Publications by authors named "Luisella Vignati"

3 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

An in vitro approach to detect metabolite toxicity due to CYP3A4-dependent bioactivation of xenobiotics.

Toxicology 2005 Dec 19;216(2-3):154-67. Epub 2005 Sep 19.

Department of Pre-Clinical Development, Nerviano Medical Sciences S.r.l., V.le Pasteur, 10, 20014, Nerviano, MI, Italy.

Many adverse drug reactions are caused by the cytochrome P450 (CYP) dependent activation of drugs into reactive metabolites. In order to reduce attrition due to metabolism-mediated toxicity and to improve safety of drug candidates, we developed two in vitro cell-based assays by combining an activating system (human CYP3A4) with target cells (HepG2 cells): in the first method we incubated microsomes containing cDNA-expressed CYP3A4 together with HepG2 cells; in the second approach HepG2 cells were transiently transfected with CYP3A4. In both assay systems, CYP3A4 catalyzed metabolism was found to be comparable to the high levels reported in hepatocytes. Both assay systems were used to study ten CYP3A4 substrates known for their potential to form metabolites that exhibit higher toxicity than the parent compounds. Several endpoints of toxicity were evaluated, and the measurement of MTT reduction and intracellular ATP levels were selected to assess cell viability. Results demonstrated that both assay systems are capable to metabolize the test compounds leading to increased toxicity, compared to their respective control systems. The co-incubation with the CYP3A4 inhibitor ketoconazole confirmed that the formation of reactive metabolites was CYP3A4 dependent. To further validate the functionality of the two assay systems, they were also used as a "detoxification system" using selected compounds that can be metabolized by CYP3A4 to metabolites less toxic than their parent compounds. These results show that both assay systems can be used to screen for metabolic activation, or de-activation, which may be useful as a rapid and relatively inexpensive in vitro assay for the prediction of CYP3A4 metabolism-mediated toxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tox.2005.08.003DOI Listing
December 2005

A human and mouse pregnane X receptor reporter gene assay in combination with cytotoxicity measurements as a tool to evaluate species-specific CYP3A induction.

Toxicology 2004 Jun;199(1):23-33

Department of Pharmacokinetics, Dynamics and Metabolism, Pharmacia, Gruppo Pfizer Inc., Viale Pasteur 10, 20014 Nerviano, MI, Italy.

Recent studies have demonstrated that a member of the nuclear receptor family, pregnane X receptor (PXR) is a key regulator of the expression of cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) in humans and rodents. It is also known that species specificity in the induction of CYP3A by xenobiotics is likely a consequence of differences at the level of PXR activation. Because of the importance of CYP3A4 in drug metabolism, the development of rapid and accurate in vitro assays for predicting the effects of compounds on CYP3A4 expression or activity in humans has been a long-standing goal within pharmaceutical industries. PXR activation measurements using an in vitro reporter gene approach appears to provide a rapid and relatively inexpensive means for predicting whether compounds will induce CYP3A levels in vivo. In this study, using an HepG2 cell based human and mouse PXR reporter gene assay, 23 compounds were tested for their potential to activate hPXR or mPXR. Data demonstrated that potent activators of hPXR had virtually no activity on mPXR and efficient activators of mPXR had weak activity on hPXR. In addition, a third category of moderate/weak activators of both hPXR and mPXR was identified. Exemestane was a strong activator of mPXR ( approximately 22-fold activation) with only minor effect on hPXR ( approximately 5-fold activation). The importance of cell viability measurements as part of the PXR reporter gene assay was demonstrated as significant cytotoxicity or inhibition of cell proliferation might underestimate the potential for PXR activation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tox.2003.12.018DOI Listing
June 2004

Cytotoxic alpha-bromoacrylic derivatives of low molecular weight.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2002 Jun;12(11):1467-71

Chemistry Department, Pharmacia Discovery Research Oncology, Viale Pasteur 10, 20014 Nerviano, Milan, Italy.

In vitro and in vivo activities of a small series of alpha-bromoacrylic derivatives of low molecular weight (MW) are described and compared with those of alpha-bromoacrylic derivatives of distamycin-like frames. Low MW compounds, when lacking of a strong basic moiety, are potent cytotoxics, while analogues bearing a strong basic moiety are not. This suggests the existence of an active transport mechanism for distamycin-derived cytotoxics characterized by strong basic amidino or guanidino moieties. Low MW compounds are inactive in vivo, possibly because of the metabolic lability of alpha-bromoacrylic moiety. The same moiety is however present in a series of potent anticancer distamycin-like minor groove binders, for example, PNU-166196 (brostallicin), a fact that underlines the features of the latter.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0960-894x(02)00177-4DOI Listing
June 2002