Publications by authors named "Luis Sáenz-Carbonell"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

A peak in global DNA methylation is a key step to initiate the somatic embryogenesis of coconut palm (Cocos nucifera L).

Plant Cell Rep 2020 Oct 13;39(10):1345-1357. Epub 2020 Aug 13.

Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán, Unidad de Biotecnología, Calle 43 No. 130, entre 32 y 34, Col. Chuburná de Hidalgo, 97205, Mérida, Yucatán, México.

Key Message: DNA methylation, morphogenesis and gene expression during the somatic embryogenesis of Coconut are affected by 5-Azacytidine pretreatments, indicating that DNA methylation is an important factor throughout this process. Somatic embryogenesis (SE) is a process that can aid in the production of elite Cocos nucifera palms. It has been well established that epigenetic mechanisms are regulators of cell differentiation programs; however, their role in the coconut somatic embryogenesis has not yet been addressed. To this end, the morphogenetic changes, the global DNA methylation and the expression profiles of the SE-related genes and DNA methyltransferases genes were evaluated during the SE process, with and without the presence of 5-Azacytidine (AzaC). The results show that three days of pretreatments with 15 µM and 20 µM of AzaC significantly increased early somatic embryo formation (four- and tenfold, respectively). A clear peak of the global percentage of DNA methylation (approximately 13%) was determined at the beginning of the culture, followed by a re-establishing stage and a steady increase thereafter; in all cases, the levels of DNA methylation were lower after the pretreatments with AzaC. Additionally, the expression profiles of the SERK, WUS, BBM and LEC genes are modulated during the SE process and the pretreatments with AzaC affect the expression profiles of these genes, even at early stages. Furthermore, increased levels of expression were observed for the genes encoding for DNA methyltransferases (MET, CMT and DRM) at early and late stages of SE, indicating that DNA methylation is an important factor throughout the SE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00299-020-02568-2DOI Listing
October 2020

EffHunter: A Tool for Prediction of Effector Protein Candidates in Fungal Proteomic Databases.

Biomolecules 2020 05 4;10(5). Epub 2020 May 4.

Unidad de Biotecnología, Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán, A.C., Calle 43 No. 130 X 32 y 34, Col. Chuburná de Hidalgo, C.P. 97205 Mérida, México.

Pathogens are able to deliver small-secreted, cysteine-rich proteins into plant cells to enable infection. The computational prediction of effector proteins remains one of the most challenging areas in the study of plant fungi interactions. At present, there are several bioinformatic programs that can help in the identification of these proteins; however, in most cases, these programs are managed independently. Here, we present EffHunter, an easy and fast bioinformatics tool for the identification of effectors. This predictor was used to identify putative effectors in 88 proteomes using characteristics such as size, cysteine residue content, secretion signal and transmembrane domains.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom10050712DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7277995PMC
May 2020

Seasonal shifts of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in Cocos nucifera roots in Yucatan, Mexico.

Mycorrhiza 2020 May 2;30(2-3):269-283. Epub 2020 Apr 2.

Unidad de Biotecnología, Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán, Mérida, Yucatán, Mexico.

The diversity and community structure of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) associated with coconut (Cocos nucifera) roots was evaluated by next generation sequencing (NGS) using partial sequences of the 18S rDNA gene and by spore isolation and morphological identification from rhizosphere soil. Root samples from six different Green Dwarf coconut plantations and from one organic plantation surrounded by tropical dry forest along the coastal sand dunes in Yucatan, Mexico, were collected during the rainy and dry seasons. In total, 14 root samples were sequenced with the Illumina MiSeq platform. Additionally, soil samples from the dry season were collected to identify AMF glomerospores. Based on a 95-97% similarity, a total of 36 virtual taxa (VT) belonging to nine genera were identified including one new genus-like clade. Glomus was the most abundant genus, both in number of VT and sequences. The comparison of dry and rainy season samples revealed differences in the richness and composition of AMF communities colonizing coconut roots. Our study shows that the main AMF genera associated with coconut tree roots in all samples were Glomus, Sclerocystis, Rhizophagus, Redeckera, and Diversispora. Based on glomerospore morphology, 22 morphospecies were recorded among which 14 were identified to species. Sclerocystis sinuosa, Sclerocystis rubiformis, Glomus microaggregatum, and Acaulospora scrobiculata were dominant in field rhizosphere samples. This is the first assessment of the composition of AMF communities colonizing coconut roots in rainy and dry seasons. It is of importance for selection of AMF species to investigate for their potential application in sustainable agriculture of coconut.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00572-020-00944-0DOI Listing
May 2020

5-Azacytidine: A Promoter of Epigenetic Changes in the Quest to Improve Plant Somatic Embryogenesis.

Int J Mol Sci 2018 Oct 16;19(10). Epub 2018 Oct 16.

Unidad de Biotecnología, Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán, Calle 43 No. 130 x 32 y 34, Col. Chuburná de Hidalgo, 97205 Mérida, Yucatán, Mexico.

Somatic embryogenesis (SE) is a widely studied process due to its biotechnological potential to generate large quantities of plants in short time frames and from different sources of explants. The success of SE depends on many factors, such as the nature of the explant, the microenvironment generated by in vitro culture conditions, and the regulation of gene expression, among others. Epigenetics has recently been identified as an important factor influencing SE outcome. DNA methylation is one of the most studied epigenetic mechanisms due to its essential role in gene expression, and its participation in SE is crucial. DNA methylation levels can be modified through the use of drugs such as 5-Azacytidine (5-AzaC), an inhibitor of DNA methylation, which has been used during SE protocols. The balance between hypomethylation and hypermethylation seems to be the key to SE success. Here, we discuss the most prominent recent research on the role of 5-AzaC in the regulation of DNA methylation, highlighting its importance during the SE process. Also, the molecular implications that this inhibitor might have for the increase or decrease in the embryogenic potential of various explants are reviewed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms19103182DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6214027PMC
October 2018

Addition of ionophore A23187 increases the efficiency of somatic embryogenesis.

3 Biotech 2018 Aug 10;8(8):366. Epub 2018 Aug 10.

Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán (CICY), A.C., Unidad de Biotecnología, Calle 43 No. 130 x 32 y 34. Chuburná de Hidalgo, CP. 97205 Mérida, Yucatán Mexico.

The present study reports the effect of treatment of coconut embryogenic structure explants (derived from embryogenic callus) with the calcium ionophore A23187 (0, 1, 5, 10 µM) to promote somatic embryogenesis under in vitro conditions. The results showed no significant increase in the percentage of explants forming embryogenic callus, but with 1 µM ionophore there were significant increases in the formation of embryogenic structures per callus (2.8-fold), of somatic embryos per callus (1.5-fold) and also a greater absolute number (1.5-fold) of developing plantlets per callus. The ionophore treatment also promoted a change of pattern of the expression of the gene during embryogenic callus formation. It is proposed that if the use of ionophore A23187 treatment is coupled with an embryogenic callus multiplication process there could be a potentially greater increase in the efficiency of the formation of somatic embryos and plantlets of coconut.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13205-018-1392-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6086808PMC
August 2018

Lead accumulation reduces photosynthesis in the lead hyper-accumulator Salvinia minima Baker by affecting the cell membrane and inducing stomatal closure.

Aquat Toxicol 2016 Feb 22;171:37-47. Epub 2015 Dec 22.

Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán, Calle 43 No. 130, Col. Chuburná de Hidalgo, 97200 Mérida, Yucatán, Mexico. Electronic address:

Salvinia minima Baker accumulates a fair amount of lead in its tissues; however, no studies have investigated the effect of lead on the physiological processes that affect photosynthesis in this species. The objective of the present study was to assess whether the high amounts of lead accumulated by S. minima can affect its photosynthetic apparatus. The physiological changes in the roots and leaves in response to lead accumulation were analyzed. An exposure to 40 μM Pb(NO3)2 for 24 h (first stage) was sufficient to reduce the photosynthetic rate (Pn) by 44%. This reduction in Pn was apparently the result of processes at various levels, including damage to the cell membranes (mainly in roots). Interestingly, although the plants were transferred to fresh medium without lead for an additional 24 h (second stage), Pn not only remained low, but was reduced even further, which was apparently related to stomatal closure, and may have led to reduced CO2 availability. Therefore, it can be concluded that lead exposure first decreases the photosynthetic rate by damaging the root membrane and then induces stomatal closure, resulting in decreased CO2 availability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2015.12.008DOI Listing
February 2016