Publications by authors named "Lydia K Caldwell"

15 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Acute Effects of High-intensity Resistance Exercise on Cognitive Function.

J Sports Sci Med 2021 Sep 3;20(3):391-397. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Psychology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA.

The purpose of the present study was to examine the influence of an acute bout of high-intensity resistance exercise on measures of cognitive function. Ten men (Mean ± SD: age = 24.4 ± 3.2 yrs; body mass = 85.7 ± 11.8 kg; height = 1.78 ± 0.08 m; 1 repetition maximum (1RM) = 139.0 ± 24.1 kg) gave informed consent and performed a high-intensity 6 sets of 10 repetitions of barbell back squat exercise at 80% 1RM with 2 minutes rest between sets. The Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics (ANAM) was completed to assess various cognitive domains during the familiarization period, immediately before, and immediately after the high-intensity resistance exercise bout. The repeated measures ANOVAs for throughput scores (r·m) demonstrated significant mean differences for the Mathematical Processing task (MTH; < 0.001, η = 0.625) where pairwise comparisons demonstrated that the post-fatigue throughput (32.0 ± 8.8 r·m) was significantly greater than the pre-fatigue (23.8 ± 7.4 r·m, = 0.003, = 1.01) and the familiarization throughput (26.4 ± 5.3 r·m, = 0.024, = 0.77). The Coded Substitution-Delay task also demonstrated significant mean differences (CDD; = 0.027, η = 0.394) with pairwise comparisons demonstrating that the post-fatigue throughput (49.3 ± 14.4 r·m) was significantly less than the pre-fatigue throughput (63.2 ± 9.6 r·m, = 0.011, = 1.14). The repeated measures ANOVAs for reaction time (ms) demonstrated significant mean differences for MTH ( < 0.001, η = 0.624) where pairwise comparisons demonstrated that the post-fatigue reaction time (1885.2 ± 582.8 ms) was significantly less than the pre-fatigue (2518.2 ± 884.8 ms, = 0.005, = 0.85) and familiarization (2253.7 ± 567.6 ms, = 0.009, = 0.64) reaction times. The Go/No-Go task demonstrated significant mean differences (GNG; = 0.031, η = 0.320) with pairwise comparisons demonstrating that the post-fatigue (285.9 ± 16.3 ms) was significantly less than the pre-fatigue (298.5 ± 12.1 ms, = 0.006, = 0.88) reaction times. High-intensity resistance exercise may elicit domain-specific influences on cognitive function, characterized by the facilitation of simple cognitive tasks and impairments of complex cognitive tasks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.52082/jssm.2021.391DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8256515PMC
September 2021

Hormonal stress responses of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-I in highly resistance trained women and men.

Growth Horm IGF Res 2021 Aug 6;59:101407. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA.

The purpose of this study was to examine the responses of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGFI) to intense heavy resistance exercise in highly trained men and women to determine what sex-dependent responses may exist. Subjects were highly resistance trained men (N = 8, Mean ± SD; age, yrs., 21 ± 1, height, cm, 175.3 ± 6.7, body mass, kg, 87.0 ± 18.5, % body fat, 15.2 ± 5.4, squat X body mass, 2.1 ± 0.4; and women (N = 7; Mean ± SD, age, yrs. 24 ± 5, height, cm 164.6 ± 6.7, body mass, kg 76.4 ± 8.8, % body fat, 26.9 ± 5.3, squat X body mass, 1.7 ± 0.6). An acute resistance exercise test protocol (ARET) consisted of 6 sets of 10 repetitions at 80% of the 1 RM with 2 min rest between sets was used as the stressor. Blood samples were obtained pre-exercise, after 3 sets, and then immediately after exercise (IP), 5, 15, 30, and 70 min post-exercise for determination of blood lactate (HLa), and plasma glucose, insulin, cortisol, and GH. Determination of plasma concentrations of IGFI, IGF binding proteins 1, 2, and 3 along with molecular weight isoform factions were determined at pre, IP and 70 min. GH significantly (P ≤ 0.05) increased at all time points with resting concentrations significantly higher in women. Significant increases were observed for HLa, glucose, insulin, and cortisol with exercise and into recovery with no sex-dependent observations. Women showed IGF-I values that were higher than men at all times points with both seeing exercise increases. IGFBP-1 and 2 showed increase with exercise with no sex-dependent differences. IGFBP-3 concentrations were higher in women at all-time points with no exercise induced changes. Both women and men saw an exercise induced increase with significantly higher values in GH in only the mid-range (30-60 kD) isoform.  Only women saw an exercise induced increase with significantly higher values for IGF fractions only in the mid-range (30-60 kD) isoform, which were significantly greater than the men at the IP and 70 min post-exercise time points. In conclusion, the salient findings of this investigation were that in highly resistance trained men and women, sexual dimorphisms exist but appear different from our prior work in untrained men and women and appear to support a sexual dimorphism related to compensatory aspects in women for anabolic mediating mechanisms in cellular interactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ghir.2021.101407DOI Listing
August 2021

Body Composition in Elite Strongman Competitors.

J Strength Cond Res 2020 Dec;34(12):3326-3330

Division of Sports Medicine, Department of Orthopedics, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami Sports Medicine Institute, Coral Gables, Florida.

Kraemer, WJ, Caldwell, LK, Post, EM, DuPont, WH, Martini, ER, Ratamess, NA, Szivak, TK, Shurley, JP, Beeler, MK, Volek, JS, Maresh, CM, Todd, JS, Walrod, BJ, Hyde, PN, Fairman, C, and Best, TM. Body composition in elite strongman competitors. J Strength Cond Res 34(12): 3326-3330, 2020-The purpose of this descriptive investigation was to characterize a group of elite strongman competitors to document the body composition of this unique population of strength athletes. Data were collected from eligible competitors as part of a health screening program conducted over 5 consecutive years. Imaging was acquired using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), providing total body measures of fat mass, lean mass, and bone mineral content (BMC). Year to year, testing groups showed a homogenous grouping of anthropometric, body composition, and bone density metrics. Composite averages were calculated to provide an anthropometric profile of the elite strongman competitor (N = 18; mean ± SD): age, 33.0 ± 5.2 years; body height, 187.4 ± 7.1 cm; body mass, 152.9 ± 19.3 kg; body mass index, 43.5 ± 4.8 kg·m; fat mass, 30.9 ± 11.1 kg; lean mass, 118.0 ± 11.7 kg, body fat, 18.7 ± 6.2%, total BMC, 5.23 ± 0.41 kg, and bone mineral density, 1.78 ± 0.14 g·cm. These data demonstrate that elite strongman competitors are among the largest human male athletes, and in some cases, they are at the extreme limits reported for body size and structure. Elite strongman competitors undergo a high degree of mechanical stress, providing further insight into the potent role of physical training in mediating structural remodeling even into adulthood. Such data provide a glimpse into a unique group of competitive athletes pushing the limits not only of human performance but also of human physiology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000003763DOI Listing
December 2020

Recovery using "float" from high intensity stress on growth hormone-like molecules in resistance trained men.

Growth Horm IGF Res 2020 12 25;55:101355. Epub 2020 Sep 25.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, United States of America.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of a novel "floatation-restricted environmental stimulation therapy" (floatation-REST) on growth hormone responses to an intense resistance exercise stress.

Design: Nine resistance trained men (age: 23.4 ± 2.5 yrs.; height: 175.3 ± 5.4 cm; body mass: 85.3 ± 7.9 kg) completed a balanced, crossover-controlled study design with two identical exercise trials, differing only in post-exercise recovery intervention (i.e., control or floatation-REST). A two-week washout period was used between experimental conditions. Plasma lactate was measured pre-exercise, immediately post-exercise and after the 1 h. recovery interventions. Plasma iGH was measured pre-exercise, immediately-post exercise, and after the recovery intervention, as well as 24 h and 48 h after the exercise test. The bGH-L was measured only at pre-exercise and following each recovery intervention.

Results: For both experimental conditions, a significant (P ≤ 0.05) increase in lactate concentrations were observed immediately post-exercise (~14 mmol • L-1) and remained slightly elevated after the recovery condition. The same pattern of responses was observed for iGH with no differences from resting values at 24 and 48 h of recovery. The bGH-L showed no exercise-induced changes following recovery with either treatment condition, however concentration values were dramatically lower than ever reported.

Conclusion: The use of floatation-REST therapy immediately following intense resistance exercise does not appear to influence anterior pituitary function in highly resistance trained men. However, the lower values of bGH suggest dramatically different molecular processing mechanisms at work in this highly trained population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ghir.2020.101355DOI Listing
December 2020

Resistance Training and Milk-Substitution Enhance Body Composition and Bone Health in Adolescent Girls.

J Am Coll Nutr 2021 Mar-Apr;40(3):193-210. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Department of Human Sciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA.

Increased soft-drink consumption has contributed to poor calcium intake with 90% of adolescent girls consuming less than the RDA for calcium. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the independent and additive effects of two interventions (milk and resistance training) on nutrient adequacy, body composition, and bone health in adolescent girls. The experimental design consisted of four experimental groups of adolescent girls 14-17 years of age: (1) Milk + resistance training [MRT];  = 15; (2) Resistance training only [RT];  = 15; (3) Milk only [M]  = 20; (4) Control [C]  = 16. A few significant differences were observed at baseline between the groups for subject characteristics. Testing was performed pre and post-12 week training period for all groups. Milk was provided (3, 8 oz servings) for both the MRT and the M groups. The MRT group and the RT groups performed a supervised periodized resistance training program consisting of supervised one-hour exercise sessions 3 d/wk (M, W, F) for 12 wk. Baseline dietary data was collected utilizing the NUT-P-FFQ and/or a 120 item FFQ developed by the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center (Seattle, Washington). Body composition was measured in the morning after an overnight fast using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) with a total body scanner (Prodigy, Lunar Corporation, Madison, WI). A whole body scan for bone density and lumbar spine scans were performed on all subjects. Maximal strength of the upper and lower body was assessed via a one-repetition maximum (1-RM) squat and bench press exercise protocols. Significance was set at  ≤ 0.05. Significant differences in nutrient intakes between groups generally reflected the nutrient composition of milk with greater intakes of protein and improved nutrient adequacy for several B vitamins, vitamin A, vitamin D, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, and zinc. Mean calcium intake was 758 and 1581 mg/d, in the non-milk and milk groups, respectively, with 100% of girls in the milk groups consuming > RDA of 1300 mg/d. There were no effects of milk on body composition or muscle performance, but resistance training had a main effect and significantly increased body mass, lean body mass, muscle strength, and muscle endurance. There was a main effect of milk and resistance training on several measures of bone mineral density (BMD). Changes in whole body BMD in the M, RT, MRT, and CON were 0.45, 0.52, 1.32, and -0.19%, respectively ( < 0.01). Over the course of 12 weeks the effects of 1300 mg/d of calcium in the form of fluid milk combined with a heavy resistance training program resulted in the additive effects of greater nutrient adequacy and BMD in adolescent girls. While further studies are needed, combining increased milk consumption with resistance training appears to optimize bone health in adolescent girls.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07315724.2020.1770636DOI Listing
June 2020

Constitutive and Stress-Induced Psychomotor Cortical Responses to Compound K Supplementation.

Front Neurosci 2020 8;14:315. Epub 2020 Apr 8.

Department of Human Sciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, United States.

Isolated ginsenoside metabolites such as Compound K (CK) are of increasing interest to consumer and clinical populations as safe and non-pharmacological means to enhance psychomotor performance constitutively and in response to physical or cognitive stress. Nevertheless, the influence of CK on behavioral performance and EEG measures of cortical activity in humans is undetermined. In this double-blinded, placebo-controlled, counterbalanced within-group study, dose-dependent responses to CK (placebo, 160 and 960 mg) were assessed after 2 weeks of supplementation in nineteen healthy men and women (age: 39.9 ± 7.9 year, height 170.2 ± 8.6 cm, weight 79.7 ± 11.9 kg). Performance on upper- and lower-body choice reaction tests (CRTs) was tested before and after intense lower-body anaerobic exercise. Treatment- and stress-related changes in brain activity were measured with high-density EEG based on event-related potentials, oscillations, and source activity. Upper- (-12.3 ± 3.5 ms, = 0.002) and lower-body (-12.3 ± 4.9 ms, = 0.021) response times improved after exercise, with no difference between treatments (upper: = 0.354; lower: = 0.926). Analysis of cortical activity in sensor and source space revealed global increases in cortical arousal after exercise. CK increased activity in cortical regions responsible for sustained attention and mitigated exercise-induced increases in arousal. Responses to exercise varied depending on task, but CK appeared to reduce sensory interference from lower-body exercise during an upper-body CRT and improve the general maintenance of task-relevant sensory processes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2020.00315DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7158875PMC
April 2020

Changes of Hydration Measures in Elite National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Wrestlers.

Int J Sports Physiol Perform 2019 Oct 2:1-4. Epub 2019 Oct 2.

Purpose: To evaluate the changes in the state of hydration in elite National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I college wrestlers during and after a season.

Methods: Ohio State University wrestling team members (N = 6; mean [SD] age = 19.6 [1.1] y; height = 171.6 [2.9] cm; body mass = 69.5 [8.1] kg) gave informed consent to participate in the investigation with measurements (ie, body mass, urine-specific gravity [USG; 2 methods], Visual Analog Scale thirst scale, plasma osmolality) obtained during and after the season.

Results: Measurements for USG, regardless of methods, were not significantly different between visits, but plasma osmolality was significantly (P = .001) higher at the beginning of the season-295.5 (4.9) mOsm·kg-1 compared with 279.6 (6.1) mOsm·kg-1 after the season. No changes in thirst ratings were observed, and the 2 measures of USG were highly correlated (r > .9, P = .000) at each time point, but USG and plasma osmolality were not related.

Conclusions: A paradox in the clinical interpretation of euhydration in the beginning of the season was observed with the USG, indicating that the wrestlers were properly hydrated, while the plasma osmolality showed they were not. Thus, the tracking of hydration status during the season is a concern when using only NCAA policies and procedures. The wrestlers did return to normal euhydration levels after the season on both biomarkers, which is remarkable, as previous studies have indicated that this may not happen because of the reregulation of the osmol-regulatory center in the brain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2019-0059DOI Listing
October 2019

The Effects of a Korean Ginseng, GINST15, on Perceptual Effort, Psychomotor Performance, and Physical Performance in Men and Women.

J Sports Sci Med 2018 Mar 1;17(1):92-100. Epub 2018 Mar 1.

Department of Human Sciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 43210, USA.

The purpose of this double-blind, placebo-controlled investigation was to examine the effects of a Korean Ginseng (GINST15) on measures of perception and physical performance following an acute bout of resistance exercise. Ten women (age: 38.7 ± 7.8 years; height: 1.64 ± 0.05 m; body mass: 76.0 ± 11.6 kg) and nine men (age: 41.2. ± 9.7 years; height: 1.77 ± 0.05 m; body mass: 88.5 ± 5.0 kg) completed the investigation. Participants were randomized to a three-cycle testing scheme consisting of high dose ginseng (HIGH: 960 mg/day), low dose ginseng (LOW: 160 mg/day) and placebo (PBO: 0 mg/day). After 14 days of supplementation participants returned to the laboratory for an acute resistance exercise trial (5 sets of 12 repetitions of the leg press at 70% of one-repetition-maximum [1RM]). Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were assessed after each set. Muscle pain/soreness was assessed before exercise and 24 hours post exercise. Psychomotor performance and peak power were measured before exercise, immediately post exercise and 24 hours after exercise. Each treatment cycle was separated by a minimum one-week washout period. HIGH significantly reduced perceived exertion during exercise. HIGH and LOW significantly reduced change in muscle soreness at 24 hours post exercise. Analysis of peak power demonstrated the presence of responders (n = 13) and non-responders (n = 6). Responders showed a significant effect of HIGH GINST15 on maintenance of neuromuscular function. The appearance of responders and non-responders, could explain the mixed literature base on the ergogenic properties of ginseng.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5844213PMC
March 2018

The Effects of a Korean Ginseng, GINST15, on Hypo-Pituitary-Adrenal and Oxidative Activity Induced by Intense Work Stress.

J Med Food 2018 Jan 5;21(1):104-112. Epub 2017 Oct 5.

1 Department of Human Sciences, The Ohio State University , Columbus, Ohio, USA .

The effect of GINST15, an enzyme fermented ginseng supplement, on hormonal and inflammatory responses to physical stress in humans is unknown. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the constitutive and stress-induced effects of GINST15 supplement on hypo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and antioxidant activity in addition to muscle damage. Ten women (age: 38.7 ± 7.8 years; height: 163.81 ± 4.4 cm; body mass 76.0 ± 11.6 kg) and nine men (age: 41.2. ± 9.7 years; height: 177.4 ± 5.3 cm; body mass: 88.5 ± 5.0 kg) participated in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, counterbalanced within-group study. Participants completed three 14-day treatment cycles with different doses (high: 960 mg; low: 160 mg; placebo: 0 mg) separated by a 1-week washout period. At the end of treatment, physical stress was imposed with intense resistance exercise work stress. Participants provided blood at rest and various time points after exercise (immediately [IP], 30 min [30], 60 min [60], 24 h [+24HR]). Cortisol (CORT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), total glutathione, nonspecific antioxidant activity, total antioxidant power (TAP), and creatine kinase were measured. GINST15 supplementation produced stress-inducible dose-dependent reductions in circulating cortisol and increased enzymatic and nonspecific antioxidant activity. Twenty-four hours after intense exercise, a high dose GINST15, a bioactive ginsenoside metabolite, significantly reduces muscle damage and HPA responses to physical stress in humans; these effects may result from increased antioxidant expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jmf.2017.0071DOI Listing
January 2018

The Effects Combining Cryocompression Therapy following an Acute Bout of Resistance Exercise on Performance and Recovery.

J Sports Sci Med 2017 Sep 8;16(3):333-342. Epub 2017 Aug 8.

Department of Human Sciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus OH, USA.

Compression and cold therapy used separately have shown to reduce negative effects of tissue damage. The combining compression and cold therapy (cryocompression) as a single recovery modality has yet to be fully examined. To examine the effects of cryocompression on recovery following a bout of heavy resistance exercise, recreationally resistance trained men (n =16) were recruited, matched, and randomly assigned to either a cryocompression group (CRC) or control group (CON). Testing was performed before and then immediately after exercise, 60 minutes, 24 hours, and 48 hours after a heavy resistance exercise workout (barbell back squats for 4 sets of 6 reps at 80% 1RM, 90 sec rest between sets, stiff legged deadlifts for 4 sets of 8 reps at 1.0 X body mass with 60 sec rest between sets, 4 sets of 10 eccentric Nordic hamstring curls, 45 sec rest between sets). The CRC group used the CRC system for 20-mins of cryocompression treatment immediately after exercise, 24 hours, and 48 hours after exercise. CON sat quietly for 20-mins at the same time points. Muscle damage [creatine kinase], soreness (visual analog scale, 0-100), pain (McGill Pain Q, 0-5), fatigue, sleep quality, and jump power were significantly (p < 0.05) improved for CRC compared to CON at 24 and 48 hours after exercise. Pain was also significantly lower for CRC compared to CON at 60-mins post exercise. These findings show that cryocompression can enhance recovery and performance following a heavy resistance exercise workout.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5592284PMC
September 2017

The effects of different exercise training modalities on plasma proenkephalin Peptide F in women.

Peptides 2017 05 3;91:26-32. Epub 2017 Mar 3.

Department of Human Sciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, United States.

Due to the important interactions of proenkephalin fragments (e.g., proenkephalin [107-140] Peptide F) to enhance activation of immune cells and potentially combat pain associated with exercise-induced muscle tissue damage, we examined the differential plasma responses of Peptide F to different exercise training programs. Participants were tested pre-training (T1), and after 8 weeks (T2) of training. Fifty-nine healthy women were matched and then randomly assigned to one of four groups: heavy resistance strength training (STR, n=18), high intensity endurance training (END, n=14), combined strength and endurance training (CMB, n=17), or control (CON, n=10). Blood was collected using a cannula inserted into a superficial vein in the antecubital fossa with samples collected at rest and immediately after an acute bout of 6 X 10 RM in a squat resistance exercise before training and after training. Prior to any training, no significant differences were observed for any of the groups before or after acute exercise. With training, significant (P≤0.95) elevations were observed with acute exercise in each of the exercise training groups and this effect was significantly greater in the CMB group. These data indicate that in untrained women exercise training will not change resting of plasma Peptide F concentrations unless both forms of exercise are performed but will result in significant increases in the immediate post-exercise responses. Such findings appear to indicate adrenal medullary adaptations opioid production significantly altered with exercise training.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.peptides.2017.02.006DOI Listing
May 2017

Endocrinological Roles for Testosterone in Resistance Exercise Responses and Adaptations.

Sports Med 2017 Sep;47(9):1709-1720

Department of Human Sciences, The Ohio State University, A054 PAES Building, 305 Annie and John Glenn Avenue, Columbus, OH, 43210, USA.

Chronic increases in testosterone levels can significantly increase hypertrophy and strength, as has been demonstrated by pharmacological intervention. However, decreases in basal testosterone levels can have the opposite result, as has been seen in hypogonadal populations. Because of these profound effects on hypertrophy and strength, testosterone has often been studied in conjunction with resistance exercise to examine whether the endocrine system plays a role in adaptations to the stimulus. Whereas some studies have demonstrated a chronic increase in basal testosterone, others have failed to find an adaptation to regular resistance exercise. However, improvements in strength and hypertrophy appear to be possible regardless of the presence of this adaptation. Testosterone has also been shown to acutely rise immediately following an acute resistance exercise bout. While this substantial mobilization of testosterone is brief, its effects are seen for several hours through the upregulation of the androgen receptor. The role of this acute response at present is unknown, but further study of the non-genomic action and possible intracrinological processes is warranted. This response does not seem to be necessary for resistance training adaptations to occur either, but whether this response optimizes such adaptations has not yet been determined.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40279-017-0698-yDOI Listing
September 2017

The effects of a transcontinental flight on markers of coagulation and fibrinolysis in healthy men after vigorous physical activity.

Chronobiol Int 2017 4;34(2):148-161. Epub 2016 Nov 4.

b Department of Human Sciences , The Ohio State University , Columbus , OH , USA.

Purpose: Athletes and military service members are known to undergo strenuous exercise and sometimes have to take long haul flights soon afterwards; however, its combined effect on many physiological functions is relatively unknown. Therefore, we examined the combined effects of a full-body muscle-damaging workout and transcontinental flight on coagulation and fibrinolysis in healthy, resistance trained men. We also determined the efficacy of a full-body compression garment in limiting their coagulation responses.

Materials And Methods: Nineteen healthy, resistance trained men flew from Connecticut (CT) to California (CA), performed a full-body muscle-damaging workout and then flew back to CT. Ten participants wore full-body compression garments (FCG) for the duration of both flights and during all other portions of the study except during workouts and blood draws, when they wore loose clothing. Nine controls wore loose clothing (CON) throughout the study. Blood samples were collected at 16 h and 3 h before the initial flight from CT, immediately after landing in CA, immediately before and immediately after the full-body workout in CA, immediately after landing in CT, and at 29 h after landing in CT. Plasma markers of coagulation included activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), prothrombin fragment 1+2 (PTF 1+2) and thrombin ant-thrombin (TAT). Markers of the fibrinolytic system included the tissue plasmigen activator (tPA), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and D-Dimer.

Results: Both FCG and CON groups exhibited a faster aPTT after the full-body workout compared to all other time points.  Thrombin generation markers, TAT and PTF 1+2, increased significantly after the full-body workout and immediately after landing in CT. Additionally, tPA increased after the full-body workout, while PAI-1 increased before the flight to CA, after the full-body workout, and just after landing in CT. The D-Dimer significantly increased after the full-body workout and at 29 h post-flight in both groups. Between groups, aPTT was significantly faster and TAT elevated with the CON group at 29 h post-flight. Also, PAI-1 demonstrated higher concentrations immediately after landing in CT for the CON group.

Conclusion: A full-body muscle-damaging workout in conjunction with a trans-continental flight activated the coagulation and fibrinolytic systems. Additionally, wearing a full-body compression garment may limit coagulation following a workout through the recovery period.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07420528.2016.1247851DOI Listing
February 2018

The effects of a roundtrip trans-American jet travel on physiological stress, neuromuscular performance, and recovery.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2016 08 9;121(2):438-48. Epub 2016 Jun 9.

Department of Human Sciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio;

The purpose was to examine the effects of a round trip trans-American jet travel on performance, hormonal alterations, and recovery. Ten matched pairs of recreationally trained men were randomized to either a compression group (COMP) (n = 10; age: 23.1 ± 2.4 yr; height: 174.8 ± 5.3 cm; body mass: 84.9 ± 10.16 kg; body fat: 15.3 ± 6.0%) or control group (CONT) (n = 9; age: 23.2 ± 2.3 yr; height: 177.5 ± 6.3 cm; weight: 84.3 ± 8.99 kg; body fat: 15.1 ± 6.4%). Subjects flew directly from Hartford, CT to Los Angeles, CA 1 day before a simulated sport competition (SSC) designed to create muscle damage and returned the next morning on an overnight flight back home. Both groups demonstrated jet lag symptoms and associated decreases in sleep quality at all time points. Melatonin significantly (P < 0.05) increased over the first 2 days and then remained constant until after the SSC. Epinephrine, testosterone, and cortisol values significantly increased above resting values before and after the SSC with norepinephrine increases only after the SSC. Physical performances significantly decreased from control values on each day for the CONT group with COMP group exhibiting no significant declines. Muscle damage markers were significantly elevated following the SSC with the COMP group having significantly lower values while maintaining neuromuscular performance measures that were not different from baseline testing. Trans-American jet travel has a significant impact on parameters related to jet lag, sleep quality, hormonal responses, muscle tissue damage markers, and physical performance with an attenuation observed with extended wear compression garments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00429.2016DOI Listing
August 2016

Effect of specific gait modifications on medial knee loading, metabolic cost and perception of task difficulty.

Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) 2013 Jul 17;28(6):649-54. Epub 2013 Jun 17.

Health and Sport Science, University of Dayton, 300 College Park, Dayton, OH 45469, USA.

Background: The metabolic cost and cognitive demand of altering natural gait have not been well studied. The purpose of this investigation was to assess three modified patterns - toe out, ipsilateral trunk lean and a medial weight shift at the foot - on the basis of 1) medial knee joint load reduction, 2) metabolic cost of performance and 3) subject perception of task difficulty.

Methods: 12 healthy individuals underwent 3 dimensional motion analysis and metabolic testing to assess the gait mechanics and energy expenditure of natural gait and the three experimental gait patterns, performed to a self-selected moderate degree. Walking speed was controlled. Perceived workload was assessed using the NASA Task Load Index.

Findings: Trunk lean significantly reduced first peak knee adduction moment (↓32%, P<0.001) as well as KAM impulse (↓35%, P<0.001), but was costly in terms of energy expenditure (↑11%, P<0.001) and perceived workload (↑1178%, P<0.001). A moderate toe-out pattern significantly reduced the second peak knee adduction moment (↓32%, P<0.001) and KAM impulse (↓14%, P=0.026), but had no effect on the first peak. Conversely, toe-out was least demanding in terms of additional energy expenditure (↑2%, P=0.001) and perceived workload (↑314%, P=0.001). Medial shift did not reduce knee adduction moment.

Interpretation: The prioritization of joint load reduction versus additional metabolic and cognitive demands could play a substantial role in the clinical decision making process of selecting a modified gait pattern.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2013.05.012DOI Listing
July 2013
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