables and deep and superficial cartilage T relaxation times in six regions. pKAM was positively associated with deep layer T relaxation times within the femoral central and posterior regions when examined in the involved limb and from an interlimb difference perspective (involved limb - uninvolved limb). After adjusting for age, the association between interlimb difference of pKAM and interlimb difference of deep layer T relaxation times in the tibial central region became significant (p = .043). Interlimb difference of pKFM was negatively associated with interlimb difference of deep layer T relaxation times within the femoral central and posterior regions. These associations suggest that degenerative pathways leading to osteoarthritis may be detectable as early as 3 months after reconstruction. Preventative therapeutic techniques may need to be employed early in the rehabilitation process to prevent cartilage degradation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jor.25043DOI Listing
March 2021

Rehabilitation duration and time of starting sport-related activities associated with return to the previous level of sports after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

Phys Ther Sport 2021 May 5;49:164-170. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, Jordan University of Science and Technology (JUST), P.O.Box 3030, Irbid, 22110, Jordan.

Objectives: To determine predictors for return to previous level of sports after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR).

Design: Cross-sectional; SETTING: Athletic teams.

Participants: Ninety-one athletes who had ACLR with hamstring-tendon autograft within 1-5 years participated in this study. Athletes indicated their sport participation levels, injury profile, rehabilitation duration, and time to start sport-related activities (running, cutting-pivoting) after ACLR. Athletes answered whether they returned to the same previous level of frequency, duration, and intensity of sports.

Main Outcome Measures: Athletes' characteristics, injury and surgical factors, duration of post-operative rehabilitation program, and time to start sport-related activities after ACLR were evaluated by univariate logistic regression to determine predictors for return to previous level of sports.

Results: Nine athletes (10%) returned to their self-described previous level of sports. Predictors for returning to previous level of sports were rehabilitation duration >4 months (OR:6.78; p = .011), time to start running ≤4 months (OR:8.62; p = .047) and cutting-pivoting <6 months after surgery (OR:5.02; p = .030).

Conclusion: Longer post-operative rehabilitation duration and time to start sport-related activities after ACLR predicted return to previous level of sports. Spending adequate time in post-operative rehabilitation program and time-based resumption of sports-related activities after ACLR might be key factors for returning to previous sports level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ptsp.2021.02.014DOI Listing
May 2021

Pain-guided activity modification during treatment for patellar tendinopathy: a feasibility and pilot randomized clinical trial.

Pilot Feasibility Stud 2021 Feb 25;7(1):58. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Physical Therapy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, USA.

Background: Activity modification is a key component of patellar tendinopathy treatment but there is a lack of evidence guiding activity modification prescription. Use of activity modification in treatment studies has varied widely and the impact of those recommendations has not been directly investigated or compared. The purpose of this study was to assess (1) the feasibility of using pain-guided activity modification during treatment for patellar tendinopathy and (2) if our outcome measures are responsive to changes in tendon health over the course of treatment.

Methods: This was an unblinded, randomized two-arm pilot and feasibility study randomized clinical trial with parallel assignment, conducted in Newark, DE. Individuals between the ages of 16 and 40 years old with patellar tendinopathy were included. Participants were randomly assigned to a pain-guided activity (PGA) or pain-free activity (PFA) group using a spreadsheet-based randomization scheme. All participants received standardized treatment using a modified version of the heavy-slow resistance protocol 3×/week for 12 weeks. For the first 6 weeks, the PGA group used the Pain-Monitoring Model to guide activity outside of treatment and the PFA group was restricted from running, jumping, or activities that provoked their patellar tendon pain. Feasibility outcomes included recruitment, enrollment, randomization, compliance, and retention percentages. Clinical evaluations were conducted at baseline, 6, and 12 weeks to assess symptom severity, psychological factors, tendon morphology and mechanical properties, lower extremity function, and quadriceps muscle performance.

Results: In a ~ 13-month period, 108 individuals were screened, 47/108 (43.5%) were eligible for participation, and 15/47 (32.0%) of those were enrolled (9 PGA, 6 PFA). The recruitment rate was 1.15 participants/month. The mean ± SD compliance with treatment was PGA: 86.1 ± 13.0% and PFA: 67.1 ± 30.7%. There was one missed evaluation session and two adverse events, which were not due to study interventions. Changes exceeding the smallest detectable change were observed for at least one outcome in each domain of tendon health.

Conclusions: Use of pain-guided activity modification during exercise therapy for patellar tendinopathy was found to be feasible, and the proposed outcome measures appropriate. Computer-based allocation concealment, blinding of evaluators, and greater recruitment of high-level athletes should be implemented in future trials.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03694730 . Registered 3 of October, 2018.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40814-021-00792-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7905015PMC
February 2021

Patients Walking Faster After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Have More Gait Asymmetry.

Int J Sports Phys Ther 2021 Feb 1;16(1):169-176. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

University of Delaware.

Background: Gait asymmetries after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) may lead to radiographic knee osteoarthritis. Slower walking speeds have been associated with biomarkers suggesting cartilage breakdown. The relationship between walking speed and gait symmetry after ACLR is unknown.

Hypothesis/purpose: To determine the relationship between self-selected walking speeds and gait symmetry in athletes after primary, unilateral ACLR.

Study Design: Secondary analysis of a clinical trial.

Methods: Athletes 24±8 weeks after primary ACLR walked at self-selected speeds as kinematics, kinetics, and electromyography data were collected. An EMG-driven musculoskeletal model was used to calculate peak medial compartment contact force (pMCCF). Variables of interest were peak knee flexion moment (pKFM) and angle (pKFA), knee flexion and extension (KEE) excursions, peak knee adduction moment (pKAM), and pMCCF. Univariate correlations were run for walking speed and each variable in the ACLR knee, contralateral knee, and interlimb difference (ILD).

Results: Weak to moderate positive correlations were observed for walking speed and all variables of interest in the contralateral knee (Pearson's r=.301-.505, p≤0.01). In the ACLR knee, weak positive correlations were observed for only pKFM (r=.280, p=0.02) and pKFA (r=.263, p=0.03). Weak negative correlations were found for ILDs in pKFM (r=-0.248, p=0.04), KEE (r=-.260, p=0.03), pKAM (r=-.323, p<0.01), and pMCCF (r=-.286, p=0.02).

Conclusion: Those who walk faster after ACLR have more asymmetries, which are associated with the development of early OA. This data suggests that interventions that solely increase walking speed may accentuate gait symmetry in athletes early after ACLR. Gait-specific, unilateral, neuromuscular interventions for the ACLR knee may be needed to target gait asymmetries after ACLR.

Level Of Evidence: III.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7872452PMC
February 2021

Quadriceps Strength Symmetry Does Not Modify Gait Mechanics After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction, Rehabilitation, and Return-to-Sport Training.

Am J Sports Med 2021 02 29;49(2):417-425. Epub 2020 Dec 29.

Biomechanics and Movement Science Program, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware, USA.

Background: After anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction (ACLR), biomechanical asymmetries during gait are highly prevalent, persistent, and linked to posttraumatic knee osteoarthritis. Quadriceps strength is an important clinical measure associated with preoperative gait asymmetries and postoperative function and is a primary criterion for return-to-sport clearance. Evidence relating symmetry in quadriceps strength with gait biomechanics is limited to preoperative and early rehabilitation time points before return-to-sport training.

Purpose/hypothesis: The purpose was to determine the relationship between symmetry in isometric quadriceps strength and gait biomechanics after return-to-sport training in athletes after ACLR. We hypothesized that as quadriceps strength symmetry increases, athletes will demonstrate more symmetric knee joint biomechanics, including tibiofemoral joint loading during gait.

Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3.

Methods: Of 79 athletes enrolled in the ACL-SPORTS Trial, 76 were participants in this study after completing postoperative rehabilitation and 10 return-to-sport training sessions (mean ± SD, 7.1 ± 2.0 months after ACLR). All participants completed biomechanical walking gait analysis and isometric quadriceps strength assessment using an electromechanical dynamometer. Quadriceps strength was calculated using a limb symmetry index (involved limb value / uninvolved limb value × 100). The biomechanical variables of interest included peak knee flexion angle, peak knee internal extension moment, sagittal plane knee excursion at weight acceptance and midstance, quadriceps muscle force at peak knee flexion angle, and peak medial compartment contact force. Spearman rank correlation (ρ) coefficients were used to determine the relationship between limb symmetry indexes in quadriceps strength and each biomechanical variable; alpha was set to .05.

Results: Of the 76 participants, 27 (35%) demonstrated asymmetries in quadriceps strength, defined by quadriceps strength symmetry <90% (n = 23) or >110% (n = 4) (range, 56.9%-131.7%). For the biomechanical variables of interest, 67% demonstrated asymmetry in peak knee flexion angle; 68% and 83% in knee excursion during weight acceptance and midstance, respectively; 74% in internal peak knee extension moment; 57% in medial compartment contact force; and 74% in quadriceps muscle force. There were no significant correlations between quadriceps strength index and limb symmetry indexes for any biomechanical variable after return-to-sport training ( > .129).

Conclusion: Among those who completed return-to-sport training after ACLR, subsequent quadriceps strength symmetry was not correlated with the persistent asymmetries in gait biomechanics. After a threshold of quadriceps strength is reached, restoring strength alone may not ameliorate gait asymmetries, and current clinical interventions and return-to-sport training may not adequately target gait.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0363546520980079DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7863565PMC
February 2021

BIOMECHANICAL MEASURES DURING TWO SPORT-SPECIFIC TASKS DIFFERENTIATE BETWEEN SOCCER PLAYERS WHO GO ON TO ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT INJURY AND THOSE WHO DO NOT: A PROSPECTIVE COHORT ANALYSIS.

Int J Sports Phys Ther 2020 Dec;15(6):928-935

Biomechanics and Movement Science, University of Delaware, Newark, DE USA.

Background: Decelerating and cutting are two common movements during which non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries occur in soccer players. Retrospective video analysis of ACL injuries has demonstrated that players are often in knee valgus at the time of injury.

Purpose: To determine whether prospectively measured components of valgus collapse during a deceleration and 90 ° cut can differentiate between collegiate women's soccer players who go on to non-contact ACL injury.

Design: Secondary analysis of prospectively collected data.

Methods: 51 NCAA women's soccer players completed motion analysis of a deceleration and 90 ° before the competitive season. Players were classified as Injured (noncontact ACL injury during the season) or Uninjured at the end of the season. Differences between groups for peak hip adduction, internal rotation, and knee abduction angles, and knee valgus collapse were analyzed with a MANOVA.

Results: Four non-contact ACL injuries were reported at the end of the season. There was a significant difference between groups for hip adduction angle during the 90 ° cut (p = 0.02) and deceleration (p = 0.03). Players who went on to ACL injury were in more hip adduction.

Conclusions: Hip adduction angle is larger in players who go on to ACL injury than those who do not during two sport-specific tasks. The components of knee injury prevention programs that address proximal control and strength are likely crucial for preventing ACL injuries.

Level Of Evidence: 2b.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.26603/ijspt20200928DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7727437PMC
December 2020

Kinematics observed during ACL injury are associated with large early peak knee abduction moments during a change of direction task in healthy adolescents.

J Orthop Res 2021 Oct 16;39(10):2281-2290. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Research Centre for Movement Sciences, University of Iceland, Reykjavík, Iceland.

Cluster analysis of knee abduction moment waveforms may be useful to examine biomechanical data. The aim of this study was to analyze if the knee abduction moment waveform of early peaks, consistent with anterior cruciate ligament injury mechanisms, was associated with foot-trunk distance, knee kinematics, and heel strike landing posture, all of which have been observed during anterior cruciate ligament injuries. One hundred and seventy-seven adolescent athletes performed cutting maneuvers, marker-based motion capture collected kinetic and marker data and an 8-segment musculoskeletal model was constructed. Knee abduction moment waveforms were clustered as either a large early peak, or not a large early peak using a two-step process with Euclidean distances and the Ward-d2 cluster method. Mediolateral distance between foot and trunk was associated with the large early peak waveform with an odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of 3.4 (2.7-4.4). Knee flexion angle at initial contact and knee flexion excursion had odds ratios of 1.9 (1.6-2.4) and 1.6 (1.3-2.0). Knee abduction excursions had an odds ratio of 1.8 (1.1-2.4) and 1.8 (1.4-2.4), respectively. Heel strike landings and anteroposterior distance between foot and trunk were not associated with the large early peak waveform with odds ratios of 1.2 (0.9-1.7) and 1.1 (0.8-1.3), respectively. The knee abduction moment waveform is associated with several kinematic variables observed during ACL injury. The results support intervention programs that can modify these kinematics and thus reduce early stance phase knee abduction moments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jor.24942DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8179932PMC
October 2021

FUNCTIONAL MEASURES DO NOT DIFFER IN LATE STAGE REHABILITATION AFTER ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT RECONSTRUCTION ACCORDING TO MECHANISM OF INJURY.

Int J Sports Phys Ther 2020 Oct;15(5):744-754

Background: Anterior cruciate ligament injuries are among the most common knee injuries. Mechanism of injury is classified as contact or non-contact. The majority of anterior cruciate ligament ruptures occur through a non-contact mechanism of injury. Non-contact anterior cruciate ligament ruptures are associated with biomechanical and neuromuscular risk factors that can predispose athletes to injuries and may impact future function. Non-contact mechanism of injury may be preceded by poor dynamic knee stability and therefore those with a non-contact mechanism of injury may be prone to poor dynamic knee stability post-operatively. Understanding how mechanism of injury affects post-operative functional recovery may have clinical implications on rehabilitation.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine if mechanism of injury influenced strength, functional performance, patient-reported outcome measures, and psychological outlook in athletes at four time points in the first two years following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

Study Design: Secondary analysis of a clinical trial.

Methods: Seventy-nine athletes underwent functional testing at enrollment after impairment resolution. Quadriceps strength, hop testing, and patient-reported outcome measures were evaluated post-operatively at enrollment, following return-to-sport training and one year and two years after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Participants were dichotomized by mechanism of injury (29 contact, 50 noncontact). Independent t-tests were used to compare differences between groups.

Results: There were no meaningful differences between contact and non-contact mechanism of injury in any variables at enrollment, post-training, one year, or two years after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

Conclusion: Function did not differ according to mechanism of injury during late stage rehabilitation or one or two years after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

Level Of Evidence: III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.26603/ijspt20200744DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7575151PMC
October 2020

Perceived barriers to implementation of injury prevention programs among collegiate women's soccer coaches.

J Sci Med Sport 2021 Apr 29;24(4):352-356. Epub 2020 Sep 29.

Biomechanics and Movement Science, University of Delaware, USA; Physical Therapy, University of Delaware, USA.

Objectives: Knee injury prevention programs (IPPs) reduce knee and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury rates in female athletes, however, implementation of IPPs is low. The purpose of this study was to identify barriers to implementation of IPPs among collegiate women's soccer coaches.

Design: Cross-sectional survey.

Methods: A custom survey based on the RE-AIM (reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, maintenance) framework and existing literature was sent to 151 out of 153 women's National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) soccer coaches in the NCAA's Eastern Region.

Results: Ten respondents reported that they did not use an IPP (Non-users), and nineteen respondents reported that they did use an IPP (Users). "Cost" was the most highly ranked barrier (median rank: 2) to implementing an IPP among Non-users. For the statement, "Who should be responsible for completing an IPP," Users said "Coaches" (47%) and "Other" (21%), while Non-users said "Strength and conditioning" (50%) and "Athletic trainers" (30%). Respondents who marked "Other", elaborated that it was the responsibility of coaches, athletes, and additional staff members.

Conclusions: Cost was the primary barrier to implementation of an IPP. Since the majority of Non-users indicated that implementation of an IPP was the responsibility of a non-coaching staff member, cost may be a surrogate for the expense of hiring an additional staff member rather than the cost of performing the IPP itself. Additionally, using a team-based approach that encompasses athletes, coaches, and non-coaching staff members may support long-term implementation of IPPs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2020.09.016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7904571PMC
April 2021

Association of Quadriceps Strength Symmetry and Surgical Status with Clinical Osteoarthritis 5 Years after Anterior Cruciate Ligament Rupture.

Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) 2020 Oct 7. Epub 2020 Oct 7.

Department of Physical Therapy, University of Delaware, Newark, USA.

Objective: The objective of this study was to examine the association of quadriceps strength symmetry and surgical status (ACL reconstruction or nonoperative management) with early clinical knee OA 5 years after ACL injury or reconstruction.

Methods: 204/300 athletes were analyzed 5 years after ACL injury or reconstruction (ACLR). Quadriceps strength was measured and reported as a limb symmetry index. We identified participants with early clinical knee OA using criteria that two of four Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) subscales score ≤85% (Luyten et al. 2018). We calculated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using logistic regression, adjusted for age, sex, meniscal injury, and BMI, to examine the associations between quadriceps strength and surgical status with clinical knee OA.

Results: 21% of participants met KOOS criteria for clinical knee OA (Luyten et al. 2018). For every 1% increase in quadriceps limb symmetry index, there was 4% lower odds of clinical OA (adjusted OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.93-0.99) at 5 years. Surgical status was not associated with clinical knee OA (adjusted OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.23, 1.50).

Conclusions: More symmetrical quadriceps strength, but not surgical status, 5 years after ACL injury or reconstruction was associated with lower odds of clinical knee OA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/acr.24479DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8024414PMC
October 2020

Who's Afraid of the Big Bad Wolf? Open-Chain Exercises After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2020 09;50(9):473-475

Synopsis: Restoring quadriceps muscle strength is integral to recovery following an anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. We argue that clinicians should re-evaluate their beliefs about open-chain exercises and measure this important variable to improve outcomes for their patients. .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2519/jospt.2020.0609DOI Listing
September 2020

Sex and mechanism of injury influence knee joint loading symmetry during gait 6 months after ACLR.

J Orthop Res 2021 05 13;39(5):1123-1132. Epub 2020 Aug 13.

Department of Physical Therapy, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware.

Early-onset knee osteoarthritis (OA) is associated with gait asymmetries after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Women have higher risks of sustaining non-contact injuries, and are more likely to present with aberrant movement patterns associated with the mechanism of injury (MOI). We hypothesized that sex and MOI would influence gait after ACLR. Seventy participants, grouped by sex and MOI, completed biomechanical testing during over-ground walking when they had full knee range of motion, trace or less knee effusion, greater than 80% quadriceps strength limb symmetry index, ability to hop on each leg without pain, and initiated running. Bilateral knee kinetics, kinematics, and joint contact forces were compared using mixed-model analysis of variance (α = .05). There was a three-way interaction effect of sex × MOI × limb for peak medial compartment contact force (P = .002), our primary outcome measure previously associated with OA development. Men with non-contact injuries walked with asymmetry characterized by underloading of the involved limb. Men with contact injuries walked with the most symmetrical loading. In women, no clear pattern emerged based on MOI. Targeting, and possibly prioritizing interventions for athletes who present with gait asymmetries after ACLR based on sex and MOI, may be necessary to optimize outcomes. Statement of Clinical Significance: Sex and MOI may influence walking mechanics, and could be considered in future interventions to target gait symmetry, as a response to interventions may vary based on differences in sex and MOI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jor.24822DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7864984PMC
May 2021

Examination of Corticospinal and Spinal Reflexive Excitability During the Course of Postoperative Rehabilitation After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2020 Sep 1;50(9):516-522. Epub 2020 Aug 1.

Objective: To investigate corticospinal and spinal reflexive excitability and quadriceps strength in healthy athletes and athletes after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) over the course of rehabilitation.

Design: Prospective cohort study.

Methods: Eighteen athletes with ACLR and 18 healthy athletes, matched by sex, age, and activity, were tested at (1) 2 weeks after surgery, (2) the "quiet knee" time point, defined as full range of motion and minimal effusion, and (3) return to running, defined as achieving a quadriceps index of 80% or greater. We measured (1) corticospinal excitability, using resting motor threshold (RMT) and motor-evoked potential amplitude at a stimulator intensity of 120% of RMT (MEP) to the vastus medialis, (2) spinal reflexive excitability, calculating the ratio of the maximal Hoffmann reflex to the maximal M-wave to the vastus medialis, and (3) isometric quadriceps strength.

Results: The ACLR group had higher RMTs in the nonsurgical limb and higher MEP in the surgical limb at all time points. The healthy-athlete group did not have interlimb differences. The RMT was positively associated with quadriceps strength 2 weeks after surgery; MEP was associated with quadriceps strength at all time points.

Conclusion: Compared to healthy athletes, athletes after ACLR had altered corticospinal excitability that did not change from 2 weeks after surgery to the time of return to running. .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2519/jospt.2020.9329DOI Listing
September 2020

A Secondary Injury Prevention Program May Decrease Contralateral Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries in Female Athletes: 2-Year Injury Rates in the ACL-SPORTS Randomized Controlled Trial.

J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2020 Sep 1;50(9):523-530. Epub 2020 Aug 1.

Objective: To determine whether the addition of perturbation training to a secondary injury prevention program reduces the rate of second anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury compared to the prevention program alone.

Design: Single-blinded randomized controlled trial.

Methods: Thirty-nine female athletes who intended to return to cutting/pivoting sports were enrolled 3 to 9 months after primary anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Athletes were randomized to receive a training program of either progressive strengthening, agility, plyometrics, and prevention (SAPP) (n = 20) or SAPP plus perturbation training (n = 19); each had 10 sessions over 5 weeks. Occurrence and side of second ACL injury were recorded for 2 years after primary ACLR.

Results: There were 9 second ACL injuries in the 2 years after ACLR. There was no statistically significant difference in rate or side of second ACL injury between the SAPP-plus-perturbation training and SAPP groups.

Conclusion: Adding perturbation training to a secondary ACL injury prevention program did not affect the rate of second ACL injury in female athletes. .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2519/jospt.2020.9407DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7484246PMC
September 2020

Meniscus or Cartilage Injury at the Time of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tear Is Associated With Worse Prognosis for Patient-Reported Outcome 2 to 10 Years After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury: A Systematic Review.

J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2020 Sep 1;50(9):490-502. Epub 2020 Aug 1.

Objectives: (1) To assess prognostic factors for patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) and physical activity 2 to 10 years after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) or anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, and (2) to assess differences in prognostic factors between patients treated with ACLR and with rehabilitation alone.

Design: Prognosis systematic review.

Literature Search: Systematic searches were performed in PubMed, Web of Science, and SPORTDiscus.

Study Selection Criteria: We selected prospective cohort studies and randomized clinical trials that included adults or adolescents undergoing either ACLR or rehabilitation alone after ACL rupture. Studies had to assess the statistical association between potential prognostic factors (factors related to patient characteristics, injury, or knee symptoms/function measured at baseline or within 1 year) and outcomes (PROMs and physical activity).

Data Synthesis: Our search yielded 997 references. Twenty studies met the inclusion criteria. Seven studies with low or moderate risk of bias remained for data synthesis.

Results: Moderate-certainty evidence indicated that concomitant meniscus and cartilage injuries were prognostic factors for worse PROMs 2 to 10 years after ACLR. Very low-certainty evidence suggested that body mass index, smoking, and baseline PROMs were prognostic factors for worse outcome. Very low-certainty evidence suggested that female sex and a worse baseline Marx Activity Rating Scale score were prognostic factors for a worse Marx Activity Rating Scale score 2 to 10 years after ACLR. There was a lack of studies on prognostic factors after rehabilitation alone.

Conclusion: Concomitant meniscus and cartilage injuries were prognostic factors for worse long-term PROMs after ACLR. The certainty was very low for other prognostic factors. .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2519/jospt.2020.9451DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7498413PMC
September 2020

Return to Sport After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury: Panther Symposium ACL Injury Return to Sport Consensus Group.

Orthop J Sports Med 2020 Jun 30;8(6):2325967120930829. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Investigation performed at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.

Background: A precise and consistent definition of return to sport (RTS) after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is lacking, and there is controversy surrounding the process of returning patients to sport and their previous activity level.

Purpose: The aim of the Panther Symposium ACL Injury Return to Sport Consensus Group was to provide a clear definition of RTS after ACL injury and a description of the RTS continuum as well as provide clinical guidance on RTS testing and decision-making.

Study Design: Consensus statement.

Methods: An international, multidisciplinary group of ACL experts convened as part of a consensus meeting. Consensus statements were developed using a modified Delphi method. Literature review was performed to report the supporting evidence.

Results: Key points include that RTS is characterized by achievement of the preinjury level of sport and involves a criteria-based progression from return to participation to RTS and, ultimately, return to performance. Purely time-based RTS decision-making should be abandoned. Progression occurs along an RTS continuum, with decision-making by a multidisciplinary group that incorporates objective physical examination data and validated and peer-reviewed RTS tests, which should involve functional assessment as well as psychological readiness. Consideration should be given to biological healing, contextual factors, and concomitant injuries.

Conclusion: The resultant consensus statements and scientific rationale aim to inform the reader of the complex process of RTS after ACL injury that occurs along a dynamic continuum. Research is needed to determine the ideal RTS test battery, the best implementation of psychological readiness testing, and methods for the biological assessment of healing and recovery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2325967120930829DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7328222PMC
June 2020

Treatment After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury: Panther Symposium ACL Treatment Consensus Group.

Orthop J Sports Med 2020 Jun 24;8(6):2325967120931097. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Investigation performed at University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.

Treatment strategies for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries continue to evolve. Evidence supporting best-practice guidelines for the management of ACL injury is to a large extent based on studies with low-level evidence. An international consensus group of experts was convened to collaboratively advance toward consensus opinions regarding the best available evidence on operative versus nonoperative treatment for ACL injury. The purpose of this study was to report the consensus statements on operative versus nonoperative treatment of ACL injuries developed at the ACL Consensus Meeting Panther Symposium 2019. There were 66 international experts on the management of ACL injuries, representing 18 countries, who were convened and participated in a process based on the Delphi method of achieving consensus. Proposed consensus statements were drafted by the scientific organizing committee and session chairs for the 3 working groups. Panel participants reviewed preliminary statements before the meeting and provided initial agreement and comments on the statement via online survey. During the meeting, discussion and debate occurred for each statement, after which a final vote was then held. Ultimately, 80% agreement was defined a priori as consensus. A total of 11 of 13 statements on operative versus nonoperative treatment of ACL injury reached consensus during the symposium. Overall, 9 statements achieved unanimous support, 2 reached strong consensus, 1 did not achieve consensus, and 1 was removed because of redundancy in the information provided. In highly active patients engaged in jumping, cutting, and pivoting sports, early anatomic ACL reconstruction is recommended because of the high risk of secondary meniscal and cartilage injuries with delayed surgery, although a period of progressive rehabilitation to resolve impairments and improve neuromuscular function is recommended. For patients who seek to return to straight-plane activities, nonoperative treatment with structured, progressive rehabilitation is an acceptable treatment option. However, with persistent functional instability, or when episodes of giving way occur, anatomic ACL reconstruction is indicated. The consensus statements derived from international leaders in the field will assist clinicians in deciding between operative and nonoperative treatment with patients after an ACL injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2325967120931097DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7315684PMC
June 2020

Comparing the Responsiveness of the Global Rating Scale With Legacy Knee Outcome Scores: A Delaware-Oslo Cohort Study.

Am J Sports Med 2020 07 9;48(8):1953-1960. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Biomechanics and Movement Science Program, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware, USA.

Background: The selection of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) is essential for obtaining meaningful information to treat a patient, determine a plan of care, and make clinical decisions; however, the process of selecting PROMs for clinical care is difficult, with the need to balance these multiple factors. Variation makes it difficult to compare data across providers and studies.

Hypothesis/purpose: The purpose was to determine the responsiveness of 4 PROMs via effect size and the presence of a ceiling effect in the 5 years after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). We hypothesized that the single-item Global Rating Scale (GRS) would have an effect size and ceiling effect similar to the commonly used legacy PROMs.

Study Design: Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2.

Methods: Of the 300 participants, 218 had ACLR, completed postoperative progressive criterion-based rehabilitation early after surgery, and were followed for 5 years. We collected data based on the GRS, the Knee Outcome Survey-Activities of Daily Living Scale (KOS-ADLS), the International Knee Documentation Committee-Subjective Knee Form (IKDC-SKF), and the KOOS (Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score) before and after training and at 6, 12, 24, and 60 months after ACLR.

Results: The IKDC-SKF had the largest effect sizes and lowest ceiling effects. The GRS had a similar size and change in both effect size and ceiling effect when compared with the longer PROMs. The GRS and IKDC-SKF had a correlation of 0.72, and the GRS had a minimal detectable change of 2.9 or 4.8, depending on methodology.

Conclusion: The GRS responded similarly to the IKDC-SKF, KOS-ADLS, and KOOS and was responsive to patient change. The ease of use and patient-specific nature of the question means that it may be appropriate to use the GRS in clinical care as a consistent measure throughout the course of rehabilitation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0363546520924817DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7448061PMC
July 2020

Athletes after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction demonstrate asymmetric intracortical facilitation early after surgery.

J Orthop Res 2021 01 23;39(1):147-153. Epub 2020 Mar 23.

Biomechanics and Movement Science, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware.

Quadriceps dysfunction persists after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR), yet the etiology remains elusive. Inhibitory and facilitatory intracortical networks (ie, intracortical excitability) may be involved in quadriceps dysfunction, yet the investigation of these networks early after ACLR is sparse. The purposes of this study were to examine (a) changes in intracortical excitability in athletes after ACLR compared to uninjured athletes during the course of postoperative rehabilitation, (b) the association between intracortical excitability and quadriceps strength in athletes after ACLR. Eighteen level I/II athletes after ACLR between the ages of 18 to 30 years and eighteen healthy sex, age, and activity matched athletes were tested at three-time points: (a) 2 weeks after surgery, (b) achievement of a "quiet knee" defined as full range of motion and minimal effusion, (c) return to running time point defined as achievement of a quadriceps index ≥80% and at least 12 weeks post-ACLR. Short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) and intracortical facilitation (ICF), measured via transcranial magnetic stimulation and isometric quadriceps strength were examined bilaterally at each time point. There was a significant group × limb interaction (P = .017) for ICF. The ACLR group demonstrated asymmetric ICF (greater in the nonsurgical limb) compared to controls and a significant relationship between SICI and quadriceps strength of the surgical limb at the quiet knee time point (P = .018). ACLR individuals demonstrate differential effects on ICF between limbs. Also, SICI is associated with isometric quadriceps strength after ACLR, suggesting increased inhibition of the motor cortex may contribute to impaired quadriceps strength following ACLR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jor.24666DOI Listing
January 2021

Operative and nonoperative management of anterior cruciate ligament injury: Differences in gait biomechanics at 5 years.

J Orthop Res 2020 12 20;38(12):2675-2684. Epub 2020 Mar 20.

Biomechanics and Movement Science Program, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware.

Gait biomechanics after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury are associated with functional outcomes and the development of posttraumatic knee osteoarthritis. However, biomechanical outcomes between patients treated nonoperatively compared with operatively are not well understood. The primary purpose of this study was to compare knee joint contact forces, angles, and moments during loading response of gait between individuals treated with operative compared with nonoperative management at 5 years after ACL injury. Forty athletes treated operatively and 17 athletes treated nonoperatively completed gait analysis at 5 years after ACL reconstruction or completion of nonoperative rehabilitation. Medial compartment joint contact forces were estimated using a previously validated, patient-specific electromyography-driven musculoskeletal model. Knee joint contact forces, angles, and moments were compared between the operative and nonoperative group using mixed model 2 × 2 analyses of variance. Peak medial compartment contact forces were larger in the involved limb of the nonoperative group (Op: 2.37 ± 0.47 BW, Non-Op: 3.03 ± 0.53 BW; effect size: 1.36). Peak external knee adduction moment was also larger in the involved limb of the nonoperative group (Op: 0.25 ± 0.08 Nm/kg·m, Non-Op: 0.32 ± 0.09 Nm/kg·m; effect size: 0.89). No differences in radiographic tibiofemoral osteoarthritis were present between the operative and nonoperative groups. Overall, participants treated nonoperatively walked with greater measures of medial compartment joint loading than those treated operatively, while sagittal plane group differences were not present. Statement of clinical relevance: The differences in medial knee joint loading at 5 years after operative and nonoperative management of ACL injury may have implications on the development of posttraumatic knee osteoarthritis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jor.24652DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7808330PMC
December 2020

Activity and functional readiness, not age, are the critical factors for second anterior cruciate ligament injury - the Delaware-Oslo ACL cohort study.

Br J Sports Med 2020 Sep 11;54(18):1099-1102. Epub 2020 Feb 11.

Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

Objective: To elucidate the relationships between age, return to level I sport (RTS) within the first postoperative year, passing RTS criteria and second anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury.

Methods: In a prospective cohort study, 213 athletes were followed for 2 years after ACL reconstruction to record second ACL injuries. Independent variables were age, passing RTS criteria and level I RTS within the first postoperative year (vs later or no RTS). We defined passing RTS criteria as ≥90 on the Knee Outcome Survey - Activities of Daily Living Scale, global rating scale of function and quadriceps strength/hop test symmetry.

Results: The follow-up rate was >87% for all outcomes. In multivariable analysis, level I RTS within the first postoperative year and passing RTS criteria were highly associated with second ACL injury (level I RTS HR: 6.0 (95% CI: 1.6 to 22.6), pass RTS criteria HR: 0.08 (95% CI: 0.01 to 0.6)), while age was not (age HR: 0.96 (95% CI: 0.89 to 1.04)). Athletes <25 years had higher level I RTS rates in the first postoperative year (60.4%) than older athletes (28.0%). Of those who returned to level I sport in the first postoperative year, 38.1% of younger and 59.1% of older athletes passed RTS criteria.

Conclusion: High rates of second ACL injury in young athletes may be driven by a mismatch between RTS rates and functional readiness to RTS. Passing RTS criteria was independently associated with a lower second ACL rate. Allowing more time prior to RTS, and improving rehabilitation and RTS support, may reduce second ACL injury rates in young athletes with ACL reconstruction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2019-100623DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7442843PMC
September 2020

ACL injury and reconstruction affect control of ground reaction forces produced during a novel task that simulates cutting movements.

J Orthop Res 2020 08 3;38(8):1746-1752. Epub 2020 Feb 3.

Biomechanics and Movement Science Program, College of Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware.

After anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury and reconstruction, biomechanical and neuromuscular control deficits persist and 25% of those who have experienced an ACL injury will experience a second ACL rupture in the first year after returning to sports. There remains a need for improved rehabilitation and the ability to detect an individual's risk of secondary ACL rupture. Nonlinear analysis metrics, such as the largest Lyapunov exponent (LyE) can provide new biomechanical insight in this population by identifying how movement patterns evolve over time. The purpose of this study was to determine how ACL injury, ACL reconstruction (ACLR), and participation in high-performance athletics affect control strategies, evaluated through nonlinear analysis, produced during a novel task that simulates forces generated during cutting movements. Uninjured recreational athletes, those with ACL injury who have not undergone reconstruction (ACLD [ACL deficient]), those who have undergone ACL reconstruction, and high-performance athletes completed a task that simulates cutting forces. The LyE calculated from forces generated during this novel task was greater (ie, force control was diminished) in the involved limb of ACLD and ACLR groups when compared with healthy uninjured controls and high-performance athletes. These data suggest that those who have experienced an ACL injury and subsequent reconstructive surgery exhibit poor force control when compared with both uninjured controls and high-performance athletes. Clinical significance: significantly larger LyE values after ACL injury and reconstruction when compared with healthy athletes suggest a continuing deficit in force control not addressed by current rehabilitation protocols and evaluation metrics that could contribute to secondary ACL rupture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jor.24604DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7477805PMC
August 2020

Athletes With Bone-Patellar Tendon-Bone Autograft for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Were Slower to Meet Rehabilitation Milestones and Return-to-Sport Criteria Than Athletes With Hamstring Tendon Autograft or Soft Tissue Allograft : Secondary Analysis From the ACL-SPORTS Trial.

J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2020 May 27;50(5):259-266. Epub 2019 Nov 27.

Objective: Graft choices for athletes undergoing anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) include bone-patellar tendon-bone (BPTB) and hamstring tendon (HT) autografts and soft tissue allografts. The objective was to assess time to meet clinical milestones by graft type in athletes who completed a return-to-sport (RTS) program after ACLR.

Design: Retrospective cohort study.

Methods: Seventy-nine athletes enrolled after ACLR (allograft, n = 18; BPTB, n = 24; HT, n = 37). Time from surgery to meet (1) enrollment criteria (12 or more weeks post surgery, 80% or greater isometric quadriceps strength index, minimal effusion, and full knee range of motion), and (2) RTS criteria (90% or greater quadriceps strength index, hop testing limb symmetry, and patient-reported outcomes) was calculated. Quadriceps strength, hop performance, and patient-reported outcomes were measured before and after training, and at 1 year post surgery. Descriptive statistics, chi-square tests, and 1-way analyses of variance ( = .05) were used to analyze differences among graft types.

Results: On average, the BPTB group (28.5 ± 7.6 weeks) took longer to meet enrollment milestones than the HT (22.5 ± 7.6 weeks, = .007) and allograft (18.9 ± 5.8 weeks, <.001) groups. The BPTB group (44.7 ± 15.8 weeks) took longer from surgery to meet RTS criteria than the HT (32.5 ± 9.9 weeks, = .001) and allograft (29.3 ± 9.0 weeks, <.001) groups. After training, the quadriceps strength index was lower in the BPTB group (86.1% ± 11.4%) than it was in the HT (96.1% ± 12.9%, = .004) and allograft (96.9% ± 5.9%, = .009) groups.

Conclusion: Athletes with a BPTB autograft may take longer than athletes with an HT autograft or a soft tissue allograft to complete postoperative rehabilitation, recover quadriceps strength, and meet RTS criteria. .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2519/jospt.2020.9111DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7196003PMC
May 2020

Slower Walking Speed Is Related to Early Femoral Trochlear Cartilage Degradation After ACL Reconstruction.

J Orthop Res 2020 03 18;38(3):645-652. Epub 2019 Nov 18.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware.

Post-traumatic patellofemoral osteoarthritis (OA) is prevalent after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) and early cartilage degradation may be especially common in the femoral trochlear cartilage. Determining the presence of and factors associated with early femoral trochlear cartilage degradation, a precursor to OA, is a critical preliminary step in identifying those at risk for patellofemoral OA development and designing interventions to combat the disease. Early cartilage degradation can be detected using quantitative magnetic resonance imaging measures, such as tissue T relaxation time. The purposes of this study were to (i) compare involved (ACLR) versus uninvolved (contralateral) femoral trochlear cartilage T relaxation times 6 months after ACLR, and (ii) determine the relationship between walking speed and walking mechanics 3 months after ACLR and femoral trochlear cartilage T relaxation times 6 months after ACLR. Twenty-six individuals (age 23 ± 7 years) after primary, unilateral ACLR participated in detailed motion analyses 3.3 ± 0.6 months after ACLR and quantitative magnetic resonance imaging 6.3 ± 0.5 months after ACLR. There were no limb differences in femoral trochlear cartilage T relaxation times. Slower walking speed was related to higher (worse) femoral trochlear cartilage T relaxation times in the involved limb (Pearson's r: -0.583, p = 0.002) and greater interlimb differences in trochlear T relaxation times (Pearson's r: -0.349, p = 0.080). Walking mechanics were weakly related to trochlear T relaxation times. Statement of clinical significance: Slower walking speed was by far the strongest predictor of worse femoral trochlear cartilage health, suggesting slow walking speed may be an early clinical indicator of future patellofemoral OA after ACLR. © 2019 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 38:645-652, 2020.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jor.24503DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7028512PMC
March 2020

Partial medial meniscectomy leads to altered walking mechanics two years after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: Meniscal repair does not.

Gait Posture 2019 10 27;74:87-93. Epub 2019 Aug 27.

University of Delaware, Newark, DE, USA.

Background: Partial meniscectomy dramatically increases the risk for post-traumatic, tibiofemoral osteoarthritis after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Concomitant medial meniscus surgery influences walking biomechanics (e.g., medial tibiofemoral joint loading) early after ACLR; whether medial meniscus surgery continues to influence walking biomechanics two years after ACLR is unknown.

Research Question: Does medial meniscus treatment at the time of ACLR influence walking biomechanics two years after surgery?

Methods: This is a secondary analysis of prospectively collected data from a clinical trial (NCT01773317). Fifty-six athletes (age 24 ± 8 years) with operative reports, two-year biomechanical analyses, and no second injury prior to two-year testing participated after primary ACLR. Participants were classified by concomitant medial meniscal status: no medial meniscus involvement (n = 36), partial medial meniscectomy (n = 9), and medial meniscus repair (n = 11). Participants underwent biomechanical analyses during over-ground walking including surface electromyography; a validated musculoskeletal model estimated medial compartment tibiofemoral contact forces. Gait variables were analyzed using 3 × 2 ANOVAs with group (medial meniscus treatment) and limb (involved versus uninvolved) comparisons.

Results: There was a main effect of group (p = .039) for peak knee flexion angle (PKFA). Participants after partial medial meniscectomy walked with clinically meaningfully smaller PKFAs in both the involved and uninvolved limbs compared to the no medial meniscus involvement group (group mean difference [95%CI]; involved: -4.9°[-8.7°, -1.0°], p = .015; uninvolved: -3.9°[-7.6°, -0.3°], p = .035) and medial meniscus repair group (involved: -5.2°[-9.9°, -0.6°], p = .029; uninvolved: -4.7°[-9.0°, -0.3°], p = .038). The partial medial meniscectomy group walked with higher involved versus uninvolved limb medial tibiofemoral contact forces (0.45 body weights, 95% CI: -0.01, 0.91 BW, p = 0.053) and truncated sagittal plane knee excursions, which were not present in the other two groups.

Significance: Aberrant gait biomechanics may concentrate high forces in the antero-medial tibiofemoral cartilage among patients two years after ACLR plus partial medial meniscectomy, perhaps explaining the higher osteoarthritis rates and offering an opportunity for targeted interventions.

Level Of Evidence: Level III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gaitpost.2019.08.017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6790293PMC
October 2019

Patellofemoral Pain.

J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2019 09;49(9):CPG1-CPG95

Patellofemoral pain (PFP) is a common musculoskeletal-related condition that is characterized by insidious onset of poorly defined pain, localized to the anterior retropatellar and/or peripatellar region of the knee. The onset of symptoms can be slow or acutely develop with a worsening of pain accompanying lower-limb loading activities (eg, squatting, prolonged sitting, ascending/descending stairs, jumping, or running). Symptoms can restrict participation in physical activity, sports, and work, as well as recur and persist for years. This clinical practice guideline will allow physical therapists and other rehabilitation specialists to stay up to date with evolving PFP knowledge and practices, and help them to make evidence-based treatment decisions. .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2519/jospt.2019.0302DOI Listing
September 2019
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