Publications by authors named "Lynn Kern Koegel"

22 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Using a Question Bank Intervention to Improve Socially Initiated Questions in Adolescents and Adults With Autism.

J Speech Lang Hear Res 2021 Apr 5;64(4):1331-1339. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA.

Purpose Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often have difficulty asking questions during social conversation, which can negatively impact their interactions with peers. The purpose of this study was to assess whether a question bank intervention would be effective in improving question asking during social conversation. Method In the context of a multiple-baseline experimental design, we implemented an intervention using prepractice with question banks designed to increase the number and diversity of questions asked by adolescents and adults with ASD during social conversations with their peers. Results Following intervention, all participants improved their use of questions in natural settings with their neurotypical peers. Generalization to novel questions occurred, and gains were maintained at follow-up. Finally, supplemental measures of social validity showed that similarly aged neurotypical peers who were naïve to the experimental hypothesis rated two of the three participants with higher social desirability following intervention. Conclusion Individuals with ASD can improve their appropriate question asking during social conversation using a brief question bank intervention with generalization to their peers in natural settings.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1044/2021_JSLHR-20-00534DOI Listing
April 2021

Parent Education in Studies With Nonverbal and Minimally Verbal Participants With Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review.

Am J Speech Lang Pathol 2020 05 1;29(2):890-902. Epub 2020 Apr 1.

Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN.

Purpose The purpose of this systematic review was to identify parent education procedures implemented in intervention studies focused on expressive verbal communication for nonverbal (NV) or minimally verbal (MV) children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Parent education has been shown to be an essential component in the habilitation of individuals with ASD. Parents of individuals with ASD who are NV or MV may particularly benefit from parent education in order to provide opportunities for communication and to support their children across the life span. Method ProQuest databases were searched between the years of 1960 and 2018 to identify articles that targeted verbal communication in MV and NV individuals with ASD. A total of 1,231 were evaluated to assess whether parent education was implemented. We found 36 studies that included a parent education component. These were reviewed with regard to (a) the number of participants and participants' ages, (b) the parent education program provided, (c) the format of the parent education, (d) the duration of the parent education, (e) the measurement of parent education, and (f) the parent fidelity of implementation scores. Results The results of this analysis showed that very few studies have included a parent education component, descriptions of the parent education programs are unclear in most studies, and few studies have scored the parents' implementation of the intervention. Conclusions Currently, there is great variability in parent education programs in regard to participant age, hours provided, fidelity of implementation, format of parent education, and type of treatment used. Suggestions are made to provide both a more comprehensive description and consistent measurement of parent education programs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1044/2019_AJSLP-19-00007DOI Listing
May 2020

Definitions of Nonverbal and Minimally Verbal in Research for Autism: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

J Autism Dev Disord 2020 Aug;50(8):2957-2972

Department of Hearing and Speech Sciences, Vanderbilt School of Medicine, Nashville, TN, 37205, USA.

This systematic review examined definitions of "nonverbal" or "minimally verbal" and assessment measures used to evaluate communication in intervention studies focusing on improving expressive verbal communication in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We reviewed sample size, number of participants, participant age, and male/female representation. Our analysis yielded relatively few studies with non/minimally verbal children with ASD focusing on verbal expressive communication. Further, we found large inconsistencies in measures used, definitions of "nonverbal" and "minimally verbal", and ages targeted. Guidelines are suggested to create a more uniform assessment protocol with systematic descriptions of early communication learners as a foundational step for understanding the heterogeneity in this group and replicating research findings for this subgroup of children with ASD.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10803-020-04402-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7377965PMC
August 2020

Targeting IEP Social Goals for Children with Autism in an Inclusive Summer Camp.

J Autism Dev Disord 2019 Jun;49(6):2426-2436

Koegel Autism Center, University of California at Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA, 93106, USA.

Children with autism spectrum disorder demonstrate challenges in socialization that can interfere with their participation in common childhood activities and can persist or worsen if not addressed. The purpose of this study was to assess whether individualized education program (IEP) social goals could be targeted by a supervised paraprofessional during a short-term inclusive summer camp program. Data were collected using a concurrent multiple baseline design across four children. Results showed that following a 2-week summer camp program all participants made social improvements, reaching their year-long IEP goals, that maintained at follow-up in natural environments. Further, the paraprofessionals reached fidelity of implementation. Findings are discussed in terms of the value and feasibility of providing social interventions in inclusive summer camps.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10803-019-03992-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6548680PMC
June 2019

Improving Functional Language and Social Motivation with a Parent-Mediated Intervention for Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

J Autism Dev Disord 2017 08;47(8):2443-2458

Counseling/Clinical/School Psychology Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA, USA.

Recent research suggests that children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may now be reliably identified in later infancy, highlighting the need for empirically-validated interventions for infants and toddlers with early symptoms of ASD. Using a multiple baseline design across 15- to 21-month-old toddlers, this study implemented a brief, parent-mediated, Pivotal Response Treatment program, focusing on improving expressive communication. The results indicated that verbal communication improved as a consequence of the intervention, with concomitant improvements in untreated areas for all participants. Following the intervention, symptoms of autism decreased and parents reported satisfaction with the program's ease of implementation and observed child gains. The results are discussed in terms of developing very early interventions to improve developmental trajectories for infants and toddlers.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10803-017-3155-8DOI Listing
August 2017

Improving Empathic Communication Skills in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

J Autism Dev Disord 2016 Mar;46(3):921-33

Department of Counseling, Clinical, and School Psychology, Koegel Autism Center, Graduate School of Education, University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA, 93106-9490, USA.

The literature suggests that many individuals diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) experience challenges with recognizing and describing emotions in others, which may result in difficulties with the verbal expression of empathy during communication. Thus, there is a need for intervention techniques targeting this area. Using a multiple baseline across participants design, this study examined the effectiveness of a video-feedback intervention with a visual framework component to improve verbal empathetic statements and questions during conversation for adults with ASD. Following intervention, all participants improved in verbal expression of empathetic statements and empathetic questions during conversation with generalization and maintenance of gains. Furthermore, supplemental assessments indicated that each participant improved in their general level of empathy and confidence in communication skills.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10803-015-2633-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4747683PMC
March 2016

A Randomized Clinical Trial Comparison Between Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT) and Adult-Driven Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) Intervention on Disruptive Behaviors in Public School Children with Autism.

J Autism Dev Disord 2015 Sep;45(9):2899-907

Faculty of Rehabilitation Sciences, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences and Health Services, Hamadan, Iran.

Children with autism often demonstrate disruptive behaviors during demanding teaching tasks. Language intervention can be particularly difficult as it involves social and communicative areas, which are challenging for this population. The purpose of this study was to compare two intervention conditions, a naturalistic approach, Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT) with an adult-directed ABA approach on disruptive behavior during language intervention in the public schools. A randomized clinical trial design was used with two groups of children, matched according to age, sex and mean length of utterance. The data showed that the children demonstrated significantly lower levels of disruptive behavior during the PRT condition. The results are discussed with respect to antecedent manipulations that may be helpful in reducing disruptive behavior.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10803-015-2451-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4554985PMC
September 2015

Feasibility and effectiveness of very early intervention for infants at-risk for autism spectrum disorder: a systematic review.

J Autism Dev Disord 2015 Mar;45(3):778-94

Counseling, Clinical, and School Psychology Department, Koegel Autism Center, Graduate School of Education, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA, USA,

Early detection methods for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in infancy are rapidly advancing, yet the development of interventions for infants under two years with or at-risk for ASD remains limited. In order to guide research and practice, this paper systematically reviewed studies investigating interventions for infants under 24 months with or at-risk for ASD. Nine studies were identified and evaluated for: (a) participants, (b) intervention approach (c) experimental design, and (d) outcomes. Studies that collected parent measures reported positive findings for parent acceptability, satisfaction, and improvement in parent implementation of treatment. Infant gains in social-communicative and developmental skills were observed following intervention in most of the reviewed studies, while comparisons with treatment-as-usual control groups elucidate the need for further research. These studies highlight the feasibility of very early intervention and provide preliminary evidence that intervention for at-risk infants may be beneficial for infants and parents.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10803-014-2235-2DOI Listing
March 2015

A randomized clinical trial comparison between pivotal response treatment (PRT) and structured applied behavior analysis (ABA) intervention for children with autism.

J Autism Dev Disord 2014 Nov;44(11):2769-77

Faculty of Rehabilitation Sciences, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences and Health Services, Hamadan, Iran.

Accumulating studies are documenting specific motivational variables that, when combined into a naturalistic teaching paradigm, can positively influence the effectiveness of interventions for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The purpose of this study was to compare two applied behavior analysis (ABA) intervention procedures, a naturalistic approach, pivotal response treatment (PRT) with a structured ABA approach in a school setting. A randomized clinical trial design using two groups of children, matched according to age, sex and mean length of utterance was used to compare the interventions. The data showed that the PRT approach was significantly more effective in improving targeted and untargeted areas after 3 months of intervention. The results are discussed in terms of variables that produce more rapid improvements in communication for children with ASD.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10803-014-2137-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4194254PMC
November 2014

Training paraprofessionals to improve socialization in students with ASD.

J Autism Dev Disord 2014 Sep;44(9):2197-208

Koegel Autism Center, Graduate School of Education, University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA, 93106-9490, USA,

An important line of research relates to whether school personnel, such as paraprofessionals, who are present during unstructured social periods, such as lunch-recess, could successfully implement interventions to improve socialization between students with ASD and their typical peers in a group setting. Therefore, within the context of a multiple baseline across participants design, we assessed whether training paraprofessionals to provide social interventions would enhance social development in students with ASD in a group setting. Results showed that paraprofessionals who were not providing any social opportunities during baseline were able to meet fidelity of implementation following a brief training. Consequently, the children with ASD increased their levels of engagement and rates of initiation with typically developing peers following intervention. Implications for training paraprofessionals to implement effective social interventions for students with ASD are discussed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10803-014-2094-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4134413PMC
September 2014

The importance of early identification and intervention for children with or at risk for autism spectrum disorders.

Int J Speech Lang Pathol 2014 Feb 11;16(1):50-6. Epub 2013 Dec 11.

University of California , Santa Barbara, CA , USA.

There has been a dramatic rise in the number of children being diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), which has led to increased attention paid to assessment and intervention issues. This manuscript agrees with Camarata (2014) that the evidence base for early assessment and intervention should be expanded. However, it disagrees with Warren et al.'s (2011) assumption that there are not empirically validated early interventions. Reliable diagnosis has been documented during infancy and toddlerhood, and evidence suggests that the earlier the onset of intervention, the greater likelihood of an improved developmental trajectory. It is argued that early intervention is more cost and time efficient than a "wait and see" approach. With regard to published studies, the large amount of heterogeneity in the ASD population supports the use of rigorous single case experimental design research. It is an error to limit empirical evidence for treatments to only randomized clinical trials, which have the weakness of masking individual differences. Single case experimental designs examine the effects of intervention beyond typical maturation by allowing for clear estimations of developmental trajectories prior to the onset of intervention, followed by evaluation of the impact of the intervention. This commentary discusses the short- and long-term benefits of early diagnosis and intervention.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/17549507.2013.861511DOI Listing
February 2014

Using self-management to improve the reciprocal social conversation of children with autism spectrum disorder.

J Autism Dev Disord 2014 May;44(5):1055-63

Koegel Autism Center, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA, USA.

Individuals with autism spectrum disorders often exhibit difficulties with reciprocal social conversation, engaging in limited verbal exchanges, even when language structures are intact. This study employed a multiple baseline design to examine the effectiveness of a self-management intervention targeting (1) on-topic responsiveness to a conversational partner; (2) expansion of the conversational topic; and (3) on-topic question asking. Results demonstrated improved reciprocal social conversation through elaborated responses and on-topic question asking, which generalized and maintained. Social validity measures by naïve observers indicated that the intervention led to meaningful improvements during conversation, including interest, naturalness, and desirability as a conversational partner.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10803-013-1956-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3981935PMC
May 2014

Improving question-asking initiations in young children with autism using pivotal response treatment.

J Autism Dev Disord 2014 Apr;44(4):816-27

Counseling, Clinical and School Psychology Department, Koegel Autism Center, Graduate School of Education, University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA, 93106-9490, USA,

Social initiations make up a core deficit for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In particular, initiated questions during social interactions are often minimal or absent in this population. In the context of a multiple baseline design, the efficacy of using the motivational procedures of Pivotal Response Treatment to increase social question-asking for three young children with autism was assessed. Results indicated that participants initiated a greater number of targeted questions following intervention. Additionally, all children exhibited increases in initiation of untargeted questions during social interaction in novel settings. Furthermore, post intervention data revealed collateral gains in communication and adaptive behavior. Theoretical implications of incorporating motivational strategies into intervention to improve social initiations in young children with ASD are discussed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10803-013-1932-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3949143PMC
April 2014

Acquisition of multiple questions in the context of social conversation in children with autism.

J Autism Dev Disord 2013 Sep;43(9):2015-25

Counseling, Clinical, and School Psychology Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-9490, USA.

Verbal initiations, such as questions, are essential components of social conversation often lacking in children with autism. Building on research showing that single questions can be taught in isolation, this study used a multiple baseline design to investigate whether a self-management intervention was effective for teaching concurrent acquisition and discrimination of three social questions in the context of conversation. Following intervention, participants rapidly increased their appropriate use of all three questions in a conversational context and maintained these gains over time. The participants also used questions appropriately with partners uninvolved in treatment. Additionally, the occasional presence of appropriate questions during baseline coupled with rapid improvement during intervention support theories that a lack of question-asking may be motivation-based rather than ability-based.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10803-012-1749-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3631576PMC
September 2013

Improving Social Engagement and Initiations between Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Their Peers in Inclusive Settings.

J Posit Behav Interv 2012 Oct;14(4):220-227

Eli and Edythe L. Broad Center for Asperger's Research, University of California, Santa Barbara.

Children with Asperger's Disorder often have difficulty with peer relationships and socialization. The current study assessed whether peer social interactions would improve in school settings if an intervention was designed that incorporated the children with Asperger's interests. Three children who were fully-included in regular education classes but did not interact with peers prior to intervention participated in this research. Social lunch clubs, open to both the study participants and their typical peers, were implemented twice weekly during regular lunchtime periods. Results showed that all three children increased their time engaged with peers as a result of the clubs. While their initiations greatly improved over baseline levels and approximated their peers, they were often initiating below the level of most of their peers. Implications for improving peer social interactions for children with Asperger's Disorder are discussed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1098300712437042DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4199304PMC
October 2012

Using individualized reinforcers and hierarchical exposure to increase food flexibility in children with autism spectrum disorders.

J Autism Dev Disord 2012 Aug;42(8):1574-81

Koegel Autism Center, Gevirtz Graduate School of Education, University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA.

Inflexibility is a major characteristic of autism. In the present study we addressed inflexible mealtime behaviors and collected longitudinal data across 48 foods for 3 children, ages 6.4-7.8 years, diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder, for up to 22 weeks. Participants exhibited severe challenges with adherence to an extremely restricted repertoire of foods. We employed clinical replication and multiple baseline designs across participants to assess the effects of individualized reinforcement and hierarchical exposure to increase flexibility. Results showed that following intervention, all participants expanded their food repertoire and spontaneously requested new foods during follow up/generalization. Implications for clinical practice and directions for further research are discussed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10803-011-1392-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3793013PMC
August 2012

Improving motivation for academics in children with autism.

J Autism Dev Disord 2010 Sep;40(9):1057-66

Counseling/Clinical/School Psychology Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-9490, USA.

Many children with autism show very little interest in academic assignments and exhibit disruptive behavior when assignments are presented. Research indicates that incorporating specific motivational variables such as choice, interspersal of maintenance tasks, and natural reinforcers during intervention leads to improvements in core symptoms of autism and may possibly be effective in academic areas. Using a multiple baseline across children and behaviors design with four pre- and elementary school children with autism, we assessed whether the above variables could be incorporated into academic tasks to improve performance and interest. Results indicated that the intervention decreased the children's latency to begin academic tasks, improved their rate of performance and interest, and decreased their disruptive behavior. Theoretical and applied implications are discussed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10803-010-0962-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2926912PMC
September 2010

Brief Report: Question-Asking and Collateral Language Acquisition in Children with Autism.

J Autism Dev Disord 2010 Apr;40(4):509-15

Koegel Autism Center, Graduate School of Education, University of California at Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-9490, USA.

The literature suggests children with autism use communication primarily for requests and protests, and almost never for information-seeking. This study investigated whether teaching "Where" questions using intrinsic reinforcement procedures would produce the generalized use of the question, and whether concomitant improvements in related language structures, provided as answers to the children's questions, would occur. In the context of a multiple baseline across participants design, data showed that the children could rapidly acquire and generalize the query, and that there were collateral improvements in the children's use of language structures corresponding to the answers to the questions the children asked. The results are discussed in the context of teaching child initiations to improve linguistic competence in children with autism.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10803-009-0896-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2837164PMC
April 2010

Antecedent stimulus control: using orienting cues to facilitate first-word acquisition for nonresponders with autism.

Behav Anal 2009 ;32(2):281-4

University of California at Santa Barbara.

Although considerable progress has been made in improving the acquisition of expressive verbal communication in children with autism, research has documented that a subpopulation of children still fail to acquire speech even with intensive intervention. One variable that might be important in facilitating responding for this nonverbal subgroup of children is the use of antecedent orienting cues. Using a multiple baseline design, this study examined whether individualized orienting cues could be identified, and whether their presentation would result in the production of verbal expressive words. The results showed that this antecedent stimulus control procedure produced improvements in responding to verbal models in all of the children, and subsequent gains in speech for some of the children. Theoretical and applied implications of orienting cues as they relate to antecedent stimulus control for children with autism are discussed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2778808PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF03392190DOI Listing
August 2012

Joint attention and children with autism: a review of the literature.

Ment Retard Dev Disabil Res Rev 2004 ;10(3):169-75

Special Education, Developmental Disabilities, and Risk Studies, Graduate School of Education, University of California at Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California, USA.

Preverbal communication and joint attention have long been of interest to researchers and practitioners. Both attending to social partners and sharing attentional focus between objects or events and others precede the onset of a child's first lexicon. In addition, these prelinguistic acts also appear to have important implications with regard to learning to socialize. The construct of joint attention has been noted as an early developing area prior to the transition to symbolic communication. Thus, the importance of joint attention in typically developing children, and the lack thereof in children with autism, has interested researchers for use in diagnosis and intervention for autism. That is, joint attention has been gaining momentum as an area that not only helps characterize children with autism, but also as a prognostic indicator and a potential intervention goal. In this paper, the status of the literature about initiation of joint attention by young typically developing children and young children with autism was examined. Empirical studies regarding joint attention behaviors, including eye gaze alternation, the use of protodeclaratives and protoimperatives, and studies that investigated joint attention as a predictor of language acquisition were reviewed. Possible areas for future research for children with autism are discussed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mrdd.20036DOI Listing
May 2005

Priming as a Method of Coordinating Educational Services for Students With Autism.

Lang Speech Hear Serv Sch 2003 Jul;34(3):228-235

University of California, Santa Barbara.

Purpose: The importance of coordination of educational services has been well documented in the literature. For students with disabilities, coordinated programs result in more rapid acquisition of targeted behaviors and the increased likelihood of long-term maintenance of gains. The purpose of this study was to assess whether "priming" or exposing students with autism and disruptive behaviors to school assignments before their presentation in class would affect academic performance and problem behaviors.

Method: Two students diagnosed with autism who attended general education classrooms, both of whom exhibited numerous disruptive behaviors and low academic performance, participated in this study. A repeated reversals design was used to monitor student progress.

Results: The results demonstrated decreases in problem behavior and increases in academic responding when priming sessions occurred.

Clinical Implications: Application is discussed in terms of a mechanism for speech-language pathologists to assist classroom teachers with a systematic educational coordination plan that can quickly produce improved school performance.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1044/0161-1461(2003/019)DOI Listing
July 2003