Publications by authors named "Lynda E Polgreen"

39 Publications

Biomarkers for prediction of skeletal disease progression in mucopolysaccharidosis type I.

JIMD Rep 2021 Mar 8;58(1):89-99. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Department of Pediatrics The Lundquist Institute at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center Torrance California USA.

Background: Orthopedic disease progresses in mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I), even with approved therapies and remains a major factor in persistent suffering and disability. Novel therapies and accurate predictors of response are needed. The primary objective of this study was to identify surrogate biomarkers of future change in orthopedic disease.

Methods: As part of a 9-year observational study of MPS I, range-of-motion (ROM), height, pelvic radiographs were measured annually. Biomarkers in year 1 were compared to healthy controls. Linear regression tested for associations of change in biomarkers over the first year with change in long-term outcomes.

Results: MPS I participants (N = 19) were age 5 to 16 years and on average 6.9 ± 2.9 years post treatment initiation. Healthy controls (N = 51) were age 9 to 17 years. Plasma IL-1β, TNF-α, osteocalcin, pyridinolines, and deoxypyridinolines were higher in MPS than controls. Within MPS, progression of hip dysplasia was present in 46% to 77%. A 1 pg/mL increase in IL-6 was associated with -22°/year change in ROM (-28 to -15; < .001), a 20 nmol/mmol creatinine/year increase in urine PYD was associated with a -0.024 Z-score/year change in height Z-score (-0.043 to -0.005; = .016), and a 20 nmol/mmol creatinine/year increase in urine PYD was associated with a -2.0%/year change in hip dysplasia measured by Reimers migration index (-3.8 to -0.1; = .037).

Conclusions: Inflammatory cytokines are high in MPS I. IL-6 and PYD were associated with progression in joint contracture, short stature, and hip dysplasia over time. Once validated, these biomarkers may prove useful for predicting response to treatment of skeletal disease in MPS I.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmd2.12190DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7932872PMC
March 2021

Mucopolysaccharidosis Type I: Current Treatments, Limitations, and Prospects for Improvement.

Biomolecules 2021 Jan 29;11(2). Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Immusoft Corp, Minneapolis, MN 55413, USA.

Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) is a lysosomal disease, caused by a deficiency of the enzyme alpha-L-iduronidase (IDUA). IDUA catalyzes the degradation of the glycosaminoglycans dermatan and heparan sulfate (DS and HS, respectively). Lack of the enzyme leads to pathologic accumulation of undegraded HS and DS with subsequent disease manifestations in multiple organs. The disease can be divided into severe (Hurler syndrome) and attenuated (Hurler-Scheie, Scheie) forms. Currently approved treatments consist of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) and/or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Patients with attenuated disease are often treated with ERT alone, while the recommended therapy for patients with Hurler syndrome consists of HSCT. While these treatments significantly improve disease manifestations and prolong life, a considerable burden of disease remains. Notably, treatment can partially prevent, but not significantly improve, clinical manifestations, necessitating early diagnosis of disease and commencement of treatment. This review discusses these standard therapies and their impact on common disease manifestations in patients with MPS I. Where relevant, results of animal models of MPS I will be included. Finally, we highlight alternative and emerging treatments for the most common disease manifestations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom11020189DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7911293PMC
January 2021

Once-daily, subcutaneous vosoritide therapy in children with achondroplasia: a randomised, double-blind, phase 3, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial.

Lancet 2020 09;396(10252):684-692

BioMarin (UK), London, UK.

Background: There are no effective therapies for achondroplasia. An open-label study suggested that vosoritide administration might increase growth velocity in children with achondroplasia. This phase 3 trial was designed to further assess these preliminary findings.

Methods: This randomised, double-blind, phase 3, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial compared once-daily subcutaneous administration of vosoritide with placebo in children with achondroplasia. The trial was done in hospitals at 24 sites in seven countries (Australia, Germany, Japan, Spain, Turkey, the USA, and the UK). Eligible patients had a clinical diagnosis of achondroplasia, were ambulatory, had participated for 6 months in a baseline growth study and were aged 5 to less than 18 years at enrolment. Randomisation was done by means of a voice or web-response system, stratified according to sex and Tanner stage. Participants, investigators, and trial sponsor were masked to group assignment. Participants received either vosoritide 15·0 μg/kg or placebo, as allocated, for the duration of the 52-week treatment period administered by daily subcutaneous injections in their homes by trained caregivers. The primary endpoint was change from baseline in mean annualised growth velocity at 52 weeks in treated patients as compared with controls. All randomly assigned patients were included in the efficacy analyses (n=121). All patients who received one dose of vosoritide or placebo (n=121) were included in the safety analyses. The trial is complete and is registered, with EudraCT, number, 2015-003836-11.

Findings: All participants were recruited from Dec 12, 2016, to Nov 7, 2018, with 60 assigned to receive vosoritide and 61 to receive placebo. Of 124 patients screened for eligibility, 121 patients were randomly assigned, and 119 patients completed the 52-week trial. The adjusted mean difference in annualised growth velocity between patients in the vosoritide group and placebo group was 1·57 cm/year in favour of vosoritide (95% CI [1·22-1·93]; two-sided p<0·0001). A total of 119 patients had at least one adverse event; vosoritide group, 59 (98%), and placebo group, 60 (98%). None of the serious adverse events were considered to be treatment related and no deaths occurred.

Interpretation: Vosoritide is an effective treatment to increase growth in children with achondroplasia. It is not known whether final adult height will be increased, or what the harms of long-term therapy might be.

Funding: BioMarin Pharmaceutical.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31541-5DOI Listing
September 2020

Dysostosis Multiplex in Human Mucopolysaccharidosis Type 1 H and in Animal Models of the Disease.

Pediatr Endocrinol Rev 2020 Aug;17(4):317-326

Immusoft Corp, Minneapolis, MN 55413, USA, Department of Genetics, Cell Biology and Development and Center for Genome Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder, caused by deficiency of α-L-iduronidase, and consequent accumulation of dermatan and heparan sulfates. Severity of the disease ranges from mild (Scheie) to moderate (Hurler-Scheie) to severe (Hurler or MPS-IH). A prominent clinical manifestation of MPS-IH is dysostosis multiplex, a constellation of skeletal abnormalities. We performed a retrospective review comparing manifestations of dysostosis multiplex in patients presenting with MPSIH and relevant animal models. Dog, cat and mouse models of MPS-IH are extensively studied to better understand the pathology of the disease. While all animal models display certain characteristics of human MPSIH, species-specific manifestations must be considered when evaluating skeletal abnormalities. Moreover, some skeletal abnormalities emerge at species-specific developmental stages, e.g. thoracolumbar kyphosis is an early manifestation in humans, while it appears late in the mouse model. The choice of the appropriate diagnostic test is of importance to avoid misleading conclusions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.17458/per.vol17.2020.hpl.dysostosismultiplexhumananimalDOI Listing
August 2020

Early characteristics of bone deficits in children with Fontan palliation.

Cardiol Young 2020 Apr 20;30(4):468-475. Epub 2020 Feb 20.

Department of Pediatrics, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Background: This is a cross-sectional study aiming to understand the early characteristics and background of bone health impairment in clinically well children with Fontan circulation.

Methods: We enrolled 10 clinically well children with Fontan palliation (operated >5 years before study entrance, Tanner stage ≤3, age 12.1 ± 1.77 years, 7 males) and 11 healthy controls (age 12.0 ± 1.45 years, 9 males) at two children's hospitals. All patients underwent peripheral quantitative CT. For the Fontan group, we obtained clinical characteristics, NYHA class, cardiac index by MRI, dual x-ray absorptiometry, and biochemical studies. Linear regression was used to compare radius and tibia peripheral quantitative CT measures between Fontan patients and controls.

Results: All Fontan patients were clinically well (NYHA class 1 or 2, cardiac index 4.85 ± 1.51 L/min/m2) and without significant comorbidities. Adjusted trabecular bone mineral density, cortical thickness, and bone strength index at the radius were significantly decreased in Fontan patients compared to controls with mean differences -30.13 mg/cm3 (p = 0.041), -0.31 mm (p = 0.043), and -6.65 mg2/mm4 (p = 0.036), respectively. No differences were found for tibial measures. In Fontan patients, the mean height-adjusted lumbar bone mineral density and total body less head z scores were -0.46 ± 1.1 and -0.63 ± 1.1, respectively, which are below the average, but within normal range for age and sex.

Conclusions: In a clinically well Fontan cohort, we found significant bone deficits by peripheral quantitative CT in the radius but not the tibia, suggesting non-weight-bearing bones may be more vulnerable to the unique haemodynamics of the Fontan circulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1047951120000293DOI Listing
April 2020

Intrathecal enzyme replacement for cognitive decline in mucopolysaccharidosis type I, a randomized, open-label, controlled pilot study.

Mol Genet Metab 2020 02 30;129(2):80-90. Epub 2019 Nov 30.

Department of Pediatrics, Washington University in St. Louis School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States of America.

Central nervous system manifestations of mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) such as cognitive impairment, hydrocephalus, and spinal cord compression are inadequately treated by intravenously-administered enzyme replacement therapy with laronidase (recombinant human alpha-L-iduronidase). While hematopoietic stem cell transplantation treats neurological symptoms, this therapy is not generally offered to attenuated MPS I patients. This study is a randomized, open-label, controlled pilot study of intrathecal laronidase in eight attenuated MPS I patients with cognitive impairment. Subjects ranged between 12 years and 50 years old with a median age of 18 years. All subjects had received intravenous laronidase prior to the study over a range of 4 to 10 years, with a mean of 7.75 years. Weekly intravenous laronidase was continued throughout the duration of the study. The randomization period was one year, during which control subjects attended all study visits and assessments, but did not receive any intrathecal laronidase. After the first year, all eight subjects received treatment for one additional year. There was no significant difference in neuropsychological assessment scores between control or treatment groups, either over the one-year randomized period or at 18 or 24 months. However, there was no significant decline in scores in the control group either. Adverse events included pain (injection site, back, groin), headache, neck spasm, and transient blurry vision. There were seven serious adverse events, one judged as possibly related (headache requiring hospitalization). There was no significant effect of intrathecal laronidase on cognitive impairment in older, attenuated MPS I patients over a two-year treatment period. A five-year open-label extension study is underway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymgme.2019.11.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7813548PMC
February 2020

Evaluation of non-reducing end pathologic glycosaminoglycan detection method for monitoring therapeutic response to enzyme replacement therapy in human mucopolysaccharidosis I.

Mol Genet Metab 2020 02 11;129(2):91-97. Epub 2019 Sep 11.

Department of Pediatrics, Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute, Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA, USA; Department of Pediatrics, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, USA. Electronic address:

Therapeutic development and monitoring require demonstration of effects on disease phenotype. However, due to the complexity of measuring clinically-relevant effects in rare multisystem diseases, robust biomarkers are essential. For the mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS), the measurement of glycosaminoglycan levels is relevant as glycosaminoglycan accumulation is the primary event that occurs due to reduced lysosomal enzyme activity. Traditional dye-based assays that measure total glycosaminoglycan levels have a high background, due to a normal, baseline glycosaminoglycan content in unaffected individuals. An assay that selectively detects the disease-specific non-reducing ends of heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans that remain undegraded due to deficiency of a specific enzyme in the catabolic pathway avoids the normal background, increasing sensitivity and specificity. We evaluated glycosaminoglycan content by dye-based and non-reducing end methods using urine, serum, and cerebrospinal fluid from MPS I human samples before and after treatment with intravenous recombinant human alpha-l-iduronidase. We found that both urine total glycosaminoglycans and serum heparan sulfate derived non-reducing end levels were markedly decreased compared to baseline after 26 weeks and 52 weeks of therapy, with a significantly greater percentage reduction in serum non-reducing end (89.8% at 26 weeks and 81.3% at 52 weeks) compared to urine total glycosaminoglycans (68.3% at 26 weeks and 62.4% at 52 weeks, p < 0.001). Unexpectedly, we also observed a decrease in non-reducing end levels in cerebrospinal fluid in all five subjects for whom samples were collected (mean 41.8% reduction, p = 0.01). The non-reducing ends in cerebrospinal fluid showed a positive correlation with serum non-reducing end levels in the subjects (r = 0.65, p = 0.005). Results suggest utility of the non-reducing end assay in evaluating a therapeutic response in MPS I.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymgme.2019.09.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7219480PMC
February 2020

Post-transplant laronidase augmentation for children with Hurler syndrome: biochemical outcomes.

Sci Rep 2019 Oct 1;9(1):14105. Epub 2019 Oct 1.

University of Minnesota, Division of Pediatric Blood and Marrow Transplant, Minneapolis, 55455, USA.

Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) benefits children with Hurler syndrome (MPS-IH). However, survivors remain burdened by substantial MPS-IH related residual disease. We studied the feasibility, safety and biochemical impact of augmentative recombinant intravenous enzyme replacement therapy (IV-ERT) post transplantation. Ten children with MPS-IH and ≥2 years from successful HCT underwent IV-ERT for 2 years' duration. Patients were monitored for anti-drug antibody (ADA) development, including inhibitory capacity and changes in urinary excretion of glycosaminoglycans (uGAG). Three patients demonstrated low-level ADA at baseline, though all children tolerated IV-ERT well. Eight patients developed ADA over the 2-year study, with 3 (38%) meeting criteria for an inhibitory ADA response. The aggregate cohort experienced a reduction in uGAG from baseline to study end, which was enhanced in children with low or no ADA response. Conversely, children with inhibitory ADA showed increase in uGAG over time. IV-ERT in previously transplanted children with MPS-IH appears safe and can reduce uGAG, although this is reversed by the presence of inhibitory ADA. These data show a biochemical change after initiation of post-HCT IV-ERT, but the occurrence of ADA and inhibitory antibodies are a concern and should be monitored in future efficacy trials. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov , NCT01173016, 07/30/2010.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-50595-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6773848PMC
October 2019

Clinical trial of laronidase in Hurler syndrome after hematopoietic cell transplantation.

Pediatr Res 2020 01 21;87(1):104-111. Epub 2019 Aug 21.

University of Minnesota Masonic Children's Hospital, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

Background: Mucopolysaccharidosis I (MPS IH) is a lysosomal storage disease treated with hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) because it stabilizes cognitive deterioration, but is insufficient to alleviate all somatic manifestations. Intravenous laronidase improves somatic burden in attenuated MPS I. It is unknown whether laronidase can improve somatic disease following HCT in MPS IH. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of laronidase on somatic outcomes of patients with MPS IH previously treated with HCT.

Methods: This 2-year open-label pilot study of laronidase included ten patients (age 5-13 years) who were at least 2 years post-HCT and donor engrafted. Outcomes were assessed semi-annually and compared to historic controls.

Results: The two youngest participants had a statistically significant improvement in growth compared to controls. Development of persistent high-titer anti-drug antibodies (ADA) was associated with poorer 6-min walk test (6MWT) performance; when patients with high ADA titers were excluded, there was a significant improvement in the 6MWT in the remaining seven patients.

Conclusions: Laronidase seemed to improve growth in participants <8 years old, and 6MWT performance in participants without ADA. Given the small number of patients treated in this pilot study, additional study is needed before definitive conclusions can be made.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41390-019-0541-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6960090PMC
January 2020

Intrathecal enzyme replacement for Hurler syndrome: biomarker association with neurocognitive outcomes.

Genet Med 2019 11 25;21(11):2552-2560. Epub 2019 Apr 25.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Blood and Marrow Transplantation, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

Purpose: Abnormalities in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) have been reported in Hurler syndrome, a fatal neurodegenerative lysosomal disorder. While no biomarker has predicted neurocognitive response to treatment, one of these abnormalities, glycosaminoglycan nonreducing ends (NREs), holds promise to monitor therapeutic efficacy. A trial of intrathecal enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) added to standard treatment enabled tracking of CSF abnormalities, including NREs. We evaluated safety, biomarker response, and neurocognitive correlates of change.

Methods: In addition to intravenous ERT and hematopoietic cell transplantation, patients (N = 24) received intrathecal ERT at four peritransplant time points; CSF was evaluated at each point. Neurocognitive functioning was quantified at baseline, 1 year, and 2 years posttransplant. Changes in CSF biomarkers and neurocognitive function were evaluated for an association.

Results: Over treatment, there were significant decreases in CSF opening pressure, biomarkers of disease activity, and markers of inflammation. Percent decrease in NRE from pretreatment to final intrathecal dose posttransplant was positively associated with percent change in neurocognitive score from pretreatment to 2 years posttransplant.

Conclusion: Intrathecal ERT was safe and, in combination with standard treatment, was associated with reductions in CSF abnormalities. Critically, we report evidence of a link between a biomarker treatment response and neurocognitive outcome in Hurler syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-019-0522-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6831510PMC
November 2019

Short stature as a presenting symptom of attenuated Mucopolysaccharidosis type I: case report and clinical insights.

BMC Endocr Disord 2018 Nov 12;18(1):83. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, 1124 West Carson Street, Liu Research Building, Torrance, CA, 90502, USA.

Background: Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) results in significant disease burden and early treatment is important for optimal outcomes. Recognition of short stature and growth failure as symptoms of MPS I among pediatric endocrinologists may lead to earlier diagnosis and treatment.

Case Presentation: A male patient first began experiencing hip pain at 5 years of age and was referred to an endocrinologist for short stature at age 7. Clinical history included recurrent respiratory infections, sleep apnea, moderate joint contractures, mild facial dysmorphic features, scoliosis, and umbilical hernia. Height was more than - 2 SD below the median at all time points. Growth velocity was below the 3rd percentile. Treatment for short stature included leuprolide acetate and recombinant human growth hormone. The patient was diagnosed with MPS I and began enzyme replacement therapy with laronidase at age 18.

Conclusions: The case study patient had many symptoms of MPS I yet remained undiagnosed for 11 years after presenting with short stature. The appropriate path to MPS I diagnosis when patients present with short stature and/or growth failure plus one or more of the common signs of attenuated disease is described. Improved awareness regarding association of short stature and growth failure with attenuated MPS I is needed since early identification and treatment significantly decreases disease burden.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12902-018-0311-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6233567PMC
November 2018

Diagnosis and Management of Osteopetrosis: Consensus Guidelines From the Osteopetrosis Working Group.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2017 09;102(9):3111-3123

Department of Pediatrics, Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, California 90502.

Background: Osteopetrosis encompasses a group of rare metabolic bone diseases characterized by impaired osteoclast activity or development, resulting in high bone mineral density. Existing guidelines focus on treatment of the severe infantile forms with hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) but do not address the management of patients with less severe forms for whom HCT is not the standard of care. Therefore, our objective was to develop expert consensus guidelines for the management of these patients.

Methods: A modified Delphi method was used to build consensus among participants of the Osteopetrosis Working Group, with responses to an anonymous online survey used to identify areas of agreement and conflict and develop a follow-up survey. The strength of recommendations and quality of evidence was graded using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation system.

Results: Consensus was found in the areas of diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment. We recommend relying on characteristic radiographic findings to make the diagnosis and found that genetic testing adds important information by identifying mutations associated with unique disease complications. We recommend ongoing monitoring for changes in mineral metabolism and other complications, including cranial nerve impingement, anemia, leukopenia, and dental disease. We suggest that calcitriol should not be used in high doses and instead recommend symptom-based supportive therapy for disease complications because noninfantile osteopetrosis has no effective treatment.

Conclusions: Scarcity of published studies on osteopetrosis reduce the ability to develop evidence-based guidelines for the management of these patients. Expert opinion-based guidelines for this rare condition are nevertheless important to enable improved care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jc.2017-01127DOI Listing
September 2017

Pilot study of the safety and effect of adalimumab on pain, physical function, and musculoskeletal disease in mucopolysaccharidosis types I and II.

Mol Genet Metab Rep 2017 Mar 15;10:75-80. Epub 2017 Jan 15.

Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, 1124 W. Carson St., Torrance, CA 90502, USA.

Mucopolysaccharidosis I and II are lysosomal storage disorders that, despite treatment with hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) and/or enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), continue to cause significant skeletal abnormalities leading to pain, stiffness, physical dysfunction, and short stature. Tumor necrosis factor - alpha (TNF-α) is elevated in individuals with MPS I and II and associated with pain and physical dysfunction. Therefore, we evaluated the safety and effects of the TNF-α inhibitor adalimumab in patients with MPS I and II in a 32-week, randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study of adalimumab at a dose of 20 mg (weight 15-<30 kg) or 40 mg (weight ≥ 30 kg) administered subcutaneously every other week or saline placebo for 16 weeks. Participants were evaluated at baseline, week 16, and week 32 with the Children's Health Questionnaire - Parent Form 50 (CHQ-PF50), the Pediatric Pain Questionnaire (PPQ), range-of-motion (ROM) measurements, anthropometry, six-minute walk test (6MWT), hand dynamometer, and laboratory evaluations for safety. The primary outcome was safety and primary efficacy outcome was bodily pain (BP) measured by the CHQ-PF50. Two subjects, one with MPS I and one with MPS II, completed the study. Adalimumab was well tolerated and there were no serious adverse events. Standardized BP scores for age and gender were higher (i.e. less pain) at the end of the treatment versus placebo phase for both subjects. Subject #1 became unblinded during treatment due to skin erythema. Behavior measured by both CHQ-PF50 and parental report improved during treatment compared to placebo in both subjects. ROM improved by > 5° in seven of eight joints in Subject #1 and five of eight joints in Subject #2 (range 7.0° to 52.8°). There was no change in the PPQ, 6MWT, or hand dynamometer. Data from this small pilot study suggest that treatment with adalimumab is safe, tolerable, and may improve ROM, physical function, and possibly pain, in children with MPS I or II. However, additional clinical trials are needed before this therapy should be recommended as part of clinical care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymgmr.2017.01.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5238608PMC
March 2017

Elevated cerebral spinal fluid biomarkers in children with mucopolysaccharidosis I-H.

Sci Rep 2016 12 2;6:38305. Epub 2016 Dec 2.

Division of Pediatric Blood and Marrow Transplant, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) type-IH is a lysosomal storage disease that results from mutations in the IDUA gene causing the accumulation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Historically, children with the severe phenotype, MPS-IH (Hurler syndrome) develop progressive neurodegeneration with death in the first decade due to cardio-pulmonary complications. New data suggest that inflammation may play a role in MPS pathophysiology. To date there is almost no information on the pathophysiologic changes within the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) of these patients. We evaluated the CSF of 25 consecutive patients with MPS-IH. While CSF glucose and total protein were within the normal range, we found a significantly mean elevated CSF opening pressure at 24 cm HO (range 14-37 cm HO). We observed a 3-fold elevation in CSF heparan sulfate and a 3-8 fold increase in MPS-IH specific non-reducing ends, I0S0 and I0S6. Cytokine analyses in CSF of children with MPS-IH showed significantly elevated inflammatory markers including: MCP-1 SDF-1a, IL-Ra, MIP-1b, IL-8, and VEGF in comparison to unaffected children. This is the largest report of CSF characteristics in children with MPS-IH. Identification of key biomarkers may provide further insight into the inflammatory-mediated mechanisms related to MPS diseases and perhaps lead to improved targeted therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep38305DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5133554PMC
December 2016

Smoking habits and parathyroid hormone concentrations in young adults: The CARDIA study.

Bone Rep 2016 Dec 28;5:104-109. Epub 2016 Apr 28.

Division of Epidemiology & Community Health, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, MN, USA.

Conflicting results have been reported concerning a relationship between smoking and serum PTH. Our study objective was to examine whether smoking was associated with serum PTH independent of correlates of PTH among young adults, and explore potential mechanisms. This was a cross-sectional study of healthy individuals, 24-36 years old, examined during 1992 through 1993 in California, USA (a subset of Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study). Linear regression was used to obtain adjusted means of PTH according to smoking habit (current, former, never). Biomarkers for calcium metabolism and bone turnover (including serum concentrations of osteocalcin, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, and 24-hour urinary excretion of calcium) and bone mineral density were similarly compared by smoking. 376 participants were analyzed (171 women, 181 black). Over half reported never smoking. We observed lower PTH in current smokers compared to non-smokers and found no evidence of an interaction by race and sex. PTH was lowest in current smokers, intermediate in former smokers, and highest in never smokers (geometric mean PTH: 23.6, 26.7, 27.4 pg/mL, respectively: P for trend, 0.006) after adjusting for potential confounders including calcium intake. Among the biomarkers, serum osteocalcin concentration and 24-hour urinary excretion of calcium were lowest in current smokers. We observed no smoking-related difference in bone mineral density. In this community-based sample of young adult men and women, smoking was associated with significantly lower PTH concentration. The mechanism and clinical implication of the finding, however, remains uncertain.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4926833PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bonr.2016.04.003DOI Listing
December 2016

Feasibility and tolerability of whole-body, low-intensity vibration and its effects on muscle function and bone in patients with dystrophinopathies: a pilot study.

Muscle Nerve 2017 06 6;55(6):875-883. Epub 2017 Feb 6.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA.

Introduction: Dystrophinopathies are X-linked muscle degenerative disorders that result in progressive muscle weakness complicated by bone loss. This study's goal was to evaluate feasibility and tolerability of whole-body, low-intensity vibration (WBLIV) and its potential effects on muscle and bone in patients with Duchenne or Becker muscular dystrophy.

Methods: This 12-month pilot study included 5 patients (age 5.9-21.7 years) who used a low-intensity Marodyne LivMD plate vibrating at 30-90 Hz for 10 min/day for the first 6 months. Timed motor function tests, myometry, and peripheral quantitative computed tomography were performed at baseline and at 6 and 12 months.

Results: Motor function and lower extremity muscle strength remained either unchanged or improved during the intervention phase, followed by deterioration after WBLIV discontinuation. Indices of bone density and geometry remained stable in the tibia.

Conclusions: WBLIV was well tolerated and appeared to have a stabilizing effect on lower extremity muscle function and bone measures. Muscle Nerve 55: 875-883, 2017.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mus.25431DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5385164PMC
June 2017

Elevated TNF-α is associated with pain and physical disability in mucopolysaccharidosis types I, II, and VI.

Mol Genet Metab 2016 Apr 28;117(4):427-30. Epub 2016 Jan 28.

University of Minnesota, 420 Delaware Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55414, United States.

Background: Children and adults with the lysosomal storage diseases mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) types I, II and VI live shortened lives permeated by chronic pain and physical disability. Current treatments do not alleviate these problems. Thus there is a critical need to understand the mechanism of chronic pain and disability in MPS in order to improve the way we treat patients. A potential target is inflammation.

Hypothesis: We hypothesized that excessive inflammation mediated by the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) inflammatory pathway is the fundamental cause of much of the chronic pain and physical disability in MPS.

Methods: 55 patients with MPS I, II, or VI were enrolled over the course of a 5-year prospective longitudinal natural history study and evaluated annually for 2-5years. 51 healthy controls were enrolled in a separate cross-sectional study of bone and energy metabolism. TNF-α was measured by ELISA. Pain and physical disability were measured by the Children's Health Questionnaire - Parent Form 50 (CHQ-PF50). Differences in log-transformed TNF-α levels and associations with CHQ domains were evaluated using a linear mixed effects model with random intercept.

Results: TNF-α levels were measured in 48 MPS (age: 5-17years; 35% female) and 51 controls (age: 8-17years; 53% female). Among MPS, 22 (46%) were treated with hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) alone, 24 (50%) with enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) alone, and 2 (4%) with both HCT and ERT. TNF-α levels are higher in MPS compared to healthy controls (p<0.001). Higher TNF-α levels are associated with increased pain and decreased physical function, social limitations due to physical health, and physical summary score (all p<0.05). TNF-α levels were not significantly associated with the general health score. TNF-α levels did not change significantly over time in MPS.

Conclusions: Higher TNF-α levels are implicated in the pain and decreased physical function present in individuals with MPS despite treatment with ERT and/or HCT, suggesting that TNF-a inhibition could potentially be a useful adjunctive therapy. Further investigation into the role of TNF-α inhibition in MPS to decrease pain and improve physical function is indicated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymgme.2016.01.012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4851859PMC
April 2016

Higher daily physical activity is associated with higher osteocalcin levels in adolescents.

Prev Med Rep 2015;2:568-571

Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Endocrinology, Torrance, CA USA.

Background: Exercise stimulates bone remodeling and improves insulin sensitivity (Si), even without associated weight loss. Osteocalcin (OCN), a bone-derived protein, is associated with improved Si.

Purpose: We examined how daily physical activity is associated with OCN and Si.

Methods: Physical activity was measured through questionnaires completed in Minneapolis from 2010-2012. A physical activity score (PAQsum) was calculated to quantify physical activity (range 1-5). OCN and bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) were measured by ELISA. Si was measured by the insulin modified frequently sampled IV glucose tolerance test.

Results: The mean PAQsum value was 2.4±0.8 in 47 participants (12-17.9 years old). PAQsum was positively associated with OCN (p= 0.006). Participants with PAQsum<2 had significantly lower OCN levels compared to participants with PAQsum>2 (p<0.02). Obesity did not modify the association between PAQsum and OCN. There was no statistically significant association between PAQsum and Si or between OCN and Si, even after adjustment for percent body fat.

Conclusions: OCN is higher in more physically active individuals. More research is needed to clarify the relationship between OCN, physical activity and Si.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pmedr.2015.06.017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4517293PMC
January 2015

Next generation sequencing in endocrine practice.

Mol Genet Metab 2015 Jun-Jul;115(2-3):61-71. Epub 2015 May 3.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, University of Minnesota Masonic Children's Hospital, Minneapolis, MN 55454, USA. Electronic address:

With the completion of the Human Genome Project and advances in genomic sequencing technologies, the use of clinical molecular diagnostics has grown tremendously over the last decade. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has overcome many of the practical roadblocks that had slowed the adoption of molecular testing for routine clinical diagnosis. In endocrinology, targeted NGS now complements biochemical testing and imaging studies. The goal of this review is to provide clinicians with a guide to the application of NGS to genetic testing for endocrine conditions, by compiling a list of established gene mutations detectable by NGS, and highlighting key phenotypic features of these disorders. As we outline in this review, the clinical utility of NGS-based molecular testing for endocrine disorders is very high. Identifying an exact genetic etiology improves understanding of the disease, provides clear explanation to families about the cause, and guides decisions about screening, prevention and/or treatment. To illustrate this approach, a case of hypophosphatasia with a pathogenic mutation in the ALPL gene detected by NGS is presented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymgme.2015.05.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4818590PMC
March 2016

Bone mineral density in children with fanconi anemia after hematopoietic cell transplantation.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2015 May 13;21(5):894-9. Epub 2015 Jan 13.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Blood and Marrow Transplantation, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Fanconi anemia (FA) is an inherited DNA repair disorder associated with short stature and bone marrow failure, usually requiring hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Although low bone mineral density (BMD) has been reported in leukemia patients after HCT, little is known about BMD in FA children after HCT (FA HCT). This study's goals were to compare BMD in FA HCT to BMD in healthy controls and in children who received HCT for hematologic malignancy (cancer HCT), and to test for associations between BMD and risk factors for bone loss. This cross-sectional study included 20 FA HCT, 13 cancer HCT, and 90 healthy controls, age-matched and <18 years old at evaluation. BMD Z-scores for total body (TBMD) and lumbar spine (LBMD) were measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and adjusted for height-for-age Z-score (HAZ). FA HCT had lower mean TBMDHAZ Z-score (by .8 SD) and higher fraction with Z-score ≤ -1 than healthy controls (42% versus 11%). No LBMD deficits were detected. FA HCT and cancer HCT groups did not differ significantly in TBMD or LBMD Z-scores. In FA HCT patients, lower body mass index and lower percent fat were associated with lower BMD. This study highlights the importance of monitoring BMD to optimize bone health in FA patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2015.01.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4408223PMC
May 2015

Critical hypercalcemia following discontinuation of denosumab therapy for metastatic giant cell tumor of bone.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2015 Jun 3;62(6):1078-80. Epub 2015 Jan 3.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, University of Minnesota Children's Hospital, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

We report a 14 year-old female with Giant Cell Tumor of Bone, successfully treated with denosumab, who developed critical hypercalcemia after completion of therapy. Five months after her last denosumab treatment, serum calcium rose to 16.5 mg/dL (normal 8.7-10.8 mg/dL), nearly double her prior level of 8.4 mg/dL while receiving denosumab. She required emergent intervention to treat her hypercalcemia, which was attributed to rebound osteoclast activity and osteopetrotic bone. Denosumab is widely used in adults and increasingly in pediatric oncology populations and our experience demonstrates the need for close monitoring for electrolyte derangements following discontinuation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.25393DOI Listing
June 2015

Isokinetic muscle strength differences in patients with mucopolysaccharidosis I, II, and VI.

J Pediatr Rehabil Med 2014 ;7(4):353-60

Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

Purpose: To determine muscular strength differences in patients with MPS-I, II, and VI versus age- and sex-matched healthy controls.

Methods: Dominant leg isokinetic knee extension strength was measured at 90 and 120 degrees per second (d/s) using a dynamometer in 30 subjects with MPS and 42 controls (5-16 yrs). MPS-I was further divided into MPS-IA (attenuated) and MPS-IH (severe). Strength measures analyzed were peak torque (PkT), peak torque per unit body weight (PkT/BW) and per unit lean body mass (PkT/LBM), and average power (AP).

Results: Following adjusting strength measures for age, MPS-IH and MPS-II had significantly lower strength measures for all variables at both angular velocities. MPS-VI had significantly lower PkT, PkT/LBM, and AP compared to controls at 90 and 120d/s. In contrast, MPS-IA was not significantly different from controls for any strength variable at either angular velocity.

Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that decrements in skeletal muscle strength depend on MPS diagnosis and severity of disease. Children with MPS-IH demonstrate the greatest difference in muscular strength compared to healthy controls.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/PRM-140305DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4438747PMC
September 2015

Vitamin D insufficiency is common in Ugandan children and is associated with severe malaria.

PLoS One 2014 3;9(12):e113185. Epub 2014 Dec 3.

Department of Pediatrics, Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, United States of America.

Vitamin D plays an increasingly recognized role in the innate and adaptive immune response to infection. Based on demonstrated roles in up-regulating innate immunity, decreasing inflammation, and reducing the severity of disease in illnesses such as tuberculosis and influenza, we hypothesized that poor vitamin D status would be associated with severe malaria. We measured 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] by immunoassay in a sample of Ugandan children aged 18 months-12 years with severe malaria (cerebral malaria or severe malarial anemia, n = 40) and in healthy community children (n = 20). Ninety-five percent of children with severe malaria (n = 38) and 80% of control children (n = 16) were vitamin D-insufficient [plasma 25(OH)D <30 ng/mL]. Mean plasma 25(OH)D levels were significantly lower in children with severe malaria than in community children (21.2 vs. 25.3 ng/mL, p = 0.03). Logistic regression revealed that for every 1 ng/mL increase in plasma 25(OH)D, the odds of having severe malaria declined by 9% [OR = 0.91 (95% CI: 0.84, 1.0)]. These preliminary results suggest that vitamin D insufficiency may play a role in the development of severe malaria. Further prospective studies in larger cohorts are indicated to confirm the relationship of vitamin D levels to severity of malaria infection and to investigate causality.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0113185PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4254466PMC
August 2015

Successful Spinal Fixation Surgery Following Teriparatide Treatment in an Adolescent Boy with Severe Osteoporosis and Progressive Kyphoscoliosis: A Case Report.

JBJS Case Connect 2014 Oct/Dec/Nov;4(4):e89

Department of Pediatrics (J.P.N.), Division of Endocrinology (E.O. and L.E.P.), University of Minnesota, East Building, Room MB671, 2450 Riverside Avenue, Minneapolis, MN 55454. E-mail address for L.E. Polgreen:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.CC.M.00296DOI Listing
December 2017

Biomarkers of bone remodeling in children with mucopolysaccharidosis types I, II, and VI.

J Pediatr Rehabil Med 2014 ;7(2):159-65

Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

Purpose: Skeletal disease causes significant morbidity in mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS), and bone remodeling processes in MPS have not been well characterized. The objective of this study was to determine if biomarkers of bone turnover are abnormal in children with specific MPS disorders (i.e. MSP-I, MPS-II, and MPS-VI) compared to healthy children.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed of serum biomarkers of bone formation (bone-specific alkaline phosphatase [BSAP], osteocalcin) and urine biomarkers of bone resorption (pyridinoline, deoxypyridinoline) in MPS and healthy controls. Measures of physical function and pain were obtained using the Children's Health Questionnaire (CHQ).

Results: The cohort consisted of 39 children with MPS (MPS-I=26; MPS-II=11; MPS-VI=4) and 51 healthy children. Adjusting for sex and Tanner stage group, MPS individuals had statistically significant increases for osteocalcin (p< 0.001), with trends toward higher BSAP (p=0.054) and urinary pyridinoline (p=0.084). These biomarkers were not significantly associated with CHQ bodily pain and physical-function scores.

Conclusion: Osteocalcin was increased in children with MPS disorders, with trends for increases in BSAP and urinary pyridinoline, suggesting that bone remodeling is altered in children with MPS. Future studies to assess the ability of these biomarkers to quantify and monitor MPS skeletal disease in response to therapy are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/PRM-140285DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4420175PMC
May 2015

Growth hormone treatment of patients with Fanconi anemia after hematopoietic cell transplantation.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2014 Jun 24;61(6):1142-3. Epub 2013 Dec 24.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.24910DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3989390PMC
June 2014

Effect of recombinant human growth hormone on changes in height, bone mineral density, and body composition over 1-2 years in children with Hurler or Hunter syndrome.

Mol Genet Metab 2014 Feb 11;111(2):101-6. Epub 2013 Dec 11.

University of Minnesota, Department of Pediatrics, Minneapolis, MN, USA. Electronic address:

Patients with Hurler or Hunter syndrome typically have moderate to severe growth deficiencies despite therapy with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and/or enzyme replacement therapy. It is unknown whether treatment with recombinant human growth hormone (hGH) can improve growth in these children. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of hGH on growth, bone mineral density (BMD), and body composition in children with Hurler or Hunter syndrome enrolled in a longitudinal observational study. The difference in annual change in outcomes between hGH treated and untreated subjects was estimated by longitudinal regression models that adjusted for age, Tanner stage, and sex where appropriate. We report on 23 participants who completed at least 2 annual study visits (10 [43%] treated with hGH): Hurler syndrome (n=13) average age of 9.8 ± 3.1 years (range 5.3-13.6 years; 54% female) and Hunter syndrome (n=10) average age of 12.0 ± 2.7 years (range 7.0-17.0 years; 0% female). As a group, children with Hurler or Hunter syndrome treated with hGH had no difference in annual change in height (growth velocity) compared to those untreated with hGH. Growth velocity in hGH treated individuals ranged from -0.4 to 8.1cm/year and from 0.3 to 6.6 cm/year in the untreated individuals. Among children with Hunter syndrome, 100% (N=4) of those treated but only 50% of those untreated with hGH had an annual increase in height standard deviation score (SDS). Of the individuals treated with hGH, those with GHD had a trend towards higher annualized growth velocity compared to those without GHD (6.5 ± 1.9 cm/year vs. 3.5 ± 2.1cm/year; p=.050). Children treated with hGH had greater annual gains in BMD and lean body mass. In conclusion, although as a group we found no significant difference in growth between individuals treated versus not treated with hGH, individual response was highly variable and we are unable to predict who will respond to treatment. Thus, a trial of hGH may be appropriate in children with Hurler or Hunter syndrome, severe short stature, and growth failure. However, efficacy of hGH therapy should be evaluated after 1 year and discontinued if there is no increase in growth velocity or height SDS. Finally, the long-term benefits of changes in body composition with hGH treatment in this population are unknown.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymgme.2013.11.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4018305PMC
February 2014

Carotid intima-media thickness is increased in patients with treated mucopolysaccharidosis types I and II, and correlates with arterial stiffness.

Mol Genet Metab 2014 Feb 12;111(2):128-32. Epub 2013 Nov 12.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

Background: Treatments for mucopolysaccharidoses (MPSs) have increased longevity, but coronary artery disease (CAD) and cardiovascular complications cause mortality in a high percentage of patients. Non-invasive measures of sub-clinical atherosclerosis, such as carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and arterial stiffness, may be useful for prediction of CAD outcomes in MPS patients.

Objectives: The aim of the study was to determine if cIMT and arterial stiffness are abnormal in MPS I and II patients compared to healthy controls.

Methods: MPS patients underwent carotid artery ultrasonography, and electronic wall-tracking software was used to measure cIMT, carotid artery cross-sectional compliance (cCSC), cross-sectional distensibility (cCSD), and incremental elastic modulus (cIEM). Control data from healthy subjects were obtained from a different study that utilized identical testing within the same laboratory.

Results: A total of 406 healthy controls and 25 MPS patients (16 MPS I, 9 MPS II) were studied. All MPS patients had or were receiving treatment: 15 patients (6 MPS I, 9 MPS II) were receiving enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), 9 patients (all MPS I) had received hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT), and 1 patient with MPS I had received HSCT and was receiving enzyme replacement therapy (ERT). MPS patients had significantly higher mean (± SD) cIMT (0.56 ± 0.05 mm) compared to controls (0.44 ± 0.04 mm; adjusted p<0.001). MPS patients also had increased stiffness compared to controls, showing significantly lower cCSC (0.14 ± 0.09 mm(2)/mmHg versus 0.16 ± 0.05 mm(2)/mmHg; adjusted p=0.019), and higher cIEM (1362 ± 877 mmHg versus 942 ± 396 mmHg; adjusted p<0.001). cCSD in MPS patients was lower than that of controls (29.7 ± 16.4% versus 32.0 ± 8.2%) but was not statistically significant; p=0.12. Among MPS patients, cCSD showed a significant association with cIMT (p=0.047), while the association between cIEM and cIMT approached significance (p=0.077). No significant differences were observed in cIMT, cCSD, cCSC, and cIEM between MPS I and MPS II patients.

Conclusions: Despite treatment, MPS patients had higher cIMT compared to healthy controls, indicating this marker of sub-clinical atherosclerosis may be a useful predictor of CAD outcomes. The association of arterial stiffness measures with cIMT suggests that mechanical and structural changes may occur in concert among MPS patients. Although yet to be confirmed, increased cIMT and arterial stiffness in MPS I and II patients may be a consequence of inflammatory signaling pathways triggered by heparan or dermatan sulfate-derived oligosaccharides. Prospective, longitudinal studies will need to be performed in order to evaluate the usefulness of these carotid measurements as predictors of adverse CAD outcomes in MPS patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymgme.2013.11.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3946737PMC
February 2014

Vitamin D deficiency is associated with pulmonary exacerbations in children with cystic fibrosis.

Ann Am Thorac Soc 2014 Feb;11(2):198-204

1 Department of Pediatrics, Marshfield Clinic, Marshfield, Wisconsin; and.

Rationale: Recent literature suggests vitamin D has an effect on lung function and on the lung's ability to fight infection, both important in the cystic fibrosis (CF) population as predictors of morbidity and mortality.

Objectives: Our study assessed associations between vitamin D and % predicted lung function, pulmonary exacerbations, and first Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in children with CF. We hypothesized that children with CF who have 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-OHD) levels less than 30 μg/L would have lower % predicted lung function and more pulmonary exacerbations than those with 25-OHD greater than or equal to 30 μg/L.

Methods: This retrospective longitudinal study of 130 children aged 6 to 18 years between 2000 and 2012 examined 25-OHD levels classed in three vitamin D groups: sufficient (≥30 μg/L), insufficient (20-29 μg/L), and deficient (<20 μg/L). Longitudinal models followed individuals' changing vitamin D groups over time to compare numbers of pulmonary exacerbations (defined by hospitalization), incidence of first P. aeruginosa infection, and % predicted lung function. Cross-sectional comparisons between vitamin D groups were performed at ages 8, 12, and 16 years.

Measurements And Main Results: The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency increased slowly through adolescence. The rate of exacerbations for the deficient vitamin D group, aged 15 to 18 years, was 13.1 per 10 patient-years, significantly higher than 4.3 per 10 patient-years for the insufficient and sufficient vitamin D groups (P < 0.05), which were not significantly different There were no differences between vitamin D groups in pulmonary function or incidence of first P. aeruginosa infection, which was about 2 per 10 patient-years.

Conclusions: Higher 25-OHD levels in children with CF were associated with lower rates of pulmonary exacerbations and, in adolescents, higher FEV1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1513/AnnalsATS.201208-068OCDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3972970PMC
February 2014

A cross-sectional association between bone mineral density and parathyroid hormone and other biomarkers in community-dwelling young adults: the CARDIA study.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2013 Oct 21;98(10):4038-46. Epub 2013 Aug 21.

Shiga University of Medical Science, Department of Health Science, Otsu, Shiga, 520-2192 Japan.

Context: Most association studies of bone-related biomarkers (BBMs) with bone mineral density (BMD) have been conducted in postmenopausal women.

Objective: We tested whether the following BBMs were cross-sectionally associated with BMD among young adults: serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D), 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), PTH, osteocalcin, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), and urinary pyridinoline/urinary creatinine.

Setting And Participants: We studied 319 individuals (134 women, 149 black, 24-36 years) recruited during 1992 through 1993 in Oakland, California. BMD was assessed with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Linear regression models estimated the association between BMD and each BBM.

Results: 1,25(OH)2D was inversely associated with all BMDs. 25OHD was positively, and PTH inversely, associated with lumbar spine, total hip, and whole-body BMD. BAP was inversely associated with left arm, right arm, and whole-body BMD but not with spine or hip BMD. Neither osteocalcin nor urinary pyridinoline/urinary creatinine was associated with BMD. When we placed all BBMs (including 1,25(OH)2D) in one model, the pattern and magnitude of association was similar except for PTH, which was attenuated. The association of BMD and BBMs did not differ significantly by race or sex.

Conclusions: In this cross-sectional study of healthy young men and women who had PTH levels considered normal in clinical practice, higher PTH was associated with lower BMD, particularly in weight-bearing sites (ie, spine and hip). The inverse association of 1,25(OH)2D, together with the attenuation of PTH, suggests that the observed association of PTH is mediated by 1,25(OH)2D. BAP was inversely associated with arm BMD. BBMs can be important markers of skeletal activity in young adults, but their clinical role on bone health among this population is yet to be fully determined.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jc.2013-2198DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3790619PMC
October 2013