Publications by authors named "Luo Cheng"

630 Publications

Ordered assembly of the cytosolic RNA-sensing MDA5-MAVS signaling complex via binding to unanchored K63-linked poly-ubiquitin chains.

Immunity 2021 Oct;54(10):2218-2230.e5

Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201203, China; School of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, Hangzhou Institute for Advanced Study, UCAS, Hangzhou 310024, China. Electronic address:

The RNA sensor MDA5 recruits the signaling adaptor MAVS to initiate type I interferon signaling and downstream antiviral responses, a process that requires K63-linked polyubiquitin chains. Here, we examined the mechanisms whereby K63-polyUb chain regulate MDA5 activation. Only long unanchored K63-polyUb (n ≥ 8) could mediate tetramerization of the caspase activation and recruitment domains of MDA5 (CARDs). Cryoelectron microscopy structures of a polyUb-bound CARDs tetramer and a polyUb-bound CARDs-CARD assembly revealed a tower-like formation, wherein eight Ubs tethered along the outer rim of the helical shell, bridging CARDs and CARD tetramers into proximity. ATP binding and hydrolysis promoted the stabilization of RNA-bound MDA5 prior to MAVS activation via allosteric effects on CARDs-polyUb complex. Abundant ATP prevented basal activation of apo MDA5. Our findings reveal the ordered assembly of a MDA5 signaling complex competent to recruit and activate MAVS and highlight differences with RIG-I in terms of CARD orientation and Ub sensing that suggest different abilities to induce antiviral responses.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2021.09.008DOI Listing
October 2021

Upregulation of the APOBEC3 Family Is Associated with a Poor Prognosis and Influences Treatment Response to Raf Inhibitors in Low Grade Glioma.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Sep 27;22(19). Epub 2021 Sep 27.

China State Key Laboratory of Chemical Oncogenomics, Tsinghua Shenzhen International Graduate School, Shenzhen 518055, China.

Apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3 (APOBEC3) has been identified as a group of enzymes that catalyze cytosine deamination in single-stranded (ss) DNA to form uracil, causing somatic mutations in some cancers. We analyzed the APOBEC3 family in 33 TCGA cancer types and the results indicated that APOBEC3s are upregulated in multiple cancers and strongly correlate with prognosis, particularly in low grade glioma (LGG). Then we constructed a prognostic model based on family expression in LGG where the APOBEC3 family signature is an accurate predictive model (AUC of 0.85). Gene mutation, copy number variation (CNV), and a differential gene expression (DEG) analysis were performed in different risk groups, and the weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) was employed to clarify the role of various members in LGG; CIBERSORT algorithm was deployed to evaluate the landscape of LGG immune infiltration. We found that upregulation of the APOBEC3 family expression can strengthen Ras/MAPK signaling pathway, promote tumor progression, and ultimately reduce the treatment benefits of Raf inhibitors. Moreover, the APOBEC3 family was shown to enhance the immune response mediated by myeloid cells and interferon gamma, as well as PD-L1 and PD-L2 expression, implying that they have immunotherapy potential. Therefore, the APOBEC3 signature enables an efficient assessment of LGG patient survival outcomes and expansion of clinical benefits by selecting appropriate individualized treatment strategies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms221910390DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8508917PMC
September 2021

Two-dimensional suprawavelength periodic surface structuring of a ZnO single crystal with a UV femtosecond laser.

Opt Express 2021 Sep;29(19):30772-30782

Herein, we report on the one-step formation of a novel microstructure on the surface of crystalline ZnO in ambient air excited by a single femtosecond laser beam (central wavelength 400 nm, pulse duration 35fs), which has photon energy close to the bandgap of ZnO. A two-dimensional surface structure with a controlled period of ∼2-6 μm is observed, with its orientation independent on the status of laser polarization (linear, circular, or elliptical polarization). We find that the orientation of this two-dimensional structure is defined by the direction of the crystal a and c axes. This structural period of ∼2-6 micrometers and the independence of its orientation on the laser polarization are in sharp contrast with the traditional laser induced periodic surface structure (LIPSS). In the meantime, surface cracks with a feature size of ∼30 nm are observed at the bottom of the valley of the two-dimensional structure and theoretical results show there exists strong electric field enhancement on the cracks under 400 nm femtosecond laser irradiation. In view of these unusual features, we attribute the formation of this two-dimensional structure to the mechanical cracking of the ZnO crystal along its (11-20) and (0001) planes induced by the multiple-cyclic heating due to linear absorption of the femtosecond pulses.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.431435DOI Listing
September 2021

Discovery of a novel anti PD-L1 X TIGIT bispecific antibody for the treatment of solid tumors.

Cancer Treat Res Commun 2021 Sep 27;29:100467. Epub 2021 Sep 27.

Nanjing Sanhome Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Nanjing 221116, China.

The emergence of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), mainly based on PD-1/PD-L1 blockade has revolutionized the therapeutic landscape of cancer. Despite the huge clinical success ICIs have achieved, about 70% of patients still showed de novo and adaptive resistance. Exploring novel and complementary immune checkpoint molecules in addition to PD-1/PD-L1 is in great urgency. T cell immunoglobulin and ITIM domain (TIGIT) is a co-inhibitory molecule containing an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motif (ITIM) within its cytoplasmic tail, and is highly expressed on regulatory T cells and activated CD4+ T, CD8+ T, and NK cells. We generated a novel single chain Fab heterodimeric bispecific IgG antibody format targeting PD-L1 and TIGIT with one binding site for each target antigen. The bispecifc antibody BiAb-1 is based on "knob-into-hole" technology for heavy chain heterodimerization with a glycine serine linker connecting the 3' end of Cκand the 5' end of VH to prevent wrong pairing of light chains. BiAb-1 was produced with high expression yields and show simultaneous binding to PD-L1 and TIGIT with high affinity. Importantly, cytokine production was enhanced by BiAb-1 from staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) stimulated PBMCs. BiAb-1 also demonstrated potent anti-tumor efficacy in multiple tumor models and superior activity to PD-1/PD-L1 blockade molecules. In conclusion, we have applied rational antibody engineering technology to develop a monovalent heterodimeric bispecifc antibody, which combines the blockade of both PD-1/PD-L1 and TIGIT/CD155 pathways simultaneously and results in superior anti-tumor efficacy in multiple tumor models over existing anti PD-1/PD-L1 molecules.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ctarc.2021.100467DOI Listing
September 2021

Case Report: The Cox-Maze IV Procedure in the Mirror: The Use of Three-Dimensional Printing for Pre-operative Planning in a Patient With Situs Inversus Dextrocardia.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 14;8:722413. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

The safety and efficacy of the Cox-Maze IV procedure (CMP-IV) for situs inversus dextrocardia patients with atrial fibrillation is yet to be determined. Herein, we present the case of a 39-year-old male patient admitted to our cardiac center following progressive exertional dyspnea. The patient was diagnosed with situs inversus dextrocardia, severe mitral regurgitation, and paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. A three-dimensional (3D) heart model printing device embedded with designated ablation lines was used for pre-operative planning. Mitral valvuloplasty, CMP-IV, and tricuspid annuloplasty were performed. The patient had an uneventful recovery and was in sinus rhythm during a 12-month follow-up period using a 24-h Holter monitoring device. The case herein is one of the first to report on adopting the CMP-IV procedure for situs inversus dextrocardia patients with complex valvuloplasty operation. In addition, the 3D printing technique enabled us to practice the Cox-maze IV procedure, given the patient's unique cardiac anatomy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2021.722413DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8476783PMC
September 2021

Inhibition of autophagy by a small molecule through covalent modification of LC3.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Sep 29. Epub 2021 Sep 29.

Chongqing Medical University, Center for Novel Target and Therapeutic Intervention, CHINA.

The autophagic ubiquitin-like protein LC3 functions through interactions with LC3-interaction regions (LIRs) of other autophagy proteins including autophagy receptors, which stands out as a promising protein-protein interaction (PPI) target for the intervention of autophagy. Post-translational modifications like acetylation of Lys49 on the LIR-interacting surface could disrupt the interaction, offering an opportunity to design covalent small molecules interfering the interface. Through screening covalent compounds, we discover a small molecule modulator of LC3A/B that covalently modifies LC3A/B protein at Lys49. Activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) based evaluations reveal that a derivative molecule DC-LC3in-D5 exhibits a potent covalent reactivity and selectivity to LC3A/B in HeLa cells. DC-LC3in-D5 compromises LC3B lipidation in vitro and in HeLa cells, leading to deficiency in the formation of autophagic structures and autophagic substrate degradation. DC-LC3in-D5 could serve as a powerful tool for autophagy research as well as for therapeutic interventions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202109464DOI Listing
September 2021

Single-Cell Analyses Reveal Mechanisms of Cancer Stem Cell Maintenance and Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Recurrent Bladder Cancer.

Clin Cancer Res 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Affiliated Cancer Hospital & Institute of Guangzhou Medical University, State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, Guangzhou, China.

Purpose: Bladder cancer treatment remains a major clinical challenge due to therapy resistance and a high recurrence rate. Profiling intratumor heterogeneity can reveal the molecular mechanism of bladder cancer recurrence.

Experimental Design: Here, we performed single-cell RNA sequencing and Assay for Transposase-Accessible Chromatin using sequencing (ATAC-seq) on tumors from 13 patients with low recurrence risk, high recurrence risk, and recurrent bladder cancer.

Results: Our study generated a comprehensive cancer-cell atlas consisting of 54,971 single cells and identified distinct cell subpopulations. We found that the cancer stem-cell subpopulation is enriched during bladder cancer recurrence with elevated expression of EZH2. We further defined a subpopulation-specific molecular mechanism whereby EZH2 maintains H3K27me3-mediated repression of the NCAM1 gene, thereby inactivating the cell invasive and stemness transcriptional program. Furthermore, taking advantage of this large single-cell dataset, we elucidated the spectrum of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in clinical samples and revealed distinct EMT features associated with bladder cancer subtypes. We identified that TCF7 promotes EMT in corroboration with single-cell ATAC with high-throughput sequencing (scATAC-seq) analysis. Additionally, we constructed regulatory networks specific to recurrent bladder cancer.

Conclusions: Our study and analytic approaches herein provide a rich resource for the further study of cancer stem cells and EMT in the bladder cancer research field.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-20-4796DOI Listing
September 2021

First report of Anthracnose Disease on Bletilla striata (Thunb.) Reichb. f. (Baiji) caused by Colletotrichum orchidophilum in Yunnan, China.

Plant Dis 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Southwest Foresttry UniversityKunming, Yunnan, China, 650224;

Bletilla striata (Thunb.) Reichb. f. has high ornamental and medicinal value. B. striata has been used in Chinese medicine for thousands of years to treat various diseases, such as peptic ulcers, gastrointestinal diseases, lung diseases, and traumatic bleeding (Jiang et al. 2021). In September 2020, about 30% of B. striata plants in a plantation in Lancang County (Puer City, Yunnan Province, 22°48'17" N, 99°46'58" E) were found with symptoms resembling Bletilla anthracnose disease. In May 2021, symptomatic leaves were observed again with a disease incidence rate reached 54.05%, and were collected. The initial symptoms were the appearance of one or more round light brown spots on the leaves. Subsequently, the lesions became larger, forming oval brown-black spots. On severely affected leaves, several spots coalesced, causing withering and death of the leaves. To isolate the pathogen, 10 symptomatic tissues (5mm2) of 10 infected leaves were disinfected in 75% ethanol for 30s then in 2% sodium hypochlorite for 3 minutes, rinsed with sterile water for 3 times, incubated on potato dextrose agar (PDA) plates at 25℃ for 5 to 7 days with a 12 h light/dark photoperiodic cycle. Finally, ten pathogen strains with similar morphology were isolated and pure cultures were obtained by single spore isolation. The morphology of fungal colonies was round, carpet-like, flat and neat, and the color was gray black. The conidiophores were colorless to brown and oval or stick-shaped. The conidia were cylindrical or oblong, consisted of a single cell with blunt round ends, and were on average 12.92 (8.13-21.21) μm×3.96 (2.55-5.90) μm (n=200) in size. Based on the morphology and conidial characteristics, the pathogen was identified as Colletotrichum sp. (Damm et al. 2012). The total genomic DNA of representative isolates (LCTJ-02, LCTJ-03, LCTJ-04, LCTJ-05 and LCTJ-06) was extracted and the ITS region, GAPDH, ACT and HIS3 gene regions were amplified and sequenced using the primer pairs ITS1/ITS4, GDF1/GDR1, 512F/783R, and CylH3F/CylH3R, respectively (Cai et al. 2009). The sequences were deposited in GenBank (MZ433189 to MZ433193 for ITS, MZ436430 to MZ436434 for GAPDH, MZ436435 to MZ436439 for HIS3 and MZ448474 to MZ448478 for ACT). BLAST search revealed that all sequences showed 98% to 100% homology with the corresponding sequences of C. orchidophilum ex-type (CBS 632.80). Phylogenetic trees were constructed using neighbor-joining and maximum likelihood methods for the combined data set of the ITS, GAPDH, ACT, and HIS3 genes by MEGA-X (Kumar et al.2018). In general, LCTJ-02, LCTJ-03, LCTJ-04, LCTJ-05, LCTJ-06, and C. orchidophilum type strains clustered on the same clade. To confirm pathogenicity, the five isolates of C. orchidophilum were inoculated in healthy leaves of potted B. striata, as described by Cai et al. (2009), with slight modifications. Each leaf was inoculated with three drops(10 µl drop-1) of conidia suspension (106 spores mL-1). The control group was mock inoculated with sterile water the same way. All samples were covered with plastic bags and maintained at 70% to 80% relative humidity for seven days. After this period, all inoculated leaves showed similar lesions, and the symptoms were identical to those observed in the field. The control plants remained healthy. The pathogens were re-isolated from two leaves of each treatment and re-identified as C. orchidophilum. To our knowledge, this is the first report of C. orchidophilum causing anthracnose on B. striata in China. In the future, the occurrence and transmission of this pathogen should be further studied in order to develop reasonable control measures.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-07-21-1510-PDNDOI Listing
September 2021

Sintilimab plus IBI305 for hepatocellular carcinoma.

Authors:
Luo Cheng Heng Xiao

Lancet Oncol 2021 09;22(9):e387

Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, China. Electronic address:

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(21)00424-1DOI Listing
September 2021

Disrupted functional connectivity in white matter resting-state networks in unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy.

Brain Imaging Behav 2021 Sep 3. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

The Clinical Hospital of Chengdu Brain Science Institute, MOE Key Lab for Neuroinformation, Center for Information in Medicine, School of Life Science and Technology, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Second North Jianshe Road, Chengdu, 610054, People's Republic of China.

Unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common type of focal epilepsy characterized by foci in the unilateral temporal lobe grey matters of regions such as the hippocampus. However, it remains unclear how the functional features of white matter are altered in TLE. In the current study, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed on 71 left TLE (LTLE) patients, 79 right TLE (RTLE) patients and 47 healthy controls (HC). Clustering analysis was used to identify fourteen white matter networks (WMN). The functional connectivity (FC) was calculated among WMNs and between WMNs and grey matter. Furthermore, the FC laterality of hemispheric WMNs was assessed. First, both patient groups showed decreased FCs among WMNs. Specifically, cerebellar white matter illustrated decreased FCs with the cerebral superficial WMNs, implying a dysfunctional interaction between the cerebellum and the cerebral cortex in TLE. Second, the FCs between WMNs and the ipsilateral hippocampus (grey matter foci) were also reduced in patient groups, which may suggest insufficient functional integration in unilateral TLE. Interestingly, RTLE showed more severe abnormalities of white matter FCs, including links to the bilateral hippocampi and temporal white matter, than LTLE. Taken together, these findings provide functional evidence of white matter abnormalities, extending the understanding of the pathological mechanism of white matter impairments in unilateral TLE.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11682-021-00506-8DOI Listing
September 2021

Altered Spatial Organization of Dynamic Functional Network Associates With Deficient Sensory and Perceptual Network in Schizophrenia.

Front Psychiatry 2021 5;12:687580. Epub 2021 Aug 5.

The Clinical Hospital of Chengdu Brain Science Institute, Ministry of Education (MOE) Key Lab for Neuroinformation, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, China.

Schizophrenia is currently thought as a disorder with dysfunctional communication within and between sensory and cognitive processes. It has been hypothesized that these deficits mediate heterogeneous and comprehensive schizophrenia symptomatology. In this study, we investigated as to how the abnormal dynamic functional architecture of sensory and cognitive networks may contribute to these symptoms in schizophrenia. We calculated a sliding-window-based dynamic functional connectivity strength (FCS) and amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) maps. Then, using group-independent component analysis, we characterized spatial organization of dynamic functional network (sDFN) across various time windows. The spatial architectures of FCS/ALFF-sDFN were similar with traditional resting-state functional networks and cannot be accounted by length of the sliding window. Moreover, schizophrenic subjects demonstrated reduced dynamic functional connectivity (dFC) within sensory and perceptual sDFNs, as well as decreased connectivity between these sDFNs and high-order frontal sDFNs. The severity of patients' positive and total symptoms was related to these abnormal dFCs. Our findings revealed that the sDFN during rest might form the intrinsic functional architecture and functional changes associated with psychotic symptom deficit. Our results support the hypothesis that the dynamic functional network may influence the aberrant sensory and cognitive function in schizophrenia, further highlighting that targeting perceptual deficits could extend our understanding of the pathophysiology of schizophrenia.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2021.687580DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8374440PMC
August 2021

Predicting the risk of postoperative acute kidney injury: development and assessment of a novel predictive nomogram.

J Int Med Res 2021 Aug;49(8):3000605211032838

Department of Urology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China.

Objective: This study aimed to establish and internally verify the risk nomogram of postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients with renal cell carcinoma.

Methods: We retrospectively collected data from 559 patients with renal cell carcinoma from June 2016 to May 2019 and established a prediction model. Twenty-six clinical variables were examined by least absolute shrinkage and selection operator regression analysis, and variables related to postoperative AKI were determined. The prediction model was established by multiple logistic regression analysis. Decision curve analysis was conducted to evaluate the nomogram.

Results: Independent predictors of postoperative AKI were smoking, hypertension, surgical time, blood glucose, blood uric acid, alanine aminotransferase, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and radical nephrectomy. The C index of the nomogram was 0.825 (0.790-0.860) and 0.814 was still obtained in the internal validation. The nomogram had better clinical benefit when the intervention was decided at the threshold probabilities of >4% and <79% for patients and doctors, respectively.

Conclusions: This novel postoperative AKI nomogram incorporating smoking, hypertension, the surgical time, blood glucose, blood uric acid, alanine aminotransferase, the estimated glomerular filtration rate, and radical nephrectomy is convenient for facilitating the individual postoperative risk prediction of AKI in patients with renal cell carcinoma.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/03000605211032838DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8366143PMC
August 2021

θ-Band Cortical Tracking of the Speech Envelope Shows the Linear Phase Property.

eNeuro 2021 Jul-Aug;8(4). Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Department of Neurology, First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310003, China

When listening to speech, low-frequency cortical activity tracks the speech envelope. It remains controversial, however, whether such envelope-tracking neural activity reflects entrainment of neural oscillations or superposition of transient responses evoked by sound features. Recently, it is suggested that the phase of envelope-tracking activity can potentially distinguish entrained oscillations and evoked responses. Here, we analyze the phase of envelope-tracking in humans during passive listening, and observe that the phase lag between cortical activity and speech envelope tends to change linearly across frequency in the θ band (4-8 Hz), suggesting that the θ-band envelope-tracking activity can be readily modeled by evoked responses.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/ENEURO.0058-21.2021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8387159PMC
September 2021

Discovery of High-Affinity Inhibitors of the BPTF Bromodomain.

J Med Chem 2021 Aug 10;64(16):12075-12088. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

School of Pharmacy, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou 350122, China.

The dysfunctional bromodomain PHD finger transcription factor (BPTF) exerts a pivotal influence in the occurrence and development of many human diseases, particularly cancers. Herein, through the structural decomposition of the reported BPTF inhibitor TP-238, the effective structural fragments were synthetically modified to obtain our lead compound DC-BPi-03. DC-BPi-03 was identified as a novel BPTF-BRD inhibitor with a moderate potency (IC = 698.3 ± 21.0 nM). A structure-guided structure-activity relationship exploration gave rise to two BPTF inhibitors with much higher affinities, DC-BPi-07 and DC-BPi-11. Notably, DC-BPi-07 and DC-BPi-11 show selectivities 100-fold higher than those of other BRD targets. The cocrystal structures of BPTF in complex with DC-BPi-07 and DC-BPi-11 demonstrate the rationale of chemical efforts from the atomic level. Further study showed that DC-BPi-11 significantly inhibited leukemia cell proliferation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.1c00721DOI Listing
August 2021

Structural and Functional MRI Brain Changes in Patients with Schizophrenia Following Electroconvulsive Therapy: A Systematic Review.

Curr Neuropharmacol 2021 Aug 8. Epub 2021 Aug 8.

The Clinical Hospital of Chengdu Brain Science Institute, MOE Key Lab for Neuroinformation, School of Life Science and Technology, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, 610054, China.

Background: Schizophrenia (SZ) is a severe psychiatric disorder typically characterized by multidimensional psychotic syndromes. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a treatment option for medication-resistant patients with SZ or to resolve acute symptoms. Although the efficacy of ECT has been demonstrated in clinical use, its therapeutic mechanisms in the brain remain elusive.

Objective: This study aimed to summarize brain changes on structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) and functional MRI (fMRI) after ECT.

Methods: According to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, a systematic review was carried out. The PubMed and Medline databases were systematically searched using the following medical subject headings (MeSH): (electroconvulsive therapy OR ECT) AND (schizophrenia) AND (MRI OR fMRI OR DTI OR DWI).

Results: This review yielded 12 MRI studies, including 4 with sMRI, 5 with fMRI and 3 with multimodal MRI. Increases in volumes of the hippocampus and its adjacent regions (parahippocampal gyrus and amygdala) as well as insula and frontotemporal regions were noted after ECT. fMRI studies found ECT-induced changes in different brain regions/networks, including the hippocampus, amygdala, default model network, salience network and other regions/networks that are thought to highly correlate with the pathophysiologic characteristics of SZ. The results of the correlation between brain changes and symptom remissions are inconsistent Conclusion: Our review provides evidence supporting ECT-induced brain changes on sMRI and fMRI in SZ and explores the relationship between these changes and symptom remission.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570159X19666210809101248DOI Listing
August 2021

Identification of Lymph Node Metastasis-Related Key Genes and Prognostic Risk Model in Bladder Cancer by Co-Expression Analysis.

Front Mol Biosci 2021 22;8:633299. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Urology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Lymph node metastasis (LNM) is an important pathological characteristic of bladder cancer (BCa). However, the molecular mechanism underlying LNM was not thoroughly elaborated. Identification for LNM-related biomarkers may contribute to making suitable therapies. So, the current study was aimed to identify key genes and construct a prognostic signature. Based on the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database, gene expression and clinical information were obtained. Then, the weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) was performed to identify the key modules and hub genes. A function analysis and a gene set enrichment analysis were applied to explore biological functions and pathways of interested genes. Furthermore, a prognostic model based on LNM-related genes was constructed by using the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) Cox regression analysis. Finally, nine co-expression modules were constructed, and two modules (turquoise and green) were significantly associated with LNM. Three hub genes were identified as DACT3, TNS1, and MSRB3, which were annotated in actin binding, actin cytoskeleton, adaptive immune response, and cell adhesion molecular binding by the GSEA method. Further analysis demonstrated that three hub genes were associated with the overall survival of BCa patients. In addition, we built a prognostic signature based on the genes from LNM-related modules and evaluated the prognostic value of this signature. In general, this study revealed the key genes related to LNM and prognostic signature, which might provide new insights into therapeutic target of BCa.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmolb.2021.633299DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8339436PMC
July 2021

Chinese and Western Musical Training Impacts the Circuit in Auditory and Reward Systems.

Front Neurosci 2021 21;15:663015. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

The Clinical Hospital of Chengdu Brain Science Institute, MOE Key Laboratory for Neuroinformation, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, China.

Previous studies have provided evidence about the brain plasticity effects of musical training, however, the issue of how expertise in music styles induced by Chinese or Western musical training affects neuroplasticity and reward responses has been less considered, especially for subjects of Chinese origin. In this work, 16 musicians who trained in the Western music style (Western-trained musicians) and 18 musicians who trained in the Chinese music style (Chinese-trained musicians) were recruited as the musician group for the experiment, while 15 non-musicians were recruited as the control group. Using a paradigm that consisted of listening to Chinese and Western music and measurements using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technology, we found that Chinese-trained musicians activated the bilateral superior temporal gyrus (STG) when listening to music, while Western-trained musicians activated the left STG. In addition, under the condition of listening to music with Chinese style, Chinese-trained musicians have a stronger functional connection in the circuit of the auditory and reward system than Western-trained musicians. The finding is opposite under the condition of listening to music with Western style. Interestingly, it seems that the circuit of Chinese-trained musicians is partial to the right STG, while Western-trained musicians show the opposite, i.e., a tendency toward the left STG. The influence of different music styles on experienced musicians is reflected by the functional activities and connections between the auditory system and the reward system. This outcome indicates that training in Chinese music style or Western music style affects the strategies of musicians when listening to music. Musical characteristics such as rhythm, melody and cultural attributes play an important role in this process. These findings, which provide evidence for functional neuroplasticity based on musical training, can enrich our insights into the musical brain.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2021.663015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8334552PMC
July 2021

The effects of antipsychotics on interactions of dynamic functional connectivity in the triple-network in first episode schizophrenia.

Schizophr Res 2021 Oct 5;236:29-37. Epub 2021 Aug 5.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Psychotic Disorders, Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200030, PR China; CAS Center for Excellence in Brain Science and Intelligence Technology (CEBSIT), Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai 200031, PR China; Institute of Psychology and Behavioral Science, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030, PR China. Electronic address:

Background: Brain dynamics abnormalities in the triple-network, which involves the salience network (SN), the default mode network (DMN) and the central executive network (CEN), have been reported in schizophrenia. However, it remains to be clarified how antipsychotics affect dynamic functional connectivity (DFC) within the triple-network and whether differences in clinical outcomes are associated with varying levels of network model dysfunction.

Methods: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained from 64 first-episode schizophrenia patients (SZ) and 67 healthy controls (HC). All patients were scanned before and after 12-week antipsychotic treatment and the HC were scanned only at baseline.

Results: At baseline, SZ participants showed significantly reduced dynamic functional interactions across the triple-network compared to HC. The SZ group displayed a pattern of reduction in resting-state DFC among the triple-network compared with HC. After medication, the mean dynamic network interaction index (dNII) value was improved. A significant quadratic relation was observed between longitudinal change of mean dNII and the reduction ratio of PANSS total score within the SZ group. The DFC within inter-network (between DMN and SN, and between DMN and CEN) and intra-network connections of DMN were significantly higher relative to baseline. Intra-SN DFC, intra-DMN DFC and DFC between SN and DMN were found to be predictive of clinical features at baseline. Intra-CEN DFC and DFC between DMN and CEN were predictive of treatment response.

Conclusions: Aberrant brain dynamics in the triple-network could be regulated with medication. DFC organization in the triple network was found to predict the clinical outcome.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2021.07.038DOI Listing
October 2021

Fibrinogen, fibrin degradation products and risk of sarcopenia.

Clin Nutr 2021 08 6;40(8):4830-4837. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Department of Geriatrics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Friendship Road 1, Yuan Jiagang, 400016, Chongqing, China. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Increasing data suggests that chronic low-grade inflammation plays an important role on development of sarcopenia. The present study was designed to identify the association between fibrinogen, fibrin degradation products (FDP) and sarcopenia risk in hospitalized old patients.

Methods: A total of 437 patients were enrolled in this cross-sectional study (148 with sarcopenia and 289 without sarcopenia). Sarcopenia was diagnosed according to the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS) 2019 criteria. Body composition, grip strength and gait speed were performed to participants. Fibrinogen, FDP levels were measured. Logistic regression analyses were carried out to assess the association between fibrinogen and sarcopenia, between FDP and sarcopenia, respectively.

Results: Compared to non-sarcopenic patients, fibrinogen and FDP levels were found to be higher in the sarcopenic group (3.07 g/L vs 2.79 g/L, 1.75 μg/mL vs 1.00 μg/mL, respectively, p < 0.05). Multiple linear regression analysis showed a significant negative association between fibrinogen and gait speed (β: -0.164, p = 0.008), and muscle strength (β: -0.231, p < 0.001). Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that fibrinogen and FDP were independently associated with sarcopenia (odds ratio 1.32 [95% confidence interval 1.03, 1.70], p = 0.009; odds ratio 1.07 [95% confidence interval 1.01, 1.19], p = 0.049, respectively). ROC curve revealed that the cutoff values of fibrinogen and FDP to predict sarcopenia risk were 2.54 g/L and 1.15 μg/mL, respectively.

Conclusions: In hospitalized old patients, serum fibrinogen and FDP levels are elevated in sarcopenia patients than those without sarcopenia. Fibrinogen and FDP are associated with sarcopenia in a concentration-dependent manner.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2021.06.031DOI Listing
August 2021

Modification of soy protein isolate by Maillard reaction and its application in microencapsulation of Limosilactobacillusreuteri.

J Biosci Bioeng 2021 Oct 31;132(4):343-350. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330047, China; College of Food Science and Technology, Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330047, China. Electronic address:

Limosilactobacillusreuteri was encapsulated using Maillard-reaction-products (MRPs) of soy protein isolate (SPI) and α-lactose monohydrate by freeze-drying. The mixed solution of SPI and α-lactose monohydrate was placed in a water bath at 89°C for 160 min for Maillard reaction, and then freeze-dried to obtain MRPs. The effects of Maillard reaction on functional characteristics of MRPs and the properties of MRPs-microcapsules were studied. SDS-PAGE indicated that SPI subunit reacted with lactose to form a polymer, and the band of MRPs disappeared around the molecular weights of 33, 40, 63, and 100 kDa. Compared with SPI, the emulsion stability, emulsion activity, foaming capacity, foam stability, and gel strength of MRPs were increased by 259%, 55.71%, 82.32%, 58.53%, and 3266%, respectively. The results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, circular dichroism spectroscopy, and scanning electron micrographs confirmed that the protein structure also changed significantly. Then, MRPs were used as wall material to prepare L. reuteri microcapsules. Physical properties and viable counts of L. reuteri during the simulated gastrointestinal digestion and storage period were determined. The particle size of MRPs-microcapsules (68 μm) was smaller than that of SPI-microcapsules (91 μm). The viable counts of L. reuteri in simulated gastrointestinal digestion and after storage for 30 days were improved. The modifications with Maillard reaction can improve emulsification, foaming, and gel strength of SPI, and MRPs could be used as a new type of wall material in the production of L. reuteri microcapsules.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiosc.2021.06.007DOI Listing
October 2021

Histone deacetylase inhibitor givinostat attenuates nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and liver fibrosis.

Acta Pharmacol Sin 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Gastroenterology, Xinhua Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, 200092, China.

Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a common chronic liver disease that is increasingly prevalent worldwide. Liver inflammation is an important contributor to disease progression from nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) to NASH, but there is a lack of efficient therapies. In the current study we evaluated the therapeutic potential of givinostat, a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, in the treatment of NASH in vivo and in vitro. Liver inflammation was induced in mice by feeding a methionine- and choline-deficient diet (MCD) or a fructose, palmitate, cholesterol diet (FPC). The mice were treated with givoinostat (10 mg·kg·d, ip) for 8 or 10 weeks. At the end of the experiment, the livers were harvested for analysis. We showed that givoinostat administration significantly alleviated inflammation and attenuated hepatic fibrosis in MCD-induced NASH mice. RNA-seq analysis of liver tissues form MCD-fed mice revealed that givinostat potently blocked expression of inflammation-related genes and regulated a broad set of lipid metabolism-related genes. In human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2 and human derived fetal hepatocyte cell line L02, givinostat significantly decreased palmitic acid-induced intracellular lipid accumulation. The benefit of givinostat was further confirmed in FPC-induced NASH mice. Givinostat administration significantly attenuated hepatic steatosis, inflammation as well as liver injury in this mouse model. In conclusion, givinostat is efficacious in reversing diet-induced NASH, and may serve as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of human NASH.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41401-021-00725-1DOI Listing
August 2021

Structural basis of ketamine action on human NMDA receptors.

Nature 2021 08 28;596(7871):301-305. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Institute of Neuroscience, State Key Laboratory of Neuroscience, CAS Center for Excellence in Brain Science and Intelligence Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China.

Ketamine is a non-competitive channel blocker of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. A single sub-anaesthetic dose of ketamine produces rapid (within hours) and long-lasting antidepressant effects in patients who are resistant to other antidepressants. Ketamine is a racemic mixture of S- and R-ketamine enantiomers, with S-ketamine isomer being the more active antidepressant. Here we describe the cryo-electron microscope structures of human GluN1-GluN2A and GluN1-GluN2B NMDA receptors in complex with S-ketamine, glycine and glutamate. Both electron density maps uncovered the binding pocket for S-ketamine in the central vestibule between the channel gate and selectivity filter. Molecular dynamics simulation showed that S-ketamine moves between two distinct locations within the binding pocket. Two amino acids-leucine 642 on GluN2A (homologous to leucine 643 on GluN2B) and asparagine 616 on GluN1-were identified as key residues that form hydrophobic and hydrogen-bond interactions with ketamine, and mutations at these residues reduced the potency of ketamine in blocking NMDA receptor channel activity. These findings show structurally how ketamine binds to and acts on human NMDA receptors, and pave the way for the future development of ketamine-based antidepressants.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03769-9DOI Listing
August 2021

Antipsychotics Effects on Network-Level Reconfiguration of Cortical Morphometry in First-Episode Schizophrenia.

Schizophr Bull 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

The Clinical Hospital of Chengdu Brain Science Institute, MOE Key Lab for Neuroinformation, Center for Information in Medicine, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, PR China.

Cortical thickness reductions are evident in schizophrenia (SZ). Associations between antipsychotic medications (APMs) and cortical morphometry have been explored in SZ patients. This raises the question of whether the reconfiguration of morphological architecture by APM plays potential compensatory roles for abnormalities in the cerebral cortex. Structural magnetic resonance imaging was obtained from 127 medication-naive first-episode SZ patients and 133 matched healthy controls. Patients received 12 weeks of APM and were categorized as responders (n = 75) or nonresponders (NRs, n = 52) at follow-up. Using surface-based morphometry and structural covariance (SC) analysis, this study investigated the short-term effects of antipsychotics on cortical thickness and cortico-cortical covariance. Global efficiency was computed to characterize network integration of the large-scale structural connectome. The relationship between covariance and cortical thinning was examined by SC analysis among the top-n regions with thickness reduction. Widespread cortical thickness reductions were observed in pre-APM patients. Post-APM patients showed more reductions in cortical thickness, even in the frontotemporal regions without baseline reductions. Covariance analysis revealed strong cortico-cortical covariance and higher network integration in responders than in NRs. For the NRs, some of the prefrontal and temporal nodes were not covariant between the top-n regions with cortical thickness reduction. Antipsychotic effects are not restricted to a single brain region but rather exhibit a network-level covariance pattern. Neuroimaging connectomics highlights the positive effects of antipsychotics on the reconfiguration of brain architecture, suggesting that abnormalities in regional morphology may be compensated by increasing interregional covariance when symptoms are controlled by antipsychotics.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/schbul/sbab082DOI Listing
July 2021

Is excisional surgery feasible and beneficial for the treatment of granulomatous mastitis?

Asian J Surg 2021 Oct 21;44(10):1354-1356. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Thyroid and Breast Surgery, Southern University of Science and Technology Hospital, Shenzhen, China.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asjsur.2021.07.006DOI Listing
October 2021

Association of GSTP1 Ile105Val polymorphism with the risk of coronary heart disease: An updated meta-analysis.

PLoS One 2021 22;16(7):e0254738. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Disinfection and Pest Control, Wuhan Centers for Disease Prevention and Control, Wuhan, Hubei, China.

Background: Numerous case-control studies have investigated the association between GSTP1 Ile105Val polymorphism and CHD risk, but the results from published studies were inconclusive. The present meta-analysis was performed to derive a more precise estimation.

Methods: PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science database searches were conducted to retrieve relevant articles.

Results: Ultimately, 5,451 CHD cases and 5,561 controls from 15 studies were included. Pooled analysis did not yield any statistically significant association between GSTP1 Ile105Val polymorphism and CHD risk for the overall population (Val vs. Ile: OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.93 to 1.18; Val/Val vs. Ile/Ile: OR, 1.09; 95% CI, 0.83 to 1.42; Val/Ile vs. Ile/Ile: OR, 1.09; 95% CI, 0.93 to 1.28; Val/Val vs. Val/Ile+Ile/Ile: OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.83 to 1.30; Val/Val+Val/Ile vs. Ile/Ile: OR, 1.14; 95% CI, 0.97 to 1.33). Subgroup analyses and sensitivity analyses indicated that GSTP1 Ile105Val polymorphism was still not associated with an increased risk of CHD. After excluding studies detected by Galbraith plots as major sources of heterogeneity, these relationships were still not significant.

Conclusions: The overall results did not reveal a major role of the GSTP1 Ile105Val polymorphism in modulating CHD risk. Well-designed studies with large sample sizes are needed to validate our findings and explore the possible gene-gene or gene-environment interactions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0254738PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8297824PMC
July 2021

Probing the Functional and Structural Connectivity Underlying EEG Traveling Waves.

Brain Topogr 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

MOE Key Lab for NeuroInformation, The Clinical Hospital of Chengdu Brain Science Institute, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, China.

Neural oscillations play an important role in the maintenance of brain function by regulating multi-scale neural activity. Characterizing the traveling properties of EEG is helpful for understanding the spatiotemporal dynamics of neural oscillations. However, traveling EEG based on non-invasive approach has little been investigated, and the relationship with brain intrinsic connectivity is not well known. In this study, traveling EEG of different frequency bands on the scalp in terms of the center of mass (EEG-CM) was examined. Then, two quantitative indexes describing the spatiotemporal features of EEG-CM were proposed, i.e., the traveling lateralization and velocity of EEG-CM. Further, based on simultaneous EEG-MRI approach, the relationship between traveling EEG-CM and the resting-state functional networks, as well as the microstructural connectivity of white matter was investigated. The results showed that there was similar spatial distribution of EEG-CM under different frequency bands, while the velocity of rhythmic EEG-CM increased in higher frequency bands. The lateralization of EEG-CM in low frequency bands (< 30 Hz) demonstrated negative relationship with the basal ganglia network (BGN). In addition, the velocity of the traveling EEG-CM was associated with the fractional anisotropy (FA) in corpus callosum and corona radiate. These results provided valid quantitative EEG index for understanding the spatiotemporal characteristics of the scalp EEG, and implied that the EEG dynamics were representations of functional and structural organization of cortical and subcortical structures.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10548-021-00862-0DOI Listing
July 2021

The Extracts of and from Oriental Medicinal Foods Regulate Inflammatory and Autophagic Pathways against Neural Injury after Ischemic Stroke.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 26;2021:9663208. Epub 2021 Jun 26.

State Key Laboratory of Quality Research in Chinese Medicine, Institute of Chinese Medical Sciences, University of Macau, Macao, China.

The study indicates inflammation and autophagy are closely related to neural apoptosis in the pathology of ischemic stroke. In the study, we investigate the effects and mechanisms of the extracts of and (AC) from oriental medicinal foods on inflammatory and autophagic pathways in rat permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion model. Three doses of AC extract were, respectively, administered for 7 days. It suggests that AC extract treatment ameliorated scores of motor and sensory functions and ratio of glucose utilization in thalamic lesions in a dose-dependent manner. Expression of Iba1 was decreased and CD206 was increased by immunofluorescence staining, western blotting results showed expressions of TLR4, phosphorylated-IKK and IB, nuclear P65, NLRP3, ASC, and Caspase-1 were downregulated, and Beclin 1 and LC3 II were upregulated. Low concentrations of TNF-, IL-1, and IL-6 were presented by ELISA assay. Additionally, caspase 8 and cleaved caspase-3 expressions and the number of TUNEL positive cells in ipsilateral hemisphere were decreased, while the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax was increased. Simultaneously, in LPS-induced BV2 cells, it showed nuclear P65 translocation and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines were suppressed by AC extract-contained cerebrospinal fluid, and its intervened effects were similar to TLR4 siRNA treatment. Our study demonstrates that AC extract treatment attenuates inflammatory response and elevates autophagy against neural apoptosis, which contributes to the improvement of neurological function poststroke. Therefore, AC extract may be a novel neuroprotective agent by regulation of inflammatory and autophagic pathways for ischemic stroke treatment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/9663208DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8257381PMC
June 2021

Identifying Internet Addiction and Evaluating the Efficacy of Treatment Based on Functional Connectivity Density: A Machine Learning Study.

Front Neurosci 2021 17;15:665578. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

School of Rehabilitation and Health Preservation, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, China.

Although mounting neuroimaging studies have greatly improved our understanding of the neurobiological mechanism underlying internet addiction (IA), the results based on traditional group-level comparisons are insufficient in guiding individual clinical practice directly. Specific neuroimaging biomarkers are urgently needed for IA diagnosis and the evaluation of therapy efficacy. Therefore, this study aimed to develop support vector machine (SVM) models to identify IA and assess the efficacy of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) based on unbiased functional connectivity density (FCD). Resting-state fMRI data were acquired from 27 individuals with IA before and after 8-week CBT sessions and 30 demographically matched healthy controls (HCs). The discriminative FCDs were computed as the features of the support vector classification (SVC) model to identify individuals with IA from HCs, and the changes in these discriminative FCDs after treatment were further used as features of the support vector regression (SVR) model to evaluate the efficacy of CBT. Based on the informative FCDs, our SVC model successfully differentiated individuals with IA from HCs with an accuracy of 82.5% and an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.91. Our SVR model successfully evaluated the efficacy of CBT using the FCD change ratio with a correlation efficient of 0.59. The brain regions contributing to IA classification and CBT efficacy assessment were the left inferior frontal cortex (IFC), middle frontal cortex (MFC) and angular gyrus (AG), the right premotor cortex (PMC) and middle cingulate cortex (MCC), and the bilateral cerebellum, orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and superior frontal cortex (SFC). These findings confirmed the FCDs of hyperactive impulsive habit system, hypoactive reflecting system and sensitive interoceptive reward awareness system as potential neuroimaging biomarkers for IA, which might provide objective indexes for the diagnosis and efficacy evaluation of IA.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2021.665578DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8247769PMC
June 2021

Different Modulatory Effects of Cognitive Training and Aerobic Exercise on Resting State Functional Connectivity of Entorhinal Cortex in Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

Front Aging Neurosci 2021 31;13:655245. Epub 2021 May 31.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Psychotic Disorders, Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

The entorhinal cortex (EC) plays an essential role in age-related cognitive decline. However, the effect of functional connectivity (FC) changes between EC and other cerebral cortices on cognitive function remains unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the modulation of two interventions (cognitive training and aerobic exercise) on EC-FC in community-dwelling older adults. In total, 94 healthy older adults aged between 65 and 75 years were assigned to either the cognitive training or aerobic exercise group to receive 24 sessions over 12 weeks, or to a control group. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed at both baseline and 12-month follow-up. Compared to the cognitive training group, the aerobic exercise group showed greater EC-FC in the bilateral middle temporal gyrus, right supramarginal gyrus, left angular gyrus, and right postcentral gyrus. Compared to the control group, the cognitive training group had a decreased EC-FC in the right hippocampus, right middle temporal gyrus, left angular gyrus, and right postcentral gyrus and an increased EC-FC in the bilateral pallidum, while the aerobic exercise group showed increased EC-FC between the right medial prefrontal cortex(mPFC), bilateral pallidum, and right precuneus. Baseline EC-FC in the mPFC was positively correlated with the visuospatial/constructional index score of the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status. In the cognitive training group, EC-FC value changes in the right hippocampus were negatively correlated with changes in the RBANS delayed memory index score, while in the aerobic exercise group, EC-FC value changes in the left angular gyrus were positively correlated with changes in the RBANS attention index score. These findings support the hypothesis that both cognitive training and aerobic exercise can modulate EC-FC in aging populations but through different neural pathways.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2021.655245DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8200543PMC
May 2021

Function-structure coupling: White matter functional magnetic resonance imaging hyper-activation associates with structural integrity reductions in schizophrenia.

Hum Brain Mapp 2021 Aug 10;42(12):4022-4034. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

The Clinical Hospital of Chengdu Brain Science Institute, MOE Key Lab for Neuroinformation, Center for Information in Medicine, School of Life Science and Technology, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, People's Republic of China.

White matter (WM) microstructure deficit may be an underlying factor in the brain dysconnectivity hypothesis of schizophrenia using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). However, WM dysfunction is unclear in schizophrenia. This study aimed to investigate the association between structural deficits and functional disturbances in major WM tracts in schizophrenia. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and DTI, we developed the skeleton-based WM functional analysis, which could achieve voxel-wise function-structure coupling by projecting the fMRI signals onto a skeleton in WM. We measured the fractional anisotropy (FA) and WM low-frequency oscillation (LFO) and their couplings in 93 schizophrenia patients and 122 healthy controls (HCs). An independent open database (62 schizophrenia patients and 71 HCs) was used to test the reproducibility. Finally, associations between WM LFO and five behaviour assessment categories (cognition, emotion, motor, personality and sensory) were examined. This study revealed a reversed pattern of structure and function in frontotemporal tracts, as follows. (a) WM hyper-LFO was associated with reduced FA in schizophrenia. (b) The function-structure association was positive in HCs but negative in schizophrenia patients. Furthermore, function-structure dissociation was exacerbated by long illness duration and severe negative symptoms. (c) WM activations were significantly related to cognition and emotion. This study indicated function-structure dys-coupling, with higher LFO and reduced structural integration in frontotemporal WM, which may reflect a potential mechanism in WM neuropathologic processing of schizophrenia.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hbm.25536DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8288085PMC
August 2021
-->