Publications by authors named "Lydie Burglen"

75 Publications

Childhood-onset progressive dystonia associated with pathogenic truncating variants in CHD8.

Ann Clin Transl Neurol 2021 10 20;8(10):1986-1990. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

School of Medicine, Institute of Human Genetics, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany.

Originally described as a risk factor for autism, CHD8 loss-of-function variants have recently been associated with a wider spectrum of neurodevelopmental abnormalities. We further expand the CHD8-related phenotype with the description of two unrelated patients who presented with childhood-onset progressive dystonia. Whole-exome sequencing conducted in two independent laboratories revealed a CHD8 nonsense variant in one patient and a frameshift variant in the second. The patients had strongly overlapping phenotypes characterized by generalized dystonia with mild-to-moderate neurodevelopmental comorbidity. Deep brain stimulation led to clinical improvement in both cases. We suggest that CHD8 should be added to the growing list of neurodevelopmental disorder-associated genes whose mutations can also result in dystonia-dominant phenotypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/acn3.51444DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8528468PMC
October 2021

Integrative approach to interpret DYRK1A variants, leading to a frequent neurodevelopmental disorder.

Genet Med 2021 11 3;23(11):2150-2159. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Normandie Univ, UNIROUEN, Inserm U1245 and Rouen University Hospital, Department of Genetics and Reference Center for Developmental Disorders, F 76000, Normandy Center for Genomic and Personalized Medicine, Rouen, France.

Purpose: DYRK1A syndrome is among the most frequent monogenic forms of intellectual disability (ID). We refined the molecular and clinical description of this disorder and developed tools to improve interpretation of missense variants, which remains a major challenge in human genetics.

Methods: We reported clinical and molecular data for 50 individuals with ID harboring DYRK1A variants and developed (1) a specific DYRK1A clinical score; (2) amino acid conservation data generated from 100 DYRK1A sequences across different taxa; (3) in vitro overexpression assays to study level, cellular localization, and kinase activity of DYRK1A mutant proteins; and (4) a specific blood DNA methylation signature.

Results: This integrative approach was successful to reclassify several variants as pathogenic. However, we questioned the involvement of some others, such as p.Thr588Asn, still reported as likely pathogenic, and showed it does not cause an obvious phenotype in mice.

Conclusion: Our study demonstrated the need for caution when interpreting variants in DYRK1A, even those occurring de novo. The tools developed will be useful to interpret accurately the variants identified in the future in this gene.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-021-01263-1DOI Listing
November 2021

Area Postrema Syndrome as the Initial Presentation of Alexander Disease.

Neurology 2021 09 7;97(11):548-549. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

From the Service de Neuropédiatrie & Centre de Référence Neurogénétique (F.R., S.V., D.R.), Department of Pediatric Imaging (F.C.), and Département de Génétique Médicale & Centre de Référence Neurogénétique (L.B.), APHP.SU, Hôpital Trousseau; Developmental Brain Disorders Laboratory Imagine Institute (L.B.); and Service de Neuropédiatrie & Centre de Référence Neurogénétique (D.R.), Sorbonne Université, Paris, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000012462DOI Listing
September 2021

[A disruption of inositol phosphates metabolism causes pontocerebellar hypoplasia].

Med Sci (Paris) 2021 Jun-Jul;37(6-7):572-574. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Université de Paris, Institut Imagine, Laboratoire de génétique des troubles du neurodéveloppement, Inserm UMR 1163, 24 boulevard du Montparnasse, 75015 Paris, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/medsci/2021067DOI Listing
June 2021

Haploinsufficiency of ARFGEF1 is associated with developmental delay, intellectual disability, and epilepsy with variable expressivity.

Genet Med 2021 10 10;23(10):1901-1911. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Inserm UMR1231 team GAD, University of Burgundy and Franche-Comté, Dijon, France.

Purpose: ADP ribosylation factor guanine nucleotide exchange factors (ARFGEFs) are a family of proteins implicated in cellular trafficking between the Golgi apparatus and the plasma membrane through vesicle formation. Among them is ARFGEF1/BIG1, a protein involved in axon elongation, neurite development, and polarization processes. ARFGEF1 has been previously suggested as a candidate gene for different types of epilepsies, although its implication in human disease has not been well characterized.

Methods: International data sharing, in silico predictions, and in vitro assays with minigene study, western blot analyses, and RNA sequencing.

Results: We identified 13 individuals with heterozygous likely pathogenic variants in ARFGEF1. These individuals displayed congruent clinical features of developmental delay, behavioral problems, abnormal findings on brain magnetic resonance image (MRI), and epilepsy for almost half of them. While nearly half of the cohort carried de novo variants, at least 40% of variants were inherited from mildly affected parents who were clinically re-evaluated by reverse phenotyping. Our in silico predictions and in vitro assays support the contention that ARFGEF1-related conditions are caused by haploinsufficiency, and are transmitted in an autosomal dominant fashion with variable expressivity.

Conclusion: We provide evidence that loss-of-function variants in ARFGEF1 are implicated in sporadic and familial cases of developmental delay with or without epilepsy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-021-01218-6DOI Listing
October 2021

MED27 Variants Cause Developmental Delay, Dystonia, and Cerebellar Hypoplasia.

Ann Neurol 2021 04 8;89(4):828-833. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX.

The Mediator multiprotein complex functions as a regulator of RNA polymerase II-catalyzed gene transcription. In this study, exome sequencing detected biallelic putative disease-causing variants in MED27, encoding Mediator complex subunit 27, in 16 patients from 11 families with a novel neurodevelopmental syndrome. Patient phenotypes are highly homogeneous, including global developmental delay, intellectual disability, axial hypotonia with distal spasticity, dystonic movements, and cerebellar hypoplasia. Seizures and cataracts were noted in severely affected individuals. Identification of multiple patients with biallelic MED27 variants supports the critical role of MED27 in normal human neural development, particularly for the cerebellum. ANN NEUROL 2021;89:828-833.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ana.26019DOI Listing
April 2021

MINPP1 prevents intracellular accumulation of the chelator inositol hexakisphosphate and is mutated in Pontocerebellar Hypoplasia.

Nat Commun 2020 11 30;11(1):6087. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

MRC Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology, University College London, WC1E 6BT, London, UK.

Inositol polyphosphates are vital metabolic and secondary messengers, involved in diverse cellular functions. Therefore, tight regulation of inositol polyphosphate metabolism is essential for proper cell physiology. Here, we describe an early-onset neurodegenerative syndrome caused by loss-of-function mutations in the multiple inositol-polyphosphate phosphatase 1 gene (MINPP1). Patients are found to have a distinct type of Pontocerebellar Hypoplasia with typical basal ganglia involvement on neuroimaging. We find that patient-derived and genome edited MINPP1 induced stem cells exhibit an inefficient neuronal differentiation combined with an increased cell death. MINPP1 deficiency results in an intracellular imbalance of the inositol polyphosphate metabolism. This metabolic defect is characterized by an accumulation of highly phosphorylated inositols, mostly inositol hexakisphosphate (IP), detected in HEK293 cells, fibroblasts, iPSCs and differentiating neurons lacking MINPP1. In mutant cells, higher IP level is expected to be associated with an increased chelation of intracellular cations, such as iron or calcium, resulting in decreased levels of available ions. These data suggest the involvement of IP-mediated chelation on Pontocerebellar Hypoplasia disease pathology and thereby highlight the critical role of MINPP1 in the regulation of human brain development and homeostasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-19919-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7705663PMC
November 2020

KMT2B-related disorders: expansion of the phenotypic spectrum and long-term efficacy of deep brain stimulation.

Brain 2020 12;143(11):3242-3261

Département de Génétique médicale, Maladies rares et médecine personnalisée, CHU Montpellier, Montpellier, France.

Heterozygous mutations in KMT2B are associated with an early-onset, progressive and often complex dystonia (DYT28). Key characteristics of typical disease include focal motor features at disease presentation, evolving through a caudocranial pattern into generalized dystonia, with prominent oromandibular, laryngeal and cervical involvement. Although KMT2B-related disease is emerging as one of the most common causes of early-onset genetic dystonia, much remains to be understood about the full spectrum of the disease. We describe a cohort of 53 patients with KMT2B mutations, with detailed delineation of their clinical phenotype and molecular genetic features. We report new disease presentations, including atypical patterns of dystonia evolution and a subgroup of patients with a non-dystonic neurodevelopmental phenotype. In addition to the previously reported systemic features, our study has identified co-morbidities, including the risk of status dystonicus, intrauterine growth retardation, and endocrinopathies. Analysis of this study cohort (n = 53) in tandem with published cases (n = 80) revealed that patients with chromosomal deletions and protein truncating variants had a significantly higher burden of systemic disease (with earlier onset of dystonia) than those with missense variants. Eighteen individuals had detailed longitudinal data available after insertion of deep brain stimulation for medically refractory dystonia. Median age at deep brain stimulation was 11.5 years (range: 4.5-37.0 years). Follow-up after deep brain stimulation ranged from 0.25 to 22 years. Significant improvement of motor function and disability (as assessed by the Burke Fahn Marsden's Dystonia Rating Scales, BFMDRS-M and BFMDRS-D) was evident at 6 months, 1 year and last follow-up (motor, P = 0.001, P = 0.004, and P = 0.012; disability, P = 0.009, P = 0.002 and P = 0.012). At 1 year post-deep brain stimulation, >50% of subjects showed BFMDRS-M and BFMDRS-D improvements of >30%. In the long-term deep brain stimulation cohort (deep brain stimulation inserted for >5 years, n = 8), improvement of >30% was maintained in 5/8 and 3/8 subjects for the BFMDRS-M and BFMDRS-D, respectively. The greatest BFMDRS-M improvements were observed for trunk (53.2%) and cervical (50.5%) dystonia, with less clinical impact on laryngeal dystonia. Improvements in gait dystonia decreased from 20.9% at 1 year to 16.2% at last assessment; no patient maintained a fully independent gait. Reduction of BFMDRS-D was maintained for swallowing (52.9%). Five patients developed mild parkinsonism following deep brain stimulation. KMT2B-related disease comprises an expanding continuum from infancy to adulthood, with early evidence of genotype-phenotype correlations. Except for laryngeal dysphonia, deep brain stimulation provides a significant improvement in quality of life and function with sustained clinical benefit depending on symptoms distribution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awaa304DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7719027PMC
December 2020

Congenital immobility and stiffness related to biallelic variants.

Neurol Genet 2020 Dec 24;6(6):e520. Epub 2020 Sep 24.

Département de Génétique (R.B., S.W., B.K., S.C.-B., M.-C.V., L.B., D.H., J.B., A.A., C.M.), Hôpital Armand Trousseau & Groupe Hospitalier Pitié-Salpêtrière, and Unité de Neuropédiatrie et Pathologie du Développement (D.D., M.M., D.R., A.I., T.B.V.), Hôpital Armand Trousseau, AP-HP Sorbonne Université, Paris; Centre de Référence des Maladies Neurogénétiques (D.D., D.R.); Centre de Référence Anomalies du Développement et Syndromes Malformatifs (S.W., C.M.); Hôpital de Pédiatrie et de Rééducation (K.M.), Bullion; INSERM UMR 1141 (D.R.), Paris; Réanimation Néonatale et Pédiatrique (P.-L.L.), and Service de Néonatologie (F.K., I.M.), Hôpital Armand Trousseau, AP-HP Sorbonne Université, Paris; Centre de Référence Déficience Intellectuelles de Causes Rares (D.H., A.A., T.B.V., C.M.); and INSERM (C.M.), U 1127, CNRS UMR 7225, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Université Paris 06 UMR S 1127, Institut du Cerveau et de la Moelle Epinière, Paris, France.

Objective: To delineate the phenotype associated with biallelic variants.

Methods: We describe 2 new patients with -related disorder diagnosed by whole-exome sequencing and compare their phenotype to 6 previous patients.

Results: Patients 1 and 2 had a similar distinctive phenotype comprising congenital stiffness of limbs, absent spontaneous movements, weak sucking, and hypoventilation. Both had absent brainstem evoked auditory responses (BEARs). Patient 1 carried the homozygous p.(His357Argfs*15) variant in . In the light of the finding in patient 1, a second reading of exome data for patient 2 revealed the novel homozygous p.(Gly128Val) variant.

Conclusions: Analysis of the phenotypes of these 2 patients and of the 6 previous cases showed that biallelic mutations are responsible for a unique congenital encephalopathy likely comprising absent BEAR, different from hyperekplexia and other conditions with neonatal hypertonia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/NXG.0000000000000520DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7577533PMC
December 2020

Early-onset nucleotide excision repair disorders with neurological impairment: Clues for early diagnosis and prognostic counseling.

Clin Genet 2020 09 28;98(3):251-260. Epub 2020 Jul 28.

Laboratoires de Diagnostic Génétique, Institut de génétique médicale d'Alsace, Nouvel Hôpital Civil, Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France.

Nucleotide excision repair associated diseases comprise overlapping phenotypes and a wide range of outcomes. The early stages still remain under-investigated and underdiagnosed, even although an early recognition of the first symptoms is of utmost importance for appropriate care and genetic counseling. We systematically collected clinical and molecular data from the literature and from newly diagnosed NER patients with neurological impairment, presenting clinical symptoms before the age of 12 months, including foetal cases. One hundred and eighty-five patients were included, 13 with specific symptoms during foetal life. Arthrogryposis, microcephaly, cataracts, and skin anomalies are the most frequently reported signs in early subtypes. Non ERCC6/CSB or ERCC8/CSA genes are overrepresented compared to later onset cohorts: 19% patients of this cohort presented variants in ERCC1, ERCC2/XPD, ERCC3/XPB or ERCC5/XPG. ERCC5/XPG is even the most frequently involved gene in foetal cases (10/13 cases, [4/7 families]). In this cohort, the mutated gene, the age of onset, the type of disease, severe global developmental delay, IUGR and skin anomalies were associated with earlier death. This large survey focuses on specific symptoms that should attract the attention of clinicians towards early-onset NER diagnosis in foetal and neonatal period, without waiting for the completeness of classical criteria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cge.13798DOI Listing
September 2020

Clinico-Genetic, Imaging and Molecular Delineation of COQ8A-Ataxia: A Multicenter Study of 59 Patients.

Ann Neurol 2020 08 10;88(2):251-263. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Department of Neurology, Radboud University Medical Centre, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Objective: To foster trial-readiness of coenzyme Q8A (COQ8A)-ataxia, we map the clinicogenetic, molecular, and neuroimaging spectrum of COQ8A-ataxia in a large worldwide cohort, and provide first progression data, including treatment response to coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10).

Methods: Cross-modal analysis of a multicenter cohort of 59 COQ8A patients, including genotype-phenotype correlations, 3D-protein modeling, in vitro mutation analyses, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) markers, disease progression, and CoQ10 response data.

Results: Fifty-nine patients (39 novel) with 44 pathogenic COQ8A variants (18 novel) were identified. Missense variants demonstrated a pleiotropic range of detrimental effects upon protein modeling and in vitro analysis of purified variants. COQ8A-ataxia presented as variable multisystemic, early-onset cerebellar ataxia, with complicating features ranging from epilepsy (32%) and cognitive impairment (49%) to exercise intolerance (25%) and hyperkinetic movement disorders (41%), including dystonia and myoclonus as presenting symptoms. Multisystemic involvement was more prevalent in missense than biallelic loss-of-function variants (82-93% vs 53%; p = 0.029). Cerebellar atrophy was universal on MRI (100%), with cerebral atrophy or dentate and pontine T2 hyperintensities observed in 28%. Cross-sectional (n = 34) and longitudinal (n = 7) assessments consistently indicated mild-to-moderate progression of ataxia (SARA: 0.45/year). CoQ10 treatment led to improvement by clinical report in 14 of 30 patients, and by quantitative longitudinal assessments in 8 of 11 patients (SARA: -0.81/year). Explorative sample size calculations indicate that ≥48 patients per arm may suffice to demonstrate efficacy for interventions that reduce progression by 50%.

Interpretation: This study provides a deeper understanding of the disease, and paves the way toward large-scale natural history studies and treatment trials in COQ8A-ataxia. ANN NEUROL 2020;88:251-263.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ana.25751DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7877690PMC
August 2020

Pathogenic DDX3X Mutations Impair RNA Metabolism and Neurogenesis during Fetal Cortical Development.

Neuron 2020 05 4;106(3):404-420.e8. Epub 2020 Mar 4.

APHP, Département de Génétique, Groupe Hospitalier Pitié Salpêtrière, Paris, France.

De novo germline mutations in the RNA helicase DDX3X account for 1%-3% of unexplained intellectual disability (ID) cases in females and are associated with autism, brain malformations, and epilepsy. Yet, the developmental and molecular mechanisms by which DDX3X mutations impair brain function are unknown. Here, we use human and mouse genetics and cell biological and biochemical approaches to elucidate mechanisms by which pathogenic DDX3X variants disrupt brain development. We report the largest clinical cohort to date with DDX3X mutations (n = 107), demonstrating a striking correlation between recurrent dominant missense mutations, polymicrogyria, and the most severe clinical outcomes. We show that Ddx3x controls cortical development by regulating neuron generation. Severe DDX3X missense mutations profoundly disrupt RNA helicase activity, induce ectopic RNA-protein granules in neural progenitors and neurons, and impair translation. Together, these results uncover key mechanisms underlying DDX3X syndrome and highlight aberrant RNA metabolism in the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2020.01.042DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7331285PMC
May 2020

Opposite Modulation of RAC1 by Mutations in TRIO Is Associated with Distinct, Domain-Specific Neurodevelopmental Disorders.

Am J Hum Genet 2020 03 27;106(3):338-355. Epub 2020 Feb 27.

Developmental Brain Disorders Laboratory, INSERM UMR 1163, 75015 Paris, France; Service de Génétique, Necker Enfants Malades University Hospital, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Pairs, 75015 Paris, France.

The Rho-guanine nucleotide exchange factor (RhoGEF) TRIO acts as a key regulator of neuronal migration, axonal outgrowth, axon guidance, and synaptogenesis by activating the GTPase RAC1 and modulating actin cytoskeleton remodeling. Pathogenic variants in TRIO are associated with neurodevelopmental diseases, including intellectual disability (ID) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Here, we report the largest international cohort of 24 individuals with confirmed pathogenic missense or nonsense variants in TRIO. The nonsense mutations are spread along the TRIO sequence, and affected individuals show variable neurodevelopmental phenotypes. In contrast, missense variants cluster into two mutational hotspots in the TRIO sequence, one in the seventh spectrin repeat and one in the RAC1-activating GEFD1. Although all individuals in this cohort present with developmental delay and a neuro-behavioral phenotype, individuals with a pathogenic variant in the seventh spectrin repeat have a more severe ID associated with macrocephaly than do most individuals with GEFD1 variants, who display milder ID and microcephaly. Functional studies show that the spectrin and GEFD1 variants cause a TRIO-mediated hyper- or hypo-activation of RAC1, respectively, and we observe a striking correlation between RAC1 activation levels and the head size of the affected individuals. In addition, truncations in TRIO GEFD1 in the vertebrate model X. tropicalis induce defects that are concordant with the human phenotype. This work demonstrates distinct clinical and molecular disorders clustering in the GEFD1 and seventh spectrin repeat domains and highlights the importance of tight control of TRIO-RAC1 signaling in neuronal development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2020.01.018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7058823PMC
March 2020

Regulation of human cerebral cortical development by EXOC7 and EXOC8, components of the exocyst complex, and roles in neural progenitor cell proliferation and survival.

Genet Med 2020 06 27;22(6):1040-1050. Epub 2020 Feb 27.

Division of Genetics and Genomics and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Boston Children's Hospital, Departments of Pediatrics and Neurology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Purpose: The exocyst complex is a conserved protein complex that mediates fusion of intracellular vesicles to the plasma membrane and is implicated in processes including cell polarity, cell migration, ciliogenesis, cytokinesis, autophagy, and fusion of secretory vesicles. The essential role of these genes in human genetic disorders, however, is unknown.

Methods: We performed homozygosity mapping and exome sequencing of consanguineous families with recessively inherited brain development disorders. We modeled an EXOC7 splice variant in vitro and examined EXOC7 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in developing mouse and human cortex. We modeled exoc7 loss-of-function in a zebrafish knockout.

Results: We report variants in exocyst complex members, EXOC7 and EXOC8, in a novel disorder of cerebral cortex development. In EXOC7, we identified four independent partial loss-of-function (LOF) variants in a recessively inherited disorder characterized by brain atrophy, seizures, and developmental delay, and in severe cases, microcephaly and infantile death. In EXOC8, we found a homozygous truncating variant in a family with a similar clinical disorder. We modeled exoc7 deficiency in zebrafish and found the absence of exoc7 causes microcephaly.

Conclusion: Our results highlight the essential role of the exocyst pathway in normal cortical development and how its perturbation causes complex brain disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-020-0758-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7272323PMC
June 2020

Growth charts in Kabuki syndrome 1.

Am J Med Genet A 2020 03 26;182(3):446-453. Epub 2019 Dec 26.

Service de Génétique, Hôpital Saint Pierre, GH Sud Réunion, Ile de la Réunion, Saint Pierre, France.

Kabuki syndrome (KS, KS1: OMIM 147920 and KS2: OMIM 300867) is caused by pathogenic variations in KMT2D or KDM6A. KS is characterized by multiple congenital anomalies and neurodevelopmental disorders. Growth restriction is frequently reported. Here we aimed to create specific growth charts for individuals with KS1, identify parameters used for size prognosis and investigate the impact of growth hormone therapy on adult height. Growth parameters and parental size were obtained for 95 KS1 individuals (41 females). Growth charts for height, weight, body mass index (BMI) and occipitofrontal circumference were generated in standard deviation values for the first time in KS1. Statural growth of KS1 individuals was compared to parental target size. According to the charts, height, weight, BMI, and occipitofrontal circumference were lower for KS1 individuals than the normative French population. For males and females, the mean growth of KS1 individuals was -2 and -1.8 SD of their parental target size, respectively. Growth hormone therapy did not increase size beyond the predicted size. This study, from the largest cohort available, proposes growth charts for widespread use in the management of KS1, especially for size prognosis and screening of other diseases responsible for growth impairment beyond a calculated specific target size.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.61462DOI Listing
March 2020

DNA repair functional analyses of NBN hypomorphic variants associated with NBN-related infertility.

Hum Mutat 2020 03 28;41(3):608-618. Epub 2019 Nov 28.

INSERM U830, Institut Curie, PSL Research University, Paris, France.

Nijmegen breakage syndrome caused by biallelic pathogenic variants of the DNA-damage response gene NBN, is characterized by severe microcephaly, cancer proneness, infertility, and karyotype abnormalities. We previously reported NBN variants in siblings suffering from fertility defects. Here, we identify a new founder NBN variant (c.442A>G, p.(Thr148Ala)) in Lebanese patients associated with isolated infertility. Functional analyses explored preserved or altered functions correlated with their remarkably mild phenotype. Transcript and protein analyses supported the use of an alternative transcript with in-frame skipping of exons 4-5, leading to p84-NBN protein with a preserved forkhead-associated (FHA) domain. The level of NBN was dramatically reduced and the MRN complex delocalized to the cytoplasm. Interestingly, ataxia-elangiectasia mutated (ATM) also shifted from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, suggesting some interaction between ATM and the MRN complex at a steady state. The ATM pathway activation, attenuated in typical patients with NBS, appeared normal under camptothecin treatment in these new NBN-related infertile patients. Cell cycle checkpoint defect was present in these atypical patients, although to a lesser extent than in typical patients with NBS. In conclusion, we report three new NBN-related infertile patients and we suggest that preserved FHA domain could be responsible for the mild phenotype and intermediate DNA-damage response defects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/humu.23955DOI Listing
March 2020

Immunopathological manifestations in Kabuki syndrome: a registry study of 177 individuals.

Genet Med 2020 01 31;22(1):181-188. Epub 2019 Jul 31.

Service de génétique médicale, CHU de Nantes, Nantes, France.

Purpose: Kabuki syndrome (KS) (OMIM 147920 and 300867) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by specific facial features, intellectual disability, and various malformations. Immunopathological manifestations seem prevalent and increase the morbimortality. To assess the frequency and severity of the manifestations, we measured the prevalence of immunopathological manifestations as well as genotype-phenotype correlations in KS individuals from a registry.

Methods: Data were for 177 KS individuals with KDM6A or KMT2D pathogenic variants. Questionnaires to clinicians were used to assess the presence of immunodeficiency and autoimmune diseases both on a clinical and biological basis.

Results: Overall, 44.1% (78/177) and 58.2% (46/79) of KS individuals exhibited infection susceptibility and hypogammaglobulinemia, respectively; 13.6% (24/177) had autoimmune disease (AID; 25.6% [11/43] in adults), 5.6% (10/177) with ≥2 AID manifestations. The most frequent AID manifestations were immune thrombocytopenic purpura (7.3% [13/177]) and autoimmune hemolytic anemia (4.0% [7/177]). Among nonhematological manifestations, vitiligo was frequent. Immune thrombocytopenic purpura was frequent with missense versus other types of variants (p = 0.027).

Conclusion: The high prevalence of immunopathological manifestations in KS demonstrates the importance of systematic screening and efficient preventive management of these treatable and sometimes life-threatening conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-019-0623-xDOI Listing
January 2020

AMPA receptor GluA2 subunit defects are a cause of neurodevelopmental disorders.

Nat Commun 2019 07 12;10(1):3094. Epub 2019 Jul 12.

Pediatric Neurology Unit, Safra Children's Hospital, Sheba Medical Center and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, 526121, Ramat Gan, Israel.

AMPA receptors (AMPARs) are tetrameric ligand-gated channels made up of combinations of GluA1-4 subunits encoded by GRIA1-4 genes. GluA2 has an especially important role because, following post-transcriptional editing at the Q607 site, it renders heteromultimeric AMPARs Ca-impermeable, with a linear relationship between current and trans-membrane voltage. Here, we report heterozygous de novo GRIA2 mutations in 28 unrelated patients with intellectual disability (ID) and neurodevelopmental abnormalities including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), Rett syndrome-like features, and seizures or developmental epileptic encephalopathy (DEE). In functional expression studies, mutations lead to a decrease in agonist-evoked current mediated by mutant subunits compared to wild-type channels. When GluA2 subunits are co-expressed with GluA1, most GRIA2 mutations cause a decreased current amplitude and some also affect voltage rectification. Our results show that de-novo variants in GRIA2 can cause neurodevelopmental disorders, complementing evidence that other genetic causes of ID, ASD and DEE also disrupt glutamatergic synaptic transmission.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-10910-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6626132PMC
July 2019

Three new cases of ataxia-telangiectasia-like disorder: No impairment of the ATM pathway, but S-phase checkpoint defect.

Hum Mutat 2019 10 15;40(10):1690-1699. Epub 2019 May 15.

Institut Curie, PSL Research University, Paris, France.

Ataxia-telangiectasia-like disorder (ATLD) is a rare genomic instability syndrome caused by biallelic variants of MRE11 (meiotic recombination 11) characterized by progressive cerebellar ataxia and typical karyotype abnormalities. These symptoms are common to those of ataxia-telangiectasia, which is consistent with the key role of MRE11 in ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) activation after DNA double-strand breaks. Three unrelated French patients were referred with ataxia. Only one had typical karyotype abnormalities. Unreported biallelic MRE11 variants were found in these three cases. Interestingly, one variant (c.424G>A) was present in two cases and haplotype analysis strongly suggested a French founder variant. Variants c.544G>A and c.314+4_314+7del lead to splice defects. The level of MRE11 in lymphoblastoid cell lines was consistently and dramatically reduced. Functional consequences were evaluated on activation of the ATM pathway via phosphorylation of ATM targets (KAP1 and CHK2), but no consistent defect was observed. However, an S-phase checkpoint activation defect after camptothecin was observed in these patients with ATLD. In conclusion, we report the first three French ATLD patients and a French founder variant, and propose an S-phase checkpoint activation study to evaluate the pathogenicity of MRE11 variants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/humu.23773DOI Listing
October 2019

SHH medulloblastoma in a young adult with a TCF4 germline pathogenic variation.

Acta Neuropathol 2019 04 8;137(4):675-678. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

Pediatric Oncology Department, SIREDO Oncology Centre (Care, Innovation, Research in Pediatric, Adolescent and Young Adults Oncology), Institut Curie, 26, rue d'Ulm, 75248, Paris Cedex 05, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00401-019-01983-4DOI Listing
April 2019

Mutations in MAST1 Cause Mega-Corpus-Callosum Syndrome with Cerebellar Hypoplasia and Cortical Malformations.

Neuron 2018 12 15;100(6):1354-1368.e5. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Centre de référence des Malformations et Maladies Congénitales du Cervelet et Département de Génétique et Embryologie Médicale, APHP, Hôpital Trousseau, 75012 Paris, France.

Corpus callosum malformations are associated with a broad range of neurodevelopmental diseases. We report that de novo mutations in MAST1 cause mega-corpus-callosum syndrome with cerebellar hypoplasia and cortical malformations (MCC-CH-CM) in the absence of megalencephaly. We show that MAST1 is a microtubule-associated protein that is predominantly expressed in post-mitotic neurons and is present in both dendritic and axonal compartments. We further show that Mast1 null animals are phenotypically normal, whereas the deletion of a single amino acid (L278del) recapitulates the distinct neurological phenotype observed in patients. In animals harboring Mast1 microdeletions, we find that the PI3K/AKT3/mTOR pathway is unperturbed, whereas Mast2 and Mast3 levels are diminished, indicative of a dominant-negative mode of action. Finally, we report that de novo MAST1 substitutions are present in patients with autism and microcephaly, raising the prospect that mutations in this gene give rise to a spectrum of neurodevelopmental diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2018.10.044DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6436622PMC
December 2018

Exome sequencing in congenital ataxia identifies two new candidate genes and highlights a pathophysiological link between some congenital ataxias and early infantile epileptic encephalopathies.

Genet Med 2019 03 12;21(3):553-563. Epub 2018 Jul 12.

Centre de Référence Maladies Rares "Malformations et Maladies Congénitales du Cervelet", Paris-Lyon-Lille, France.

Purpose: To investigate the genetic basis of congenital ataxias (CAs), a unique group of cerebellar ataxias with a nonprogressive course, in 20 patients from consanguineous families, and to identify new CA genes.

Methods: Singleton -exome sequencing on these 20 well-clinically characterized CA patients. We first checked for rare homozygous pathogenic variants, then, for variants from a list of genes known to be associated with CA or very early-onset ataxia, regardless of their mode of inheritance. Our replication cohort of 180 CA patients was used to validate the new CA genes.

Results: We identified a causal gene in 16/20 families: six known CA genes (7 patients); four genes previously implicated in another neurological phenotype (7 patients); two new candidate genes (2 patients). Despite the consanguinity, 4/20 patients harbored a heterozygous de novo pathogenic variant.

Conclusion: Singleton exome sequencing in 20 consanguineous CA families led to molecular diagnosis in 80% of cases. This study confirms the genetic heterogeneity of CA and identifies two new candidate genes (PIGS and SKOR2). Our work illustrates the diversity of the pathophysiological pathways in CA, and highlights the pathogenic link between some CA and early infantile epileptic encephalopathies related to the same genes (STXBP1, BRAT1, CACNA1A and CACNA2D2).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-018-0089-2DOI Listing
March 2019

A Recurrent De Novo PACS2 Heterozygous Missense Variant Causes Neonatal-Onset Developmental Epileptic Encephalopathy, Facial Dysmorphism, and Cerebellar Dysgenesis.

Am J Hum Genet 2018 05 12;102(5):995-1007. Epub 2018 Apr 12.

University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Genetics, 9700 RB Groningen, the Netherlands.

Developmental and epileptic encephalopathies (DEEs) represent a large clinical and genetic heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental diseases. The identification of pathogenic genetic variants in DEEs remains crucial for deciphering this complex group and for accurately caring for affected individuals (clinical diagnosis, genetic counseling, impacting medical, precision therapy, clinical trials, etc.). Whole-exome sequencing and intensive data sharing identified a recurrent de novo PACS2 heterozygous missense variant in 14 unrelated individuals. Their phenotype was characterized by epilepsy, global developmental delay with or without autism, common cerebellar dysgenesis, and facial dysmorphism. Mixed focal and generalized epilepsy occurred in the neonatal period, controlled with difficulty in the first year, but many improved in early childhood. PACS2 is an important PACS1 paralog and encodes a multifunctional sorting protein involved in nuclear gene expression and pathway traffic regulation. Both proteins harbor cargo(furin)-binding regions (FBRs) that bind cargo proteins, sorting adaptors, and cellular kinase. Compared to the defined PACS1 recurrent variant series, individuals with PACS2 variant have more consistently neonatal/early-infantile-onset epilepsy that can be challenging to control. Cerebellar abnormalities may be similar but PACS2 individuals exhibit a pattern of clear dysgenesis ranging from mild to severe. Functional studies demonstrated that the PACS2 recurrent variant reduces the ability of the predicted autoregulatory domain to modulate the interaction between the PACS2 FBR and client proteins, which may disturb cellular function. These findings support the causality of this recurrent de novo PACS2 heterozygous missense in DEEs with facial dysmorphim and cerebellar dysgenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2018.03.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5986694PMC
May 2018

Further delineation of the duplication syndrome phenotype in 59 French male patients, with a particular focus on morphological and neurological features.

J Med Genet 2018 Jun 4;55(6):359-371. Epub 2018 Apr 4.

Service de Génétique Clinique, Hôpital Necker Enfants Malades, APHP, Paris, France.

The Xq28 duplication involving the gene ( duplication) has been mainly described in male patients with severe developmental delay (DD) associated with spasticity, stereotypic movements and recurrent infections. Nevertheless, only a few series have been published. We aimed to better describe the phenotype of this condition, with a focus on morphological and neurological features. Through a national collaborative study, we report a large French series of 59 affected males with interstitial duplication. Most of the patients (93%) shared similar facial features, which evolved with age (midface hypoplasia, narrow and prominent nasal bridge, thick lower lip, large prominent ears), thick hair, livedo of the limbs, tapered fingers, small feet and vasomotor troubles. Early hypotonia and global DD were constant, with 21% of patients unable to walk. In patients able to stand, lower limbs weakness and spasticity led to a singular standing habitus: flexion of the knees, broad-based stance with pseudo-ataxic gait. Scoliosis was frequent (53%), such as divergent strabismus (76%) and hypermetropia (54%), stereotypic movements (89%), without obvious social withdrawal and decreased pain sensitivity (78%). Most of the patients did not develop expressive language, 35% saying few words. Epilepsy was frequent (59%), with a mean onset around 7.4 years of age, and often (62%) drug-resistant. Other medical issues were frequent: constipation (78%), and recurrent infections (89%), mainly lung. We delineate the clinical phenotype of duplication syndrome in a large series of 59 males. Pulmonary hypertension appeared as a cause of early death in these patients, advocating its screening early in life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jmedgenet-2017-104956DOI Listing
June 2018

AP4 deficiency: A novel form of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation?

Neurol Genet 2018 Feb 24;4(1):e217. Epub 2018 Jan 24.

Département de Neuropédiatrie (A.R., B.E., P.M., F.R.), CHU Gui de Chauliac, Montpellier; Institut des Neurosciences de Montpellier (A.R., N.H., G.M., C.P.H.), INSERM U1051, Université de Montpellier; Service de Neuroradiologie (C.-J.R., N.L.), CHU Gui de Chauliac, Montpellier; Equipe MitoLab (M.C., G.L.), UMR CNRS 6015-INSERM 1083, Institut MitoVasc, University of Angers, France; Department of Medical Genetics (C. Goizet), Hopital Pellegrin, Bordeaux University Hospital; MRGM Laboratory (C. Goizet), INSERM U1211, University of Bordeaux; Laboratoire de Génétique Moléculaire (C. Guissart), CHU de Montpellier; U1046 INSERM (P.M., F.R.), UMR9214 CNRS, Université de Montpellier; Department of Neurology (C.M.), University Hospital Gui de Chauliac, Montpellier; Centre de Référence des Malformations et Maladies Congénitales du Cervelet (L.B.), Service de Génétique, Hôpital Armand Trousseau, AP-HP, Paris, France; Wellcome Trust Centre for Mitochondrial Research (R.H.), Institute of Genetic Medicine, Newcastle University, United Kingdom; and Centre of Reference for Genetic Sensory Diseases (C.P.H.), Montpellier, France.

Objective: To describe the clinico-radiological phenotype of 3 patients harboring a homozygous novel pathogenic mutation.

Methods: The 3 patients from an inbred family who exhibited early-onset developmental delay, tetraparesis, juvenile motor function deterioration, and intellectual deficiency were investigated by magnetic brain imaging using T1-weighted, T2-weighted, T2*-weighted, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery, susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) sequences. Whole-exome sequencing was performed on the 3 patients.

Results: In the 3 patients, brain imaging identified the same pattern of bilateral SWI hyposignal of the globus pallidus, concordant with iron accumulation. A novel homozygous nonsense mutation was identified in , segregating with the disease and leading to truncation of half of the domain of the protein.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that represents a new candidate gene that should be considered in the neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) spectrum of disorders and highlight the intersections between hereditary spastic paraplegia and NBIA clinical presentations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/NXG.0000000000000217DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5820597PMC
February 2018

Delineating SPTAN1 associated phenotypes: from isolated epilepsy to encephalopathy with progressive brain atrophy.

Brain 2017 Sep;140(9):2322-2336

Pediatric Neurology, Neurogenetics and Neurobiology Unit and Laboratories, Neuroscience Department, A Meyer Children's Hospital, University of Florence, Florence, Italy.

De novo in-frame deletions and duplications in the SPTAN1 gene, encoding the non-erythrocyte αII spectrin, have been associated with severe West syndrome with hypomyelination and pontocerebellar atrophy. We aimed at comprehensively delineating the phenotypic spectrum associated with SPTAN1 mutations. Using different molecular genetic techniques, we identified 20 patients with a pathogenic or likely pathogenic SPTAN1 variant and reviewed their clinical, genetic and imaging data. SPTAN1 de novo alterations included seven unique missense variants and nine in-frame deletions/duplications of which 12 were novel. The recurrent three-amino acid duplication p.(Asp2303_Leu2305dup) occurred in five patients. Our patient cohort exhibited a broad spectrum of neurodevelopmental phenotypes, comprising six patients with mild to moderate intellectual disability, with or without epilepsy and behavioural disorders, and 14 patients with infantile epileptic encephalopathy, of which 13 had severe neurodevelopmental impairment and four died in early childhood. Imaging studies suggested that the severity of neurological impairment and epilepsy correlates with that of structural abnormalities as well as the mutation type and location. Out of seven patients harbouring mutations outside the α/β spectrin heterodimerization domain, four had normal brain imaging and three exhibited moderately progressive brain and/or cerebellar atrophy. Twelve of 13 patients with mutations located within the spectrin heterodimer contact site exhibited severe and progressive brain, brainstem and cerebellar atrophy, with hypomyelination in most. We used fibroblasts from five patients to study spectrin aggregate formation by Triton-X extraction and immunocytochemistry followed by fluorescence microscopy. αII/βII aggregates and αII spectrin in the insoluble protein fraction were observed in fibroblasts derived from patients with the mutations p.(Glu2207del), p.(Asp2303_Leu2305dup) and p.(Arg2308_Met2309dup), all falling in the nucleation site of the α/β spectrin heterodimer region. Molecular modelling of the seven SPTAN1 amino acid changes provided preliminary evidence for structural alterations of the A-, B- and/or C-helices within each of the mutated spectrin repeats. We conclude that SPTAN1-related disorders comprise a wide spectrum of neurodevelopmental phenotypes ranging from mild to severe and progressive. Spectrin aggregate formation in fibroblasts with mutations in the α/β heterodimerization domain seems to be associated with a severe neurodegenerative course and suggests that the amino acid stretch from Asp2303 to Met2309 in the α20 repeat is important for α/β spectrin heterodimer formation and/or αII spectrin function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awx195DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6248409PMC
September 2017

Prenatal Imaging Findings of Pontine Tegmental Cap Dysplasia: Report of Four Cases.

Fetal Diagn Ther 2019 5;45(3):197-204. Epub 2017 Jul 5.

Department of Radiology, Hôpital Trousseau, Hôpitaux Universitaires de l'Est Parisien, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France.

Objectives: To describe the prenatal imaging findings in pontine tegmental cap dysplasia (PTCD), a rare congenital malformation of the hindbrain so far reported postnatally only and characterized by a typical appearance of the pons with malformations of the vermis and the cerebellar peduncles.

Methods: This retrospective multicenter study retrieved 4 cases of PTCD over a 10-year period. Prenatal ultrasonography and fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings were reviewed and compared to postnatal or postmortem data.

Results: In all cases, the parents were referred between 22 and 27 weeks of gestation for characterization of a small cerebellar diameter <3rd centile. The prenatal diagnosis of PTCD was suspected in 1/4 cases, while in 3/4 cases the suggested prenatal diagnosis was pontocerebellar hypoplasia. In all cases, PTCD was characterized by ventral pontine hypoplasia with absence of bulging of the pons and by the tegmental cap protruding into the fourth ventricle on prenatal MRI. Parents opted for termination of pregnancy in 1 case. In the 3 other cases, the children presented with global developmental delay and multiple cranial nerve impairment.

Conclusion: PTCD is a differential diagnosis of pontocerebellar hypoplasia and should be discussed on prenatal MRI in the presence of the tegmental cap protruding into the fourth ventricle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000475989DOI Listing
July 2019

Fifteen years of research on oral-facial-digital syndromes: from 1 to 16 causal genes.

J Med Genet 2017 06 13;54(6):371-380. Epub 2017 Mar 13.

Laboratoire de Génétique Moléculaire, PTB, CHU, Dijon, France.

Oral-facial-digital syndromes (OFDS) gather rare genetic disorders characterised by facial, oral and digital abnormalities associated with a wide range of additional features (polycystic kidney disease, cerebral malformations and several others) to delineate a growing list of OFDS subtypes. The most frequent, OFD type I, is caused by a heterozygous mutation in the gene encoding a centrosomal protein. The wide clinical heterogeneity of OFDS suggests the involvement of other ciliary genes. For 15 years, we have aimed to identify the molecular bases of OFDS. This effort has been greatly helped by the recent development of whole-exome sequencing (WES). Here, we present all our published and unpublished results for WES in 24 cases with OFDS. We identified causal variants in five new genes (, , , and ) and related the clinical spectrum of four genes in other ciliopathies (, , and ) to OFDS. Mutations were also detected in two genes previously implicated in OFDS. Functional studies revealed the involvement of centriole elongation, transition zone and intraflagellar transport defects in OFDS, thus characterising three ciliary protein modules: the complex KIAA0753-FOPNL-OFD1, a regulator of centriole elongation; the Meckel-Gruber syndrome module, a major component of the transition zone; and the CPLANE complex necessary for IFT-A assembly. OFDS now appear to be a distinct subgroup of ciliopathies with wide heterogeneity, which makes the initial classification obsolete. A clinical classification restricted to the three frequent/well-delineated subtypes could be proposed, and for patients who do not fit one of these three main subtypes, a further classification could be based on the genotype.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jmedgenet-2016-104436DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5557276PMC
June 2017
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