Publications by authors named "Lukman Owolabi"

51 Publications

Risk Factor Characterization of Ischemic Stroke Subtypes Among West Africans.

Stroke 2021 Sep 30:STROKEAHA120032072. Epub 2021 Sep 30.

Federal Medical Centre Umuahia, , Nigeria (K.U., I.I.C., U.O., O.O., K.A.O.).

Background And Purpose: To identify the qualitative and quantitative contributions of conventional risk factors for occurrence of ischemic stroke and its key pathophysiologic subtypes among West Africans.

Methods: The SIREN (Stroke Investigative Research and Educational Network) is a multicenter, case-control study involving 15 sites in Ghana and Nigeria. Cases include adults aged ≥18 years with ischemic stroke who were etiologically subtyped using the A-S-C-O-D classification into atherosclerosis, small-vessel occlusion, cardiac pathology, other causes, and dissection. Controls were age- and gender-matched stroke-free adults. Detailed evaluations for vascular, lifestyle, and psychosocial factors were performed. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate adjusted odds ratios with 95% CI.

Results: There were 2431 ischemic stroke case and stroke-free control pairs with respective mean ages of 62.2±14.0 versus 60.9±13.7 years. There were 1024 (42.1%) small vessel occlusions, 427 (17.6%) large-artery atherosclerosis, 258 (10.6%) cardio-embolic, 3 (0.1%) carotid dissections, and 719 (29.6%) undetermined/other causes. The adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) for the 8 dominant risk factors for ischemic stroke were hypertension, 10.34 (6.91-15.45); dyslipidemia, 5.16 (3.78-7.03); diabetes, 3.44 (2.60-4.56); low green vegetable consumption, 1.89 (1.45-2.46); red meat consumption, 1.89 (1.45-2.46); cardiac disease, 1.88 (1.22-2.90); monthly income $100 or more, 1.72 (1.24-2.39); and psychosocial stress, 1.62 (1.18-2.21). Hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes were confluent factors shared by small-vessel, large-vessel and cardio-embolic subtypes. Stroke cases and stroke-free controls had a mean of 5.3±1.5 versus 3.2±1.0 adverse cardio-metabolic risk factors respectively (<0.0001).

Conclusions: Traditional vascular risk factors demonstrate important differential effect sizes with pathophysiologic, clinical and preventative implications on the occurrence of ischemic stroke among indigenous West Africans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.120.032072DOI Listing
September 2021

A Novel Afrocentric Stroke Risk Assessment Score: Models from the Siren Study.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2021 Oct 28;30(10):106003. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Medical University of South Carolina, SC, USA.

Background: Stroke risk can be quantified using risk factors whose effect sizes vary by geography and race. No stroke risk assessment tool exists to estimate aggregate stroke risk for indigenous African.

Objectives: To develop Afrocentric risk-scoring models for stroke occurrence.

Materials And Methods: We evaluated 3533 radiologically confirmed West African stroke cases paired 1:1 with age-, and sex-matched stroke-free controls in the SIREN study. The 7,066 subjects were randomly split into a training and testing set at the ratio of 85:15. Conditional logistic regression models were constructed by including 17 putative factors linked to stroke occurrence using the training set. Significant risk factors were assigned constant and standardized statistical weights based on regression coefficients (β) to develop an additive risk scoring system on a scale of 0-100%. Using the testing set, Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curves were constructed to obtain a total score to serve as cut-off to discriminate between cases and controls. We calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) at this cut-off.

Results: For stroke occurrence, we identified 15 traditional vascular factors. Cohen's kappa for validity was maximal at a total risk score of 56% using both statistical weighting approaches to risk quantification and in both datasets. The risk score had a predictive accuracy of 76% (95%CI: 74-79%), sensitivity of 80.3%, specificity of 63.0%, PPV of 68.5% and NPV of 76.2% in the test dataset. For ischemic strokes, 12 risk factors had predictive accuracy of 78% (95%CI: 74-81%). For hemorrhagic strokes, 7 factors had a predictive accuracy of 79% (95%CI: 73-84%).

Conclusions: The SIREN models quantify aggregate stroke risk in indigenous West Africans with good accuracy. Prospective studies are needed to validate this instrument for stroke prevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2021.106003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8511059PMC
October 2021

Influence of age on links between major modifiable risk factors and stroke occurrence in West Africa.

J Neurol Sci 2021 09 9;428:117573. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. Electronic address:

Background The burden of stroke in Africa is high. Understanding how age associates with major modifiable stroke risk factors could inform tailored demographic stroke prevention strategies. Purpose To quantify the magnitude and direction of the effect sizes of key modifiable stroke risk factors according to three age groups: <50 years (young), 50-65 years (middle age) and > 65 years (elderly) in West Africa. Methods This was a case-control study involving 15 sites in Ghana and Nigeria. Cases included adults aged ≥18 years with CT/MRI scan-typed stroke. Controls were age-and gender-matched stroke-free adults. Detailed evaluations for vascular, lifestyle and psychosocial factors were performed. We estimated adjusted odds ratios (aOR) using conditional logistic regression and population attributable risk (PAR) with 95% Confidence Interval of vascular risk factors by age groups. Results Among 3553 stroke cases, 813 (22.9%) were young, 1441 (40.6%) were middle-aged and 1299 (36.6%) were elderly. Among the 5 co-shared risk factors, dyslipidemia with PAR and aOR (95%CI) of 62.20% (52.82-71.58) and 4.13 (2.64-6.46) was highest among the young age group; hypertension with PAR of 94.31% (91.82-96.80) and aOR of 28.93 (15.10-55.44) was highest among the middle-age group. Diabetes with PAR of 32.29%(27.52-37.05) and aOR of 3.49 (2.56-4.75); meat consumption with PAR of 42.34%(32.33-52.35) and aOR of 2.40 (1.76, 3.26); and non-consumption of green vegetables, PAR of 16.81%(12.02-21.60) and aOR of 2.23 (1.60-3.12) were highest among the elderly age group. However confidence intervals of risk estimates overlapped across age groups. Additionally, among the young age group cigarette smoking, psychosocial stress and cardiac disease were independently associated with stroke. Furthermore, education, stress, physical inactivity and salt intake were associated with stroke in the middle-age group while cardiac disease was associated with stroke in the elderly age group. Conclusion There is a differential influence of age on the associations of major risk factors with stroke in this West African cohort. Targeting modifiable factors predominant within an age group may be more effective as a stroke prevention strategy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2021.117573DOI Listing
September 2021

Hemorrhagic infarctive stroke in COVID-19 patients: report of two cases and review of the literature.

J Community Hosp Intern Med Perspect 2021 May 10;11(3):322-326. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Bisha, Bisha, Saudi Arabia.

There is growing evidence in support of ischemic stroke as a manifestation of COVID-19 infection. However, hemorrhagic transformation of ischemic stroke is rare. We present two cases of hemorrhagic infarction as presenting features in COVID-19 patients who did not have traditional cardiovascular risk factors for ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. While the hemorrhagic infarct was from a large artery in one of the patients, the other patient had a small artery related hemorrhagic infarct. We highlighted the possible underlining mechanisms from the literature and the implication of hemorrhagic infarct for routine anticoagulant therapy in patients with COVID -19 related ischemic stroke.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/20009666.2021.1883814DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8108187PMC
May 2021

Frequency and factors associated with post-stroke seizures in a large multicenter study in West Africa.

J Neurol Sci 2021 Aug 9;427:117535. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Federal Medical Centre, Abeokuta, Nigeria; Center for Genomic and Precision Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.

Background: Post-stroke seizures (PSS) are associated with significant morbidity and mortality across the globe. There is a paucity of data on PSS in Africa.

Purpose: To assess the frequency and factors associated with PSS by stroke types across 15 hospitals in Nigeria and Ghana.

Methods: We analyzed data on all stroke cases recruited into the Stroke Investigative Research and Educational Network (SIREN). We included adults aged ≥18 years with radiologically confirmed ischemic stroke (IS) or intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). PSS were defined as acute symptomatic seizures occurring at stroke onset and/or during acute hospitalization up until discharge. We used logistic regression to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) with 95% Confidence Interval.

Results: Among 3344 stroke patients, 499 (14.9%) had PSS (95% CI: 13.7-16.2%). The mean duration of admission in days for those with PSS vs no PSS was 17.4 ± 28.6 vs 15.9 ± 24.7, p = 0.72. There were 294(14.1%) PSS among 2091 ischemic strokes and 159(17.7%) among 897 with ICH, p = 0.01. The factors associated with PSS occurrence were age < 50 years, aOR of 1.59 (1.08-2.33), National Institute of Health Stroke Score (NIHSS), 1.29 (1.16-1.42) for each 5 units rise and white cell count 1.07 (1.01-1.13) for each 10^3 mm rise. Factors associated with PSS in ischemic were NIHSS score, aOR of 1.17 (1.04-1.31) and infarct volume of 10-30 cm aOR of 2.17(1.37-3.45). Among ICH, associated factors were alcohol use 5.91 (2.11-16.55) and lobar bleeds 2.22 (1.03-4.82).

Conclusion: The burden of PSS among this sample of west Africans is substantial and may contribute to poor outcomes of stroke in this region. Further longitudinal studies are required to understand the impact on morbidity and mortality arising from PSS in Africa.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2021.117535DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8325635PMC
August 2021

Impact of a longitudinal faculty development program on the quality of multiple-choice question item writing in medical education.

Ann Afr Med 2021 Jan-Mar;20(1):46-51

Department of Medicine, University of Bisha Medical College, Bisha, Saudi Arabia.

Background: Like many other academic programs, medical education is incomplete without a robust assessment plan.

Objective: The study aimed to evaluate the impact of longitudinal faculty development program (FDP) on the examination item quality (EIQ) from a cohort of medical college faculty members.

Methods: Item analysis (IA) of multiple-choice questions (MCQs) from a cohort of medical tutors over a 3-year period (2017 [S1], 2018 [S2], and 2019 [S3]) before and following once-per-week FDP was conducted. The questions were from three randomly selected courses: man and his environment (MEV) from phase 1, central nervous system (CNS) from phase 2, and internal medicine (MED) from phase 3. Data assessed were 480 MCQs from the final exams in the courses. The parameters considered in IA were the difficulty index, index of discrimination, nonfunctional distractors (NFDs), distractor efficiency for each question item, and Cronbach's alpha (CA) for the test as a whole. Comparison over the 3 years was made using Fisher's exact test and repeated-measures ANOVA with Bonferroni test as post hoc test.

Results: Overall, out of 480 MCQs, 272 had no NFD (52 [19.52%], 104 [38.24%], and 116 [42.65%] in 2017, 2018, and 2019, respectively) with a significant difference between S3, S2, and S1 (P < 0.0001). The mean CA for the exams in S1, S2, and S3, respectively, were 0.51, 0.77, and 0.84, P < 0.0001.

Conclusion: There was an improvement in EIQ following the implementation of longitudinal FDP. Thus, the need for active training and retraining of the faculty for a better EIQ cannot be overemphasized.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/aam.aam_14_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8102895PMC
April 2021

Electroencephalography findings in childhood epilepsy in a Saudi population: Yield, pattern and determinants of abnormality.

J Taibah Univ Med Sci 2021 Feb 19;16(1):86-92. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Bisha, Bisha, KSA.

Objective: The study was designed to evaluate the yield, pattern, and factors that are independently associated with electroencephalography (EEG) abnormalities in childhood epilepsy in a Saudi population.

Methods: We characterised the features of the first EEG and evaluated the associated factors in children with epilepsy in a Saudi population. The features of interictal epileptiform discharges (interictal epileptiform activity (IEA)) adopted by the International Federation of Societies for Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology were used in the study.

Result: A total of 756 paediatric patients, comprised of 427 men (56.5%) and 329 women (43.5%) with a clinical diagnosis of epilepsy, underwent EEG. Clinically, seizure was generalised in 619 (81.9%) patients and focal in 137 (18.1%). Among the patients, 397 (52.51%) had an abnormal EEG, while EEG was normal in 359 (47.49%) patients. Seizure frequency, gender, family history of epilepsy, and age were independent predictors of the presence of EEG abnormalities.

Conclusion: This study revealed a yield of 52% abnormal EEG findings in children with epilepsy. Age, gender, family history, and seizure frequency were independent predictors of the presence of EEG abnormalities in childhood epilepsy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtumed.2020.10.016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7858024PMC
February 2021

Factors associated with hypertension among stroke-free indigenous Africans: Findings from the SIREN study.

J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) 2021 04 23;23(4):773-784. Epub 2021 Jan 23.

Center for Genomic and Precision Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Hypertension is one of the most important risk factors for stroke and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) globally. Understanding risk factors for hypertension among individuals with matching characteristics with stroke patients may inform primordial/primary prevention of hypertension and stroke among them. This study identified the risk factors for hypertension among community-dwelling stroke-free population in Ghana and Nigeria. Data for 4267 community-dwelling stroke-free controls subjects in the Stroke Investigative Research and Education Network (SIREN) study in Nigeria and Ghana were used. Participants were comprehensively assessed for sociodemographic, lifestyle and metabolic factors using standard methods. Hypertension was defined as a previous diagnosis by a health professional or use of an anti-hypertensive drug or mean systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mmHg. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) of hypertension and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) at p < .05. Overall, 56.7% of the participants were hypertensive with a higher proportion among respondents aged ≥60 years (53.0%). Factors including physical inactivity (aOR: 9.09; 95% CI: 4.03 to 20.53, p < .0001), diabetes (aOR: 2.70; CI: 1.91 to 3.82, p < .0001), being ≥60 years (aOR: 2.22; 95% CI: 1.78 to 2.77, p < .0001), and family history of CVD (aOR 2.02; CI: 1.59 to 2.56, p < .0001) were associated with increased aOR of hypertension. Lifestyle factors were associated with hypertension in the current population of community-dwelling stroke-free controls in west Africa. Community-oriented interventions to address sedentary lifestyles may benefit this population and reduce/prevent hypertension and stroke among them.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jch.14183DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8263562PMC
April 2021

Study of electroencephalography in people with generalized epilepsy in a Saudi population.

J Community Hosp Intern Med Perspect 2020 Oct 29;10(6):549-554. Epub 2020 Oct 29.

College of Medicine, University of Bisha, Bisha, Saudi Arabia.

Background: Electroencephalography (EEG) remains a vital tool in the diagnostic evaluation of patients with epilepsy (GE), however, there is scarcity of information on the yield and potential clinical variables that are associated with EEG abnormalities in people with GE.

Objective: The study aimed to evaluate the yield and pattern of EEG abnormalities in patients with GE with the view to determining factors that are independently associated with abnormal EEG in them.

Methods: We characterized EEG features and evaluated associated factors in a sample of people with GE in a Saudi population. Standard definition of interictal epileptiform discharges was used.

Results: A total of 1105 (77%) out of 1436 GE patients had EEG. Five hundred and ninety-five (53.85%) patients had abnormal EEG. Factors associated with EEG abnormalities before adjustment for confounders were age, gender, duration of epilepsy, and seizure frequency. However, only frequency of seizure (P = 0.0018), gender (P < 0.0001), and age (P < 0.0001) were independently associated with EEG abnormalities.

Conclusion: The study showed a modest yield (54%) of abnormal EEG in the cohort of patients with GE. Frequency of seizure, age, and gender, independently predicted the presence of EEG abnormality in people living with GE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/20009666.2020.1809255DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7599013PMC
October 2020

Pre-Stroke Depression in Ghana and Nigeria: Prevalence, Predictors and Association With Poststroke Depression.

J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol 2020 Oct 19:891988720968274. Epub 2020 Oct 19.

University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Objectives: Depression is a risk factor for stroke. There is a knowledge gap on the predictors of prestroke depression in stroke survivors living in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We estimated prevalence and predictors of prestroke depression, as well as its association with poststroke depression (PSD) in the largest study of stroke in Africa.

Methods: We evaluated information collected as part of the Stroke Investigative Research and Education Network (SIREN) study, a multicentre, case-control study conducted at 15 sites in Ghana and Nigeria. Prestroke depression status was ascertained in stroke survivors using a validated self-report tool, while PSD was assessed using a stroke specific screening tool for depression ("HRQOLISP-E"). Independent associations were investigated using complementary log-log regression and binary logit models.

Results: Among 1,977 participants, prestroke depression was found in 141 (7.1%). In multivariate analyses, prestroke depression was significantly associated with tachycardia (OR = 2.22, 95% CI = 1.37-3.56) and low consumption of green leafy vegetables (OR = 1.91, 95% CI = 1.12-3.24). Forty-one (29.1%) of the prestroke depression sub-sample developed PSD. However, prestroke depression was not significantly associated with PSD.

Conclusion: The findings should energize before-the-stroke identification and prioritization of limited treatment resources in LMICs to persons with depression who have multiple, additional, risks of stroke.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0891988720968274DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8241399PMC
October 2020

Antecedent febrile illness and occurrence of stroke in West Africa: The SIREN study.

J Neurol Sci 2020 Nov 28;418:117158. Epub 2020 Sep 28.

Department of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.

Background: Acute infections have been posited as potential precipitants or triggers of the occurrence of stroke among adults with traditional vascular risk factors. We evaluated associations between stroke occurrence and reported febrile illness within 4 weeks (potential antecedent infections) among West Africans.

Methods: The Stroke Investigative Research and Educational Network (SIREN) is a multicenter, case-control study involving 15 sites in Ghana and Nigeria. Cases include adults aged ≥18 years with radiologically confirmed strokes. Controls were stroke-free adults matched with cased by age, gender and ethnicity. Detailed evaluations for vascular, lifestyle and psychosocial factors were performed. Participants were asked for evidence of any febrile illness within the past 4 weeks. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) with 95% Confidence Interval.

Results: Among 3588 stroke cases recruited in Ghana and Nigeria between August 2014 and July 2018, 363 cases (10.1%) reported having a febrile illness within the 4 weeks prior to stroke occurrence. Having an antecedent infection was associated with stroke occurrence with an unadjusted OR of 1.19 (1.00-1.51) but aOR of 0.83 (0.59-1.17) upon adjusting for traditional vascular risk factors. Stress, aOR of 4.69 (2.59-8.50) and consumption of green vegetables 2.27 (1.35-2.85) were associated with antecedent febrile illness.

Conclusion: 1 in 10 stroke cases reported antecedent history of febrile illness prior to occurrence of stroke but no independent association was observed in this study. Infectious exposures may be important triggers of cardiovascular events requiring further exploratory studies to better understand the role of this emerging risk factor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2020.117158DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8006213PMC
November 2020

Methanol induced stroke: report of cases occurring simultaneously in two biological brothers.

J Community Hosp Intern Med Perspect 2020 Jun 14;10(3):265-268. Epub 2020 Jun 14.

College of Medicine, University of Bisha, Bisha, Saudi Arabia.

Methanol bears semblance to ethanol in smell and taste, thus, individuals who indulge in alcohol may fall back on it in societies where alcohol consumption is illegal or difficult to come by despite the life-threatening neurologic sequelae of methanol toxicity. Stroke is an uncommon outcome of methanol poisoning. We presented two cases of methanol-induced infarctive and hemorrhagic stroke in biological brothers who were simultaneously involved in an illicit ingestion of methanol. One of them developed infarctive stroke while the other had infarctive stroke with hemorrhagic transformation. We have highlighted the differences and similarity in the course of their illnesses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/20009666.2020.1766840DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7431918PMC
June 2020

The Nigeria Parkinson Disease Registry: Process, Profile, and Prospects of a Collaborative Project.

Mov Disord 2020 08 19;35(8):1315-1322. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Muritala Muhammed Specialist Hospital, Kano, Kano State, Nigeria.

Background: Clinical disease registries are useful for quality improvement in care, benchmarking standards, and facilitating research. Collaborative networks established thence can enhance national and international studies by generating more robust samples and credible data and promote knowledge sharing and capacity building. This report describes the methodology, baseline data, and prospects of the Nigeria Parkinson Disease Registry.

Methods: This national registry was established in November 2016. Ethics approval was obtained for all sites. Basic anonymized data for consecutive cases fulfilling the United Kingdom Parkinson's Disease Brain Bank criteria (except the exclusion criterion of affected family members) are registered by participating neurologists via a secure registry website (www.parkinsonnigeria.com) using a minimal common data capture format.

Results: The registry had captured 578 participants from 5 of 6 geopolitical zones in Nigeria by July 2019 (72.5% men). Mean age at onset was 60.3 ± 10.7 years; median disease duration (interquartile range) was 36 months (18-60.5 months). Young-onset disease (<50 years) represented 15.2%. A family history was documented in 4.5% and 7.8% with age at onset <50 and ≥ 50, respectively. The most frequent initial symptom was tremor (45.3%). At inclusion, 93.4% were on treatment (54.5% on levodopa monotherapy). Per-capita direct cost for the registry was $3.37.

Conclusions: This is the first published national Parkinson's disease registry in sub-Saharan Africa. The registry will serve as a platform for development of multipronged evidence-based policies and initiatives to improve quality of care of Parkinson's disease and research engagement in Nigeria. © 2020 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mds.28123DOI Listing
August 2020

Unraveling the risk factors for spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage among West Africans.

Neurology 2020 03 19;94(10):e998-e1012. Epub 2020 Feb 19.

From Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (F.S.S., L.A., A. Singh, D.O.), Kumasi, Ghana; University of California (B.O.), San Francisco; Medical University of South Carolina (M.G., D.L., C.J., F.M.), Charleston; College of Medicine (O. Akpa, G. Ogbole, M.O., J.A., A.O., A. Adeoye, L. Ogunjimi, O. Arulogun, F.A., O. Ogah, A. Makanjuola, O. Adebayo, A. Agunloye, S.L., S.D., M.F., C.E.), University of Ibadan, Nigeria; University of Ghana Medical School (A. Akpalu, R.L., B.C.-T.), Accra; University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital (K.W., L. Oyinloye, P.K., E.S.); Federal Medical Centre (R.A., O. Adeleye), Abeokuta; Ahmadu Bello University (R.O., O.B., V.S., H.I.), Zaria; Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital (M.K., B.F., O. Ajose, S.O.), Ile-Ife; Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital (L. Owolabi, A. Mande), Kano, Nigeria; University of Kentucky (D.A.), Lexington; University of Alabama at Birmingham (H.T.); University of Cambridge (H.S.M.), UK; Delta State University Teaching Hospital (O. Olugbo); Jos Teaching Hospital (G. Osaigbovo, A. Salaam, G.A., C.I.), Plateau State; Federal Medical Centre (I.C.), Umuahia, Abia State; Federal Medical Centre (T.S.), Owo, Ondo State; and Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospital (A. Akintunde), Ogbomosho, Oyo State, Nigeria.

Objective: To characterize risk factors for spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH) occurrence and severity among West Africans.

Methods: The Stroke Investigative Research and Educational Network (SIREN) study is a multicenter case-control study involving 15 sites in Ghana and Nigeria. Patients were adults ≥18 years old with CT-confirmed sICH with age-, sex-, and ethnicity-matched stroke-free community controls. Standard instruments were used to assess vascular, lifestyle, and psychosocial factors. Factors associated with sICH and its severity were assessed using conditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and population-attributable risks (PARs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for factors.

Results: Of 2,944 adjudicated stroke cases, 854 were intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Mean age of patients with ICH was 54.7 ± 13.9 years, with a male preponderance (63.1%), and 77.3% were nonlobar. Etiologic subtypes of sICH included hypertension (80.9%), structural vascular anomalies (4.0%), cerebral amyloid angiopathy (0.7%), systemic illnesses (0.5%), medication-related (0.4%), and undetermined (13.7%). Eight factors independently associated with sICH occurrence by decreasing order of PAR with their adjusted OR (95% CI) were hypertension, 66.63 (20.78-213.72); dyslipidemia, 2.95 (1.84-4.74); meat consumption, 1.55 (1.01-2.38); family history of CVD, 2.22 (1.41-3.50); nonconsumption of green vegetables, 3.61 (2.07-6.31); diabetes mellitus, 2.11 (1.29-3.46); stress, 1.68 (1.03-2.77); and current tobacco use, 14.27 (2.09-97.47). Factors associated with severe sICH using an NIH Stroke Scale score >15 with adjusted OR (95% CI) were nonconsumption of leafy green vegetables, 2.03 (1.43-2.88); systolic blood pressure for each mm Hg rise, 1.01 (1.00-1.01); presence of midline shift, 1.54 (1.11-2.13); lobar ICH, 1.72 (1.16-2.55); and supratentorial bleeds, 2.17 (1.06-4.46).

Conclusions: Population-level control of the dominant factors will substantially mitigate the burden of sICH in West Africa.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000009056DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7238923PMC
March 2020

Prevalence of active epilepsy, lifetime epilepsy prevalence, and burden of epilepsy in Sub-Saharan Africa from meta-analysis of door-to-door population-based surveys.

Epilepsy Behav 2020 02 13;103(Pt A):106846. Epub 2020 Jan 13.

Department of Medicine, Imo State University, Nigeria.

Background: There is marked variation in the prevalence of epilepsy across Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). In order to accurately estimate the clinical and public health impacts of epilepsy in the region, robust and reliable epidemiological data are required for appropriate estimation of logistical, economical, and social impacts of epilepsy including policy formulation and intervention in the region.

Objective: We sought to evaluate the prevalence of active epilepsy (AE) and lifetime epilepsy prevalence in SSA using available data collected at community level.

Methods: We carefully searched online databases and identified the required articles using prespecified criteria. Random-effects model (REM) was used to estimate the active and lifetime prevalence from data generated from studies in SSA.. The burden of epilepsy, in terms of the number of people with the disease, was also obtained. Heterogeneity in the analysis was further explored using subgroup analysis and meta-regression techniques.

Result: A total of 39 and 12 community-based door-to-door surveys addressing AE and lifetime epilepsy, respectively, from different countries of SSA met the inclusion criteria for the study. Random-effects model estimates of overall prevalence of epilepsy were 9 per 1000 persons (95% confidence interval (CI): 8.0-9.9 per 1000 persons) for AE and 16 per 1000 persons (95% CI: 12.3-19.7 per 1000 persons) for lifetime epilepsy. The prevalence was highest in the Central Africa subregion with 30.2 per 1000 persons (95% CI: 6.2 to 66.7 per 1000 persons). The prevalence of AE in the rural settlement was twice that of the urban settlements. About 9,596,551 (95% CI: 8,530,267-10,556,206) people with AE and 17,060,535 (95% CI: 13,115,286-21,005,784) people with lifetime epilepsy live in SSA.

Conclusion: This study estimates the active (9/1000) and lifetime (16/1000) epilepsy with a remarkable burden of the disease in SSA. However, the prevalence, which is higher in the rural setting, varies within the subregion of SSA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yebeh.2019.106846DOI Listing
February 2020

Neurocysticercosis in people with epilepsy in Sub-Saharan Africa: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the prevalence and strength of association.

Seizure 2020 Jan 7;76:1-11. Epub 2020 Jan 7.

Department of Medicine, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria.

Purpose: We analyzed studies on neurocysticercosis (NCC) and epilepsy across Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) to determine the prevalence of NCC in people with epilepsy (PWE) and the strength of association of NCC with epilepsy in the region.

Methods: We conducted a systematic review of the existing literature on NCC and epilepsy in SSA. Diagnostic methods for NCC in the studies selected for our analysis included one or more of the following: positive brain CT, serum ELISA and serum EITB. A common prevalence and overall odds-ratio were then estimated using meta-analysis.

Results: A total of 25 (overall) and 20 (case-control) studies met the inclusion criteria for the prevalence and strength of association estimation, respectively. The overall prevalence estimate of NCC in PWE was 22 % [95 % confidence interval [CI]: 17-27.0 %). The figures were higher in the Southern and Eastern Africa sub-region (45 % and 25 % respectively) but lower in the Central and Western Africa sub-region (6 % and 15 % respectively). The prevalence of NCC estimate in PWE varied with method of diagnosis; with 29 % 18 % and 15 % in studies that used a minimum of Brain CT, ELISA and EITB respectively. The overall odds ratio was 2.4 (95 % CI 2.1-2.8), p < 0.0001.

Conclusion: The overall prevalence of NCC in PWE in SSA was 22 %. The prevalence figure varied with the sub-region of SSA. The odd of NCC in PWE in SSA was 2.4. In spite of the sub-regional variation in NCC prevalence, this meta-analysis suggests that neurocysticercosis contributes significantly to epilepsy in SSA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.seizure.2020.01.005DOI Listing
January 2020

Unraveling the Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications of Neurobiobanking and Stroke Genomic Research in Africa: A Study Protocol of the African Neurobiobank for Precision Stroke Medicine ELSI Project.

Int J Qual Methods 2020 Jan-Dec;19. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Neuroscience and Ageing Research Unit, Institute for Advanced Medical Research and Training, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.

The ethical, legal, and social implications (ELSI) of emerging neurobiobanks and data resources are unclear in an African scientific landscape with unique cultural, linguistic, and belief systems. The overarching goal of the African Neurobiobank for Precision Stroke Medicine-ELSI Project is to identify, examine, and develop novel approaches to address ELSI issues of biobanking and stroke genomic research in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). To accomplish the goal we will (1) explore knowledge, attitude, perceptions, barriers, and facilitators influencing ELSI issues related to biobanking and stroke genomic research; (2) use information obtained to craft a community intervention program focused on ELSI issues; and (3) build capacity and careers related to genomics and biobanking for effective client/community engagement while enhancing regulatory, governance, and implementation competences in biobanking science in SSA. A community-based participatory research and mixed-methodological approach, focused on various levels of the social ecological model, will be used to identify and examine relevant ELSI issues. Contextual intervention tools, platforms, and practices will be developed to enhance community understanding and participation in stroke biobanking and genomics research activities while facilitating enduring trust, and equitable and fair utilization of biobanking resources for genetic and trans-omics research. A concurrent capacity building program related to genetic counseling and biobanking will be implemented for early career researchers. The huge potential for neurobiobanking and genomics research in Africa to advance precision medicine applicable to stroke and other neurological disorders requires addressing ELSI challenges while building sustainable research, career, and regulatory capacities in trans-omics and biobanking science.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1609406920923194DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8284747PMC
June 2020

Echocardiographic Abnormalities and Determinants of 1-Month Outcome of Stroke Among West Africans in the SIREN Study.

J Am Heart Assoc 2019 06 30;8(11):e010814. Epub 2019 May 30.

1 Center for Genomic and Precision Medicine University of Ibadan Ibadan Nigeria.

Background Little is known about the relationship between echocardiographic abnormalities and outcome among patients with acute stroke. We investigated the pattern and association of baseline echocardiographic variables with 1-month disability and mortality among patients with stroke in the SIREN (Stroke Investigative Research and Education Network) study. Methods and Results We enrolled and followed up consecutive 1020 adult patients with acute stroke with baseline transthoracic echocardiography from west Africa. To explore the relationship between echocardiographic variables and 1-month disability (using modified Rankin scale >3) and fatality, regression models were fitted. Relative risks were computed with 95% CIs. The participants comprised 60% men with a mean age of 59.2±14.6 years. Ischemic stroke was associated with smaller aortic root diameter (30.2 versus 32.5, P=0.018) and septal (16.8 versus 19.1, P<0.001) and posterior wall thickness at systole (18.9 versus 21.5, P=0.004). Over 90% of patients with stroke had abnormal left ventricular (LV) geometry with eccentric hypertrophy predominating (56.1%). Of 13 candidate variables investigated, only baseline abnormal LV geometry (concentric hypertrophy) was weakly associated with 1-month disability (unadjusted relative risk, 1.80; 95% CI , 0.97-5.73). Severe LV systolic dysfunction was significantly associated with increased 1-month mortality (unadjusted relative risk, 3.05; 95% CI , 1.36-6.83). Conclusions Nine of 10 patients with acute stroke had abnormal LV geometry and a third had systolic dysfunction. Severe LV systolic dysfunction was significantly associated with 1 month mortality. Larger studies are required to establish the independent effect and unravel predictive accuracy of this association.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.118.010814DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6585359PMC
June 2019

Differential Impact of Risk Factors on Stroke Occurrence Among Men Versus Women in West Africa.

Stroke 2019 04;50(4):820-827

Centre for Genomic and Precision Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria (R.A., A.A., M.O.).

Background and Purpose- The interplay between sex and the dominant risk factors for stroke occurrence in sub-Saharan Africa has not been clearly delineated. We compared the effect sizes of risk factors of stroke by sex among West Africans. Methods- SIREN study (Stroke Investigative Research and Educational Networks) is a case-control study conducted at 15 sites in Ghana and Nigeria. Cases were adults aged >18 years with computerized tomography/magnetic resonance imaging confirmed stroke, and controls were age- and sex-matched stroke-free adults. Comprehensive evaluation for vascular, lifestyle, and psychosocial factors was performed using validated tools. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios and reported risk factor specific and composite population attributable risks with 95% CIs. Results- Of the 2118 stroke cases, 1193 (56.3%) were males. The mean±SD age of males was 58.1±13.2 versus 60.15±14.53 years among females. Shared modifiable risk factors for stroke with adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) among females versus males, respectively, were hypertension [29.95 (12.49-71.77) versus 16.1 0(9.19-28.19)], dyslipidemia [2.08 (1.42-3.06) versus 1.83 (1.29-2.59)], diabetes mellitus [3.18 (2.11-4.78) versus 2.19 (1.53-3.15)], stress [2.34 (1.48-3.67) versus 1.61 (1.07-2.43)], and low consumption of green leafy vegetables [2.92 (1.89-4.50) versus 2.00 (1.33-3.00)]. However, salt intake and income were significantly different between males and females. Six modifiable factors had a combined population attributable risk of 99.1% (98.3%-99.6%) among females with 9 factors accounting for 97.2% (94.9%-98.7%) among males. Hemorrhagic stroke was more common among males (36.0%) than among females (27.6%), but stroke was less severe among males than females. Conclusions- Overall, risk factors for stroke occurrence are commonly shared by both sexes in West Africa favoring concerted interventions for stroke prevention in the region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.118.022786DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6433514PMC
April 2019

Prevalence and burden of epilepsy in Nigeria: A systematic review and meta-analysis of community-based door-to-door surveys.

Epilepsy Behav 2019 03 25;92:226-234. Epub 2019 Jan 25.

Department of Medicine, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Background: Studies on prevalence of epilepsy in Nigeria yielded figures ranging between 3.1 and 37 per 1000, giving one of the widest variations in prevalence of epilepsy world over. In order to accurately estimate clinical and public health impacts of epilepsy in Nigeria, robust and reliable epidemiological data are required for an appropriate estimation of logistical, economical, and social impacts of epilepsy.

Objective: The objectives of the study were to determine, using meta-analysis, the prevalence of epilepsy by pooling data from community-based door-to-door surveys conducted in various parts of Nigeria, explore the existing variation in prevalence of epilepsy in Nigeria along geopolitical regions and settlement setting of the country, and then evaluate the burden of epilepsy in Nigeria.

Methods: Prevalence estimates were derived from a random effects meta-analysis of observational studies reporting the prevalence of epilepsy in Nigeria. The derived estimate for the prevalence of epilepsy was applied to the total populations in Nigeria to give an estimated burden of epilepsy in Nigeria.

Result: Nine community-based door-to-door surveys, with quality data from different regions in Nigeria, were included. I-squared (I) heterogeneity was 88.5%. Random effects model (REM) estimate of overall prevalence of epilepsy from the studies was 8 per 1000 (95% confidence interval (95% CI): 6-10). The prevalence was highest (11 per 1000) in the south western part of the country. It was also higher among the rural (15 per 1000 people) than the urban (6 per 1000) dwellers. The burden of epilepsy in Nigeria, based on the prevalence estimate was 1,280,000 persons (95% CI: 960,000-1,600,000 persons).

Conclusion: In Nigeria, the estimated prevalence of epilepsy is 8 per 1000 people indicating a substantial burden of the disease in the country.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yebeh.2018.12.017DOI Listing
March 2019

Knowledge, attitudes and practices related to stroke in Ghana and Nigeria: A SIREN call to action.

PLoS One 2018 16;13(11):e0206548. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

University of Ghana Medical School, Accra, Ghana.

Introduction: Stroke is a prominent cause of death, disability, and dementia in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The Stroke Investigative Research and Education Network works collaboratively with stroke survivors and individuals serving as community controls to comprehensively characterize the genomic, sociocultural, economic and behavioral risk factors for stroke in SSA.

Purpose: In this paper, we aim to: i) explore the attitudes, beliefs, and practices related to stroke in Ghana and Nigeria using the process of qualitative description; and ii) propose actions for future research and community-based participation and education.

Methods: Stroke survivors, their caregivers, health care professionals, and community representatives and faith-based leaders participated in one of twenty-six focus groups, which qualitatively explored community beliefs, attitudes and practices related to stroke in Ghana and Nigeria. Arthur Kleinman's Explanatory Model of Illness and the Social Ecological Model guided the questions and/or thematic analysis of the qualitative data. We hereby describe our focus group methods and analyses of qualitative data, as well as the findings and suggestions for improving stroke outcomes.

Results And Discussion: The major findings illustrate the fears, causes, chief problems, treatment, and recommendations related to stroke through the views of the participants, as well as recommendations for working effectively with the SIREN communities. Findings are compared to SIREN quantitative data and other qualitative studies in Africa. As far as we are aware, this is the first paper to qualitatively explore and contrast community beliefs, attitudes, and practices among stroke survivors and their caregivers, community and faith-based leaders, and health professionals in multiple communities within Nigeria and Ghana.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0206548PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6239297PMC
April 2019

Knowledge, attitudes and practices of West Africans on genetic studies of stroke: Evidence from the SIREN Study.

Int J Stroke 2019 01 24;14(1):69-79. Epub 2018 Jul 24.

7 Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria.

Background: It is crucial to assess genomic literacy related to stroke among Africans in preparation for the ethical, legal and societal implications of the genetic revolution which has begun in Africa.

Objective: To assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of West Africans about stroke genetic studies.

Methods: A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted among stroke patients and stroke-free controls recruited across 15 sites in Ghana and Nigeria. Participants' knowledge of heritability of stroke, willingness to undergo genetic testing and perception of the potential benefits of stroke genetic research were assessed using interviewer-administered questionnaire. Descriptive, frequency distribution and multiple regression analyses were performed.

Results: Only 49% of 2029 stroke patients and 57% of 2603 stroke-free individuals knew that stroke was a heritable disorder. Among those who knew, 90% were willing to undergo genetic testing. Knowledge of stroke heritability was associated with having at least post-secondary education (OR 1.51, 1.25-1.81) and a family history of stroke (OR 1.20, 1.03-1.39) while Islamic religion (OR=0.82, CI: 0.72-0.94), being currently unmarried (OR = 0.81, CI: 0.70-0.92), and alcohol use (OR = 0.78, CI: 0.67-0.91) were associated with lower odds of awareness of stroke as a heritable disorder. Willingness to undergo genetic testing for stroke was associated with having a family history of stroke (OR 1.34, 1.03-1.74) but inversely associated with a medical history of high blood pressure (OR = 0.79, 0.65-0.96).

Conclusion: To further improve knowledge of stroke heritability and willingness to embrace genetic testing for stroke, individuals with less formal education, history of high blood pressure and no family history of stroke require targeted interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1747493018790059DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8325169PMC
January 2019

Biobanking in a Challenging African Environment: Unique Experience from the SIREN Project.

Biopreserv Biobank 2018 Jun 7;16(3):217-232. Epub 2018 May 7.

Neurology Unit, Department of Medicine, Federal Medical Center, Umuahia, Nigeria.

Africa was previously insufficiently represented in the emerging discipline of biobanking despite commendable early efforts. However, with the Human, Heredity, and Health in Africa (H3Africa) initiative, biorepository science has been bolstered, regional biobanks are springing up, and awareness about biobanks is growing on the continent. The Stroke Investigative Research and Educational Network (SIREN) project is a transnational, multicenter, hospital and community-based study involving over 3000 cases and 3000 controls recruited from 16 sites in Ghana and Nigeria. SIREN aims to explore and unravel the genetic and environmental factors that interact to produce the peculiar phenotypic and clinical characteristics of stroke as seen in people of African ancestry and facilitate the development of new diagnostics, therapeutics, and preventative strategies. The aim of this article is to describe our experience with the development of the procedure for collection, processing, storage, and shipment of biological samples (blood, serum, plasma, buffy coat, red cell concentrates, and DNA) and brain imaging across coordinating and participating sites within the SIREN Project. The SIREN network was initiated in 2014 with support and funding from the H3Africa Initiative. The SIREN Biobank currently has 3015 brain images, 92,950 blood fractions (serum, plasma, red cell concentrates, and buffy coat) accrued from 8450 recruited subjects, and quantified and aliquoted good-quality DNA extracts from 6150 study subjects. This represents an invaluable resource for future research with expanding genomic and trans-omic technologies. This will facilitate the involvement of indigenous African samples in cutting-edge stroke genomics and trans-omics research. It is, however, critical to effectively engage African stroke patients and community members who have contributed precious biological materials to the SIREN Biobank to generate appropriate evidence base for dealing with ethical, legal, and social issues of privacy, autonomy, identifiability, biorights, governance issues, and public understanding of stroke biobanking in the context of unique African culture, language, and belief systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/bio.2017.0113DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5995267PMC
June 2018

Stroke Among Young West Africans: Evidence From the SIREN (Stroke Investigative Research and Educational Network) Large Multisite Case-Control Study.

Stroke 2018 05 4;49(5):1116-1122. Epub 2018 Apr 4.

Department of Neurology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston (B.O., M.G., C.J.).

Background And Purpose: Stroke in lower and middle-income countries affects a young and productive age group. Data on factors associated with stroke in the young are sorely lacking from lower and middle-income countries. Our objective is to characterize the nature of stroke and its risk factors among young West Africans aged <50 years old.

Methods: The SIREN (Stroke Investigative Research and Educational Network) is a multicenter, case-control study involving 15 sites in Nigeria and Ghana. Cases included adults aged ≥18 years with computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging-confirmed stroke. Controls were age-and gender-matched stroke-free adults recruited from the communities in catchment areas of cases. Comprehensive evaluation for vascular, lifestyle, and psychosocial factors was performed. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios and population attributable risks with 95% confidence intervals.

Results: Five hundred fifteen (24.3%) out of 2118 cases enrolled were <50 years old. Among subjects <50 years old, hemorrhagic stroke proportion was 270 (52.5%) versus 245 (47.5%) for ischemic strokes. Etiologic subtypes of ischemic strokes included large artery atherosclerosis (40.0%), small vessel disease (28.6%), cardioembolism (11.0%), and undetermined (20.4%). Hypertension (91.7%), structural lesions (3.4%), and others (4.9%) were causally associated with hemorrhagic stroke. Six topmost modifiable factors associated with stroke in descending order of population attributable risk (95% confidence interval) were hypertension: 88.7% (82.5%-94.8%), dyslipidemia: 48.2% (30.6%-65.9%), diabetes mellitus: 22.6% (18.7%-26.5%), low green vegetable consumption: 18.2% (-6.8%-43.2%), stress: 14.5% (4.9%-24.1%), and cardiac disease: 8.4% (5.8%-11.1%).

Conclusions: The high and rising burden of stroke among young Africans should be curtailed via aggressive, population-wide vascular risk factor control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.118.020783DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5916042PMC
May 2018

Electroencephalography abnormalities in generalized epilepsy and their predictors: A multicenter experience.

Ann Afr Med 2018 Apr-Jun;17(2):64-69

Department of Psychiatry, Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria.

Background: In spite of the overwhelming significance of knowledge of basic elements of electroencephalography (EEG) in its application to the diagnostic workup and the management of patients with suspected or already established generalized epilepsy (GE), there is a dearth of data on the pattern and utility of clinical variables that can independently determine EEG abnormalities in GE.

Objective: The study was designed to evaluate the frequency and pattern of EEG abnormality as well as assess the utility of clinical variables in predicting the likelihood of an abnormal EEG in GE.

Methods: It was a cross-sectional study involving the analysis of EEGs of consecutive patients with clinical diagnosis of idiopathic GE from three centers over a 7-year period. Information on sociodemographic and seizure variables was obtained. The International Federation of Societies for Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology definition of interictal epileptiform discharges (interictal epileptiform activity [IEA]) was adopted in the study.

Results:: A total of 403 patients comprising 242 (60%) males and 161 (40%) females with clinical diagnosis of GE had EEG. Their age ranged between 2 weeks and 70 years, with a median age of 21 years and an interquartile age of 26 years. Two hundred and thirty-seven (58.8%) and 213 (52.9%) patients had abnormal EEG and IEA, respectively. Before adjustment for confounders, female gender (P = 0.0001), pediatric age group (P = 0.0388), duration of epilepsy of 1-4 years (P = 0.01387), uncontrolled seizure (P = 0.0060), and seizure frequency (P = 0.0001) were significantly associated with the presence of abnormal EEG. However, age, female gender, poor seizure control, and seizure frequencies were the independent predictors of EEG abnormality.

Conclusion: The study showed that about 58% of patients with GE patients had abnormal EEG. Age, poor seizure control, and high frequency of seizure were independent predictors of the presence of EEG abnormality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/aam.aam_2_17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5875121PMC
July 2018

Dominant modifiable risk factors for stroke in Ghana and Nigeria (SIREN): a case-control study.

Lancet Glob Health 2018 04 26;6(4):e436-e446. Epub 2018 Feb 26.

Department of Neurology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA.

Background: Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest incidence, prevalence, and fatality from stroke globally. Yet, only little information about context-specific risk factors for prioritising interventions to reduce the stroke burden in sub-Saharan Africa is available. We aimed to identify and characterise the effect of the top modifiable risk factors for stroke in sub-Saharan Africa.

Methods: The Stroke Investigative Research and Educational Network (SIREN) study is a multicentre, case-control study done at 15 sites in Nigeria and Ghana. Cases were adults (aged ≥18 years) with stroke confirmed by CT or MRI. Controls were age-matched and gender-matched stroke-free adults (aged ≥18 years) recruited from the communities in catchment areas of cases. Comprehensive assessment for vascular, lifestyle, and psychosocial factors was done using standard instruments. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and population-attributable risks (PARs) with 95% CIs.

Findings: Between Aug 28, 2014, and June 15, 2017, we enrolled 2118 case-control pairs (1192 [56%] men) with mean ages of 59·0 years (SD 13·8) for cases and 57·8 years (13·7) for controls. 1430 (68%) had ischaemic stoke, 682 (32%) had haemorrhagic stroke, and six (<1%) had discrete ischaemic and haemorrhagic lesions. 98·2% (95% CI 97·2-99·0) of adjusted PAR of stroke was associated with 11 potentially modifiable risk factors with ORs and PARs in descending order of PAR of 19·36 (95% CI 12·11-30·93) and 90·8% (95% CI 87·9-93·7) for hypertension, 1·85 (1·44-2·38) and 35·8% (25·3-46·2) for dyslipidaemia, 1·59 (1·19-2·13) and 31·1% (13·3-48·9) for regular meat consumption, 1·48 (1·13-1·94) and 26·5% (12·9-40·2) for elevated waist-to-hip ratio, 2·58 (1·98-3·37) and 22·1% (17·8-26·4) for diabetes, 2·43 (1·81-3·26) and 18·2% (14·1-22·3) for low green leafy vegetable consumption, 1·89 (1·40-2·54) and 11·6% (6·6-16·7) for stress, 2·14 (1·34-3·43) and 5·3% (3·3-7·3) for added salt at the table, 1·65 (1·09-2·49) and 4·3% (0·6-7·9) for cardiac disease, 2·13 (1·12-4·05) and 2·4% (0·7-4·1) for physical inactivity, and 4·42 (1·75-11·16) and 2·3% (1·5-3·1) for current cigarette smoking. Ten of these factors were associated with ischaemic stroke and six with haemorrhagic stroke occurrence.

Interpretation: Implementation of interventions targeting these leading risk factors at the population level should substantially curtail the burden of stroke among Africans.

Funding: National Institutes of Health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(18)30002-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5906101PMC
April 2018

Economic evaluation of childhood epilepsy in a resource-challenged setting: A preliminary survey.

Epilepsy Behav 2017 11 13;76:84-88. Epub 2017 Sep 13.

Department of Medicine, Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital Kano Bayero University Kano, Nigeria.

Background: Considerable disease variability exists between patients with epilepsy, and the societal costs for epilepsy care are overall high, because of high frequency in the general population especially in children from developing countries.

Materials And Methods: A cross-sectional study where children with established diagnosis of epilepsy were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Prevalence-based costs were stratified by patients' sociodemographic characteristics and socioeconomic scores (SES). The 'bottom-up' and 'human capital' approaches were used to generate estimates on the direct and indirect (productivity losses) costs of epilepsy, respectively. All estimates of the financial burden of epilepsy were analyzed from the 'societal perspective' using IBM SPSS statistics software, version 20.0.

Results: The study had 103 enrollees with most in the age group of 0-5years (45.6%). Majority (61.3%) belong to the low socioeconomic class (Ogunlesi SES class IV and V) and reside (80.6%) in an urban setting. The total direct and indirect costs per month were ₦2,149,965.00 ($8497.88) and ₦363,187.80 ($1435.52), respectively. The cost of care per patient per annum was ₦292,794.50 ($1157.29), and the total cost for all the patients per year was ₦30,157,833.60 ($119,200.92). Investigative procedures are the principal cost drivers (₦15,861.17 or $18.15) comprising approximately 58.7% of the total direct costs per patient.

Conclusions: Cost of investigations contributed immensely to the total direct cost of care in our study. With the present economic situation in the country, out-of-pocket payments may contribute significantly to catastrophic expenditures and worsening of secondary treatment gap in children with epilepsy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yebeh.2017.08.023DOI Listing
November 2017

Development and Reliability of a User-Friendly Multicenter Phenotyping Application for Hemorrhagic and Ischemic Stroke.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2017 Nov 29;26(11):2662-2670. Epub 2017 Jul 29.

University of Ghana Medical School, Accra, Ghana.

Background: Annotation and Image Markup on ClearCanvas Enriched Stroke-phenotyping Software (ACCESS) is a novel stand-alone computer software application that allows the creation of simple standardized annotations for reporting brain images of all stroke types. We developed the ACCESS application and determined its inter-rater and intra-rater reliability in the Stroke Investigative Research and Educational Network (SIREN) study to assess its suitability for multicenter studies.

Methods: One hundred randomly selected stroke imaging reports from 5 SIREN sites were re-evaluated by 4 trained independent raters to determine the inter-rater reliability of the ACCESS (version 12.0) software for stroke phenotyping. To determine intra-rater reliability, 6 raters reviewed the same cases previously reported by them after a month of interval. Ischemic stroke was classified using the Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project (OCSP), Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST), and Atherosclerosis, Small-vessel disease, Cardiac source, Other cause (ASCO) protocols, while hemorrhagic stroke was classified using the Structural lesion, Medication, Amyloid angiopathy, Systemic disease, Hypertensive angiopathy and Undetermined (SMASH-U) protocol in ACCESS. Agreement among raters was measured with Cohen's kappa statistics.

Results: For primary stroke type, inter-rater agreement was .98 (95% confidence interval [CI], .94-1.00), while intra-rater agreement was 1.00 (95% CI, 1.00). For OCSP subtypes, inter-rater agreement was .97 (95% CI, .92-1.00) for the partial anterior circulation infarcts, .92 (95% CI, .76-1.00) for the total anterior circulation infarcts, and excellent for both lacunar infarcts and posterior circulation infarcts. Intra-rater agreement was .97 (.90-1.00), while inter-rater agreement was .93 (95% CI, .84-1.00) for TOAST subtypes. Inter-rater agreement ranged between .78 (cardioembolic) and .91 (large artery atherosclerotic) for ASCO subtypes and was .80 (95% CI, .56-1.00) for SMASH-U subtypes.

Conclusion: The ACCESS application facilitates a concordant and reproducible classification of stroke subtypes by multiple investigators, making it suitable for clinical use and multicenter research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2017.06.042DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5624839PMC
November 2017

Interleukin-6 (IL-6) rs1800796 and cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor (CDKN2A/CDKN2B) rs2383207 are associated with ischemic stroke in indigenous West African Men.

J Neurol Sci 2017 Aug 23;379:229-235. Epub 2017 May 23.

University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria; WFNR-Blossom Specialist Medical Center Ibadan, Nigeria.

Background: Inherited genetic variations offer a possible explanation for the observed peculiarities of stroke in sub - Saharan African populations. Interleukin-6 polymorphisms have been previously associated with ischemic stroke in some non-African populations.

Aim: Herein we investigated, for the first time, the association of genetic polymorphisms of IL-6, CDKN2A- CDKN2B and other genes with ischemic stroke among indigenous West African participants in the Stroke Investigative Research and Education Network (SIREN) Study.

Methods: Twenty-three previously identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 14 genes of relevance to the neurobiology of ischemic stroke were investigated. Logistic regression models adjusting for known cardiovascular disease risk factors were constructed to assess the associations of the 23 SNPs in rigorously phenotyped cases (N=429) of ischemic stroke (Men=198; Women=231) and stroke- free (N=483) controls (Men=236; Women=247).

Results: Interleukin-6 (IL6) rs1800796 (C minor allele; frequency: West Africans=8.6%) was significantly associated with ischemic stroke in men (OR=2.006, 95% CI=[1.065, 3.777], p=0.031) with hypertension in the model but not in women. In addition, rs2383207 in CDKN2A/CDKN2B (minor allele A with frequency: West Africans=1.7%) was also associated with ischemic stroke in men (OR=2.550, 95% CI=[1.027, 6.331], p=0.044) with primary covariates in the model, but not in women. Polymorphisms in other genes did not show significant association with ischemic stroke.

Conclusion: Polymorphisms rs1800796 in IL6 gene and rs2383207 in CDKN2A/CDKN2B gene have significant associations with ischemic stroke in indigenous West African men. CDKN2A/CDKN2B SNP rs2383207 is independently associated with ischemic stroke in indigenous West African men. Further research should focus on the contributions of inflammatory genes and other genetic polymorphisms, as well as the influence of sex on the neurobiology of stroke in people of African ancestry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2017.05.046DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5546618PMC
August 2017

Stroke in Indigenous Africans, African Americans, and European Americans: Interplay of Racial and Geographic Factors.

Stroke 2017 05 7;48(5):1169-1175. Epub 2017 Apr 7.

From the Department of Medicine (M.O., E.M.) and Department of Radiology (G.O.), University of Ibadan, Nigeria; Department of Medicine, Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Kumasi, Ghana (F.S.); Department of Epidemiology (V.J.H., M.R.I.) and Department of Biostatistics (A.B., H.K.T., G.H.), University of Alabama at Birmingham; Department of Public Health Sciences (M.G.), Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Sciences (K.A.), Department of Neurology (R.S., D.T.L., B.O.), and Department of Nursing (C.J.), Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston; Department of Internal Medicine, Federal Medical Centre, Abeokuta, Nigeria (R.A.); Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, University of Ghana, Accra (A.A., R.L.); Department of Medicine, University of Ilorin, Nigeria (K.W.W.); Department of Medicine, Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Nigeria (L.O.); Department of Medicine, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital, Ile-Ife, Nigeria (B.F., M.K.); Department of Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria (R.O.); Department of Internal Medicine, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria (P.A.); Department of Neurology, Columbia University, New York (J.M.M.); and College of Public Health, University of Kentucky at Lexington (D.K.A.).

Background And Purpose: The relative contributions of racial and geographic factors to higher risk of stroke in people of African ancestry have not been unraveled. We compared stroke type and contributions of vascular risk factors among indigenous Africans (IA), African Americans (AA), and European Americans (EA).

Methods: SIREN (Stroke Investigative Research and Educational Network) is a large multinational case-control study in West Africa-the ancestral home of 71% AA-whereas REGARDS (Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke) is a cohort study including AA and EA in the United States. Using harmonized assessments and standard definitions, we compared data on stroke type and established risk factors for stroke in acute stroke cases aged ≥55 years in both studies.

Results: There were 811 IA, 452 AA, and 665 EA stroke subjects, with mean age of 68.0±9.3, 73.0±8.3, and 76.0±8.3 years, respectively (<0.0001). Hemorrhagic stroke was more frequent among IA (27%) compared with AA (8%) and EA (5.4%; <0.001). Lacunar strokes were more prevalent in IA (47.1%), followed by AA (35.1%) and then EA (21.0%; <0.0001). The frequency of hypertension in decreasing order was IA (92.8%), followed by AA (82.5%) and then EA (64.2%; <0.0001) and similarly for diabetes mellitus IA (38.3%), AA (36.8%), and EA (21.0%; <0.0001). Premorbid sedentary lifestyle was similar in AA (37.7%) and EA (34.0%) but lower frequency in IA (8.0%).

Conclusions: Environmental risk factors such as sedentary lifestyle may contribute to the higher proportion of ischemic stroke in AA compared with IA, whereas racial factors may contribute to the higher proportion of hypertension and diabetes mellitus among stroke subjects of African ancestry.
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Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.116.015937DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5404953PMC
May 2017
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