Publications by authors named "Luis Paz-Ares"

271 Publications

Trastuzumab Deruxtecan in -Mutant Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

N Engl J Med 2021 Sep 18. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

From Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center and Weill Cornell Medicine, New York (B.T.L.); the Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (E.F.S); the National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Y.G.), Kindai University Hospital, Osaka (K.N.), and the National Cancer Center East, Kashiwa (H.U.) - all in Japan; Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Toulouse (J.M.), Centre Léon Bérard, Lyon (M.P.), and the Department of Medical Oncology, Thoracic Group, Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (D.P.) - all in France; Karmanos Cancer Institute, Detroit (M.N.); the University of California, San Diego, Moores Cancer Center, San Diego (L.B.); Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL (A.N.S.); Vall d'Hebron University Hospital and Vall d'Hebron Institute of Oncology, Barcelona (E.F.); University of Colorado, Aurora (J.M.P.); Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, H12O-Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Oncológicas (CNIO) Lung Cancer Clinical Research Unit, and Complutense University, Madrid (L.P.-A.); Daiichi Sankyo, Basking Ridge, NJ (K.S., R.S., Y.C., S.A., P.V., J.S.); and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and the Belfer Center for Applied Cancer Science, Boston (P.A.J.).

Background: Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-targeted therapies have not been approved for patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The efficacy and safety of trastuzumab deruxtecan (formerly DS-8201), a HER2 antibody-drug conjugate, in patients with -mutant NSCLC have not been investigated extensively.

Methods: We conducted a multicenter, international, phase 2 study in which trastuzumab deruxtecan (6.4 mg per kilogram of body weight) was administered to patients who had metastatic -mutant NSCLC that was refractory to standard treatment. The primary outcome was objective response as assessed by independent central review. Secondary outcomes included the duration of response, progression-free survival, overall survival, and safety. Biomarkers of HER2 alterations were assessed.

Results: A total of 91 patients were enrolled. The median duration of follow-up was 13.1 months (range, 0.7 to 29.1). Centrally confirmed objective response occurred in 55% of the patients (95% confidence interval [CI], 44 to 65). The median duration of response was 9.3 months (95% CI, 5.7 to 14.7). Median progression-free survival was 8.2 months (95% CI, 6.0 to 11.9), and median overall survival was 17.8 months (95% CI, 13.8 to 22.1). The safety profile was generally consistent with those from previous studies; grade 3 or higher drug-related adverse events occurred in 46% of patients, the most common event being neutropenia (in 19%). Adjudicated drug-related interstitial lung disease occurred in 26% of patients and resulted in death in 2 patients. Responses were observed across different mutation subtypes, as well as in patients with no detectable HER2 expression or amplification.

Conclusions: Trastuzumab deruxtecan showed durable anticancer activity in patients with previously treated -mutant NSCLC. The safety profile included interstitial lung disease that was fatal in two cases. Observed toxic effects were generally consistent with those in previously reported studies. (Funded by Daiichi Sankyo and AstraZeneca; DESTINY-Lung01 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03505710.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2112431DOI Listing
September 2021

RELAY Subgroup Analyses by EGFR Ex19del and Ex21L858R Mutations for Ramucirumab Plus Erlotinib in Metastatic Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

Clin Cancer Res 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Lilly Oncology, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Purpose: In -mutated metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), outcomes from EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors have differed historically by mutation type present, with lower benefit reported in patients with ex21L858R versus ex19del mutations. We investigated if -activating mutation subtypes impact treatment outcomes in the phase III RELAY study. Associations between mutation type and preexisting co-occurring and treatment-emergent genetic alterations were also explored.

Materials And Methods: Patients with metastatic NSCLC, an ex19del or ex21L858R mutation, and no central nervous system metastases were randomized (1:1) to erlotinib (150 mg/day) with either ramucirumab (10 mg/kg; RAM+ERL) or placebo (PBO+ERL), every 2 weeks, until RECIST v1.1-defined progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary and exploratory endpoints included overall response rate (ORR), duration of response (DOR), PFS2, time-to-chemotherapy (TTCT), safety, and next-generation sequencing analyses.

Results: Patients with ex19del and ex21L858R mutations had similar clinical characteristics and comutational profiles. One-year PFS rates for ex19del patients were 74% for RAM+ERL versus 54% for PBO+ERL; for ex21L858R rates were 70% (RAM+ERL) versus 47% (PBO+ERL). Similar treatment benefits (ORR, DOR, PFS2, and TTCT) were observed in RAM+ERL-treated patients with ex19del and ex21L858R. Baseline comutation was associated with superior outcomes for RAM+ERL in both ex19del and ex21L858R subgroups. mutation rate at progression was similar between treatment arms and by mutation type.

Conclusions: RAM+ERL provided significant clinical benefit for both ex19del and ex21L858R NSCLC, supporting this regimen as suitable for patients with either of these mutation types.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-21-0273DOI Listing
July 2021

LungBEAM: A prospective multicenter study to monitor stage IV NSCLC patients with EGFR mutations using BEAMing technology.

Cancer Med 2021 Sep 23;10(17):5878-5888. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Medical Oncology Department, Hospital Universitario Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain.

Objectives: The aim of LungBEAM was to determine the value of a novel epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation test in blood based on BEAMing technology to predict disease progression in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with first- or second-generation EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs). Another goal was to monitor the dynamics of EGFR mutations, as well as to track EGFR exon 20 p.T790M (p.T790M) resistance during treatment, as critical indicators of therapeutic efficacy and patient survival.

Methods: Stage IV NSCLC patients with locally confirmed EGFR-TKI sensitizing mutations (ex19del and/or L858R) in biopsy tissue who were candidates to receive first- or second-generation EGFR-TKI as first-line therapy were included. Plasma samples were obtained at baseline and every 4 weeks during treatment until a progression-free survival (PFS) event or until study completion (72-week follow-up). The mutant allele fraction (MAF) was determined for each identified mutation using BEAMing.

Results: A total of 68 of the 110 (61.8%) patients experienced a PFS event. Twenty-six patients (23.6%) presented with an emergent p.T790M mutation in plasma at some point during follow-up, preceding radiologic progression with a median of 76 (interquartile ratio: 54-111) days. Disease progression correlated with the appearance of p.T790M in plasma with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.94 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.48-2.54; p < 0.001). The HR for progression in patients showing increasing plasma sensitizing mutation levels (positive MAF slope) versus patients showing either decreasing or unchanged plasma mutation levels (negative or null MAF slopes) was 3.85 (95% CI, 2.01-7.36; p < 0.001).

Conclusion: Detection and quantification of EGFR mutations in circulating tumor DNA using the highly sensitive BEAMing method should greatly assist in optimizing treatment decisions for advanced NSCLC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.4135DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8419773PMC
September 2021

Outcomes With Pembrolizumab Plus Platinum-Based Chemotherapy for Patients With Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer and Stable Brain Metastases: Pooled Analysis of KEYNOTE-021, 189, and 407.

J Thorac Oncol 2021 Jul 12. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan, Italy.

Introduction: This exploratory analysis retrospectively evaluated outcomes in patients with advanced NSCLC to determine whether baseline brain metastases influenced the efficacy of first-line pembrolizumab plus chemotherapy versus chemotherapy alone.

Patients And Methods: We pooled data for patients with advanced NSCLC in KEYNOTE-021 cohort G (nonsquamous), KEYNOTE-189 (nonsquamous), and KEYNOTE-407 (squamous). Patients were assigned to platinum-doublet chemotherapy with or without the addition of 35 cycles of pembrolizumab 200 mg every 3 weeks. All studies permitted enrollment of patients with previously treated or untreated (KEYNOTE-189/KEYNOTE-407 only) stable brain metastases. Patients with previously treated brain metastases were clinically stable for ≥2 weeks (≥4 weeks in KEYNOTE-021 cohort G), had no evidence of new or enlarging brain metastases, and had no steroid use ≥3 days before dosing. Patients with known untreated asymptomatic brain metastases required regular imaging of the brain.

Results: 1298 patients were included, 171 with and 1127 without baseline brain metastases. Median (range) durations of follow-up at data cutoff were 10.9 (0.1‒35.1) and 11.0 (0.1‒34.9) months, respectively. Hazard ratios (pembrolizumab plus chemotherapy/chemotherapy) were similar for patients with and without brain metastases for overall survival (0.48 [95% CI, 0.32‒0.70] and 0.63 [95% CI, 0.53‒0.75], respectively) and progression-free survival (0.44 [95% CI, 0.31‒0.62] and 0.55 [95% CI, 0.48‒0.63], respectively). In patients with brain metastases, median overall survival was 18.8 months with pembrolizumab plus chemotherapy and 7.6 months with chemotherapy, and median progression-free survival was 6.9 months and 4.1 months, respectively. Objective response rates were higher and duration of response longer with pembrolizumab plus chemotherapy versus chemotherapy regardless of brain metastasis status. Incidences of treatment-related adverse events with pembrolizumab plus chemotherapy versus chemotherapy were 88.2% versus 82.8% among patients with brain metastases and 94.5% versus 90.6% in those without.

Conclusion: With or without brain metastasis, pembrolizumab plus platinum-based histology-specific chemotherapy improved clinical outcomes versus chemotherapy alone across all PD-L1 subgroups, including patients with PD-L1 tumor proportion score <1%, and had a manageable safety profile in patients with advanced NSCLC. This regimen is a standard-of-care treatment option for treatment-naïve patients with advanced NSCLC, including patients with stable brain metastases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtho.2021.06.020DOI Listing
July 2021

Pralsetinib for RET fusion-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (ARROW): a multi-cohort, open-label, phase 1/2 study.

Lancet Oncol 2021 07 9;22(7):959-969. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Investigational Cancer Therapeutics, Division of Cancer Medicine, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.

Background: Oncogenic alterations in RET have been identified in multiple tumour types, including 1-2% of non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). We aimed to assess the safety, tolerability, and antitumour activity of pralsetinib, a highly potent, oral, selective RET inhibitor, in patients with RET fusion-positive NSCLC.

Methods: ARROW is a multi-cohort, open-label, phase 1/2 study done at 71 sites (community and academic cancer centres) in 13 countries (Belgium, China, France, Germany, Hong Kong, Italy, Netherlands, Singapore, South Korea, Spain, Taiwan, the UK, and the USA). Patients aged 18 years or older with locally advanced or metastatic solid tumours, including RET fusion-positive NSCLC, and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-2 (later limited to 0-1 in a protocol amendment) were enrolled. In phase 2, patients received 400 mg once-daily oral pralsetinib, and could continue treatment until disease progression, intolerance, withdrawal of consent, or investigator decision. Phase 2 primary endpoints were overall response rate (according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours version 1·1 and assessed by blinded independent central review) and safety. Tumour response was assessed in patients with RET fusion-positive NSCLC and centrally adjudicated baseline measurable disease who had received platinum-based chemotherapy or were treatment-naive because they were ineligible for standard therapy. This ongoing study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03037385, and enrolment of patients with treatment-naive RET fusion-positive NSCLC was ongoing at the time of this interim analysis.

Findings: Of 233 patients with RET fusion-positive NSCLC enrolled between March 17, 2017, and May 22, 2020 (data cutoff), 92 with previous platinum-based chemotherapy and 29 who were treatment-naive received pralsetinib before July 11, 2019 (efficacy enrolment cutoff); 87 previously treated patients and 27 treatment-naive patients had centrally adjudicated baseline measurable disease. Overall responses were recorded in 53 (61%; 95% CI 50-71) of 87 patients with previous platinum-based chemotherapy, including five (6%) patients with a complete response; and 19 (70%; 50-86) of 27 treatment-naive patients, including three (11%) with a complete response. In 233 patients with RET fusion-positive NSCLC, common grade 3 or worse treatment-related adverse events were neutropenia (43 patients [18%]), hypertension (26 [11%]), and anaemia (24 [10%]); there were no treatment-related deaths in this population.

Interpretation: Pralsetinib is a new, well-tolerated, promising, once-daily oral treatment option for patients with RET fusion-positive NSCLC.

Funding: Blueprint Medicines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(21)00247-3DOI Listing
July 2021

Predicting immunotherapy outcomes under therapy in patients with advanced NSCLC using dNLR and its early dynamics.

Eur J Cancer 2021 Jul 19;151:211-220. Epub 2021 May 19.

Department Pulmonology, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

Background: dNLR at the baseline (B), defined by neutrophils/[leucocytes-neutrophils], correlates with immune-checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) outcomes in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (aNSCLC). However, dNLR is dynamic under therapy and its longitudinal assessment may provide data predicting efficacy. We sought to examine the impact of dNLR dynamics on ICI efficacy and understand its biological significance.

Patients And Methods: aNSCLC patients receiving ICI at 17 EU/US centres were included [Feb/13-Jun/18]. As chemotherapy-only group was evaluated (NCT02105168). dNLR was determined at (B) and at cycle2 (C2) [dNLR≤3 = low]. B+C2 dNLR were combined in one score: good = low (B+C2), poor = high (B+C2), intermediate = other situations. In 57 patients, we prospectively explored the immunophenotype of circulating neutrophils, particularly the CD15+CD244-CD16cells (immature) by flow cytometry.

Results: About 1485 patients treatment with ICI were analysed. In ICI-treated patients, high dNLR (B) (~1/3rd) associated with worse progression-free (PFS)/overall survival (OS) (HR 1.56/HR 2.02, P < 0.0001) but not with chemotherapy alone (N = 173). High dNLR at C2 was associated with worse PFS/OS (HR 1.64/HR 2.15, P < 0.0001). When dNLR at both time points were considered together, those with persistently high dNLR (23%) had poor survival (mOS = 5 months (mo)), compared with high dNLR at one time point (22%; mOS = 9.2mo) and persistently low dNLR (55%; mOS = 18.6mo) (P < 0.0001). The dNLR impact remained significant after PD-L1 adjustment. By cytometry, high rate of immature neutrophils (B) (30/57) correlated with poor PFS/OS (P = 0.04; P = 0.0007), with a 12-week death rate of 49%.

Conclusion: The dNLR (B) and its dynamics (C2) under ICI associate with ICI outcomes in aNSCLC. Persistently high dNLR (B+C2) correlated with early ICI failure. Immature neutrophils may be a key subpopulation on ICI resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2021.03.011DOI Listing
July 2021

Tumor mutational burden assessment in non-small-cell lung cancer samples: results from the TMB harmonization project comparing three NGS panels.

J Immunother Cancer 2021 May;9(5)

H12O-CNIO Lung Cancer Clinical Research Unit, Health Research Institute Hospital 12 de Octubre (imas12) / Spanish National Cancer Research Center (CNIO), Madrid, Spain.

Background: Tumor mutational burden (TMB) is a recently proposed predictive biomarker for immunotherapy in solid tumors, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Available assays for TMB determination differ in horizontal coverage, gene content and algorithms, leading to discrepancies in results, impacting patient selection. A harmonization study of TMB assessment with available assays in a cohort of patients with NSCLC is urgently needed.

Methods: We evaluated the TMB assessment obtained with two marketed next generation sequencing panels: TruSight Oncology 500 (TSO500) and Oncomine Tumor Mutation Load (OTML) versus a reference assay (Foundation One, FO) in 96 NSCLC samples. Additionally, we studied the level of agreement among the three methods with respect to PD-L1 expression in tumors, checked the level of different immune infiltrates versus TMB, and performed an inter-laboratory reproducibility study. Finally, adjusted cut-off values were determined.

Results: Both panels showed strong agreement with FO, with concordance correlation coefficients (CCC) of 0.933 (95% CI 0.908 to 0.959) for TSO500 and 0.881 (95% CI 0.840 to 0.922) for OTML. The corresponding CCCs were 0.951 (TSO500-FO) and 0.919 (OTML-FO) in tumors with <1% of cells expressing PD-L1 (PD-L1<1%; N55), and 0.861 (TSO500-FO) and 0.722 (OTML-FO) in tumors with PD-L1≥1% (N=41). Inter-laboratory reproducibility analyses showed higher reproducibility with TSO500. No significant differences were found in terms of immune infiltration versus TMB. Adjusted cut-off values corresponding to 10 muts/Mb with FO needed to be lowered to 7.847 muts/Mb (TSO500) and 8.380 muts/Mb (OTML) to ensure a sensitivity >88%. With these cut-offs, the positive predictive value was 78.57% (95% CI 67.82 to 89.32) and the negative predictive value was 87.50% (95% CI 77.25 to 97.75) for TSO500, while for OTML they were 73.33% (95% CI 62.14 to 84.52) and 86.11% (95% CI 74.81 to 97.41), respectively.

Conclusions: Both panels exhibited robust analytical performances for TMB assessment, with stronger concordances in patients with negative PD-L1 expression. TSO500 showed a higher inter-laboratory reproducibility. The cut-offs for each assay were lowered to optimal overlap with FO.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jitc-2020-001904DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8108670PMC
May 2021

Incidence of venous thromboembolism in patients with non-hematological cancer admitted for COVID-19 at a third-level hospital in Madrid.

J Thromb Thrombolysis 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, Avenida Cordoba S/N 28041, Madrid, Spain.

An increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 has been reported. We aimed to describe the incidence rate of VTE on patients with non-hematological cancer who required hospitalization due to COVID-19 at our center. In this prospective study, non-hematological cancer patients hospitalized for confirmed COVID-19 at our institution from 1st March to 30th April 2020, were evaluated daily for VTE complications during their hospital stay, and after discharge until 30th June 2020. Furthermore, Doppler ultrasound of lower limbs was routinely performed in asymptomatic patients based on D-dimer levels and current active cancer therapy. The primary outcome of this study was the cumulative incidence of VTE. Secondary outcomes were the cumulative incidence of bleeding and mortality. A total of 58 hospitalized non-hematological cancer patients and confirmed COVID-19 were identified. Median follow-up since initial symptoms of COVID-19 was 91 days (IQR 19-104). Pulmonary embolism was diagnosed in three (5%) patients. Symptomatic catheter-related deep vein thrombosis (DVT) was observed in one patient. Doppler ultrasound of lower limbs was done in 11 asymptomatic patients, showing distal DVT in two of them (18%). The cumulative incidence of VTE on day 14 after admission was 10%, without new VTE events after hospital discharge and up to 90 days follow-up. No bleeding complication was observed. Seventeen patients (29%) died in the first 14 days after COVID-19 diagnosis. Four patients died after discharge due to malignancy progression. The cumulative incidence of VTE in non-hematological cancer patients under active treatment was 10% at day 14 after admission, with no further new events in the following 12 weeks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11239-021-02448-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8061713PMC
April 2021

First-line durvalumab plus platinum-etoposide in extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer: CASPIAN Japan subgroup analysis.

Int J Clin Oncol 2021 Jun 7;26(6):1073-1082. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Internal Medicine, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume, Japan.

Background: In the phase 3 CASPIAN study (NCT03043872), first-line durvalumab plus etoposide and cisplatin or carboplatin (EP) significantly improved OS versus EP alone in patients with extensive-stage (ES)-SCLC (HR 0.73 [95% CI 0.59-0.91; p = 0.0047]). Here we report results for a preplanned subgroup analysis of patients recruited in Japan.

Methods: Treatment-naïve patients with ES-SCLC received either 4 cycles of durvalumab 1500 mg plus EP q3w followed by maintenance durvalumab 1500 mg q4w until disease progression or up to 6 cycles of EP q3w. The primary endpoint was OS. Secondary endpoints included progression-free survival (PFS), objective response rate (ORR), safety, and tolerability.

Results: In the Japan subgroup, 18 patients were randomized to durvalumab plus EP and 16 patients to EP. At the interim analysis with a median follow-up of 12.5 months in the subgroup, OS numerically favored durvalumab plus EP versus EP (HR 0.77 [95% CI 0.26‒2.26]; median not reached vs 15.2 months). PFS was similar for durvalumab plus EP versus EP (HR 0.90 [95% CI 0.43‒1.89]). Confirmed ORR was 89% with durvalumab plus EP versus 69% with EP. Adverse events (AEs) of CTCAE grade 3 or 4 were reported in 78% versus 94% of patients in the durvalumab plus EP versus EP arms. There were no AEs leading to treatment discontinuation or death in the Japan subgroup.

Conclusion: First-line durvalumab plus EP was effective and well tolerated in Japanese patients with ES-SCLC. Despite the small size of the Japan subgroup, results were generally consistent with the global study population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10147-021-01899-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8134304PMC
June 2021

PD-(L)1 Inhibitors as Monotherapy for the First-Line Treatment of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Patients with High PD-L1 Expression: A Network Meta-Analysis.

J Clin Med 2021 Mar 26;10(7). Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Medical Oncology, Hospital 12 de Octubre, 28041 Madrid, Spain.

Programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) has emerged as a potential biomarker for selection of patients more likely to respond to immunotherapy and as a prognostic factor in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In this network meta-analysis, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of first-line anti-PD-(L)1 monotherapy in advanced NSCLC patients with high PD-L1 expression (≥50%) compared to platinum-based chemotherapy. We also evaluated efficacy outcomes according to tumor mutational burden (TMB). To that end, we conducted a systematic review. Six clinical trials with 2111 patients were included. In head-to-head comparisons, immunotherapy showed a significant improvement in progression-free survival (PFS: HR = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.52-0.90, = 0.007), overall survival (OS: HR = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.61-0.78; < 0.001) and overall response rate (ORR) (Risk ratio (RR) = 1.354, 95% CI: 1.04-1.762, = 0.024). In the assessment of relative efficacy for PFS through indirect comparisons, pembrolizumab (results from KEYNOTE-024) ranked highest followed by cemiplimab and atezolizumab, with statistical significance determined for some of the drugs. In terms of OS, cemiplimab ranked highest followed by atezolizumab and pembrolizumab, although non-significant OS was determined for these drugs. In conclusion, PD-(L)1 inhibitor monotherapy improves efficacy outcomes in the first line setting of advanced NSCLC patients with high PD-L1 expression. Evaluations with longer follow up are still needed to determine the superiority of any specific drug.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10071365DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8036854PMC
March 2021

Tumor-Stromal Interactions in a Co-Culture Model of Human Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Cells and Fibroblasts and Their Connection with Tumor Spread.

Biomedicines 2021 Mar 31;9(4). Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Laboratory of Clinical and Translational Oncology, Instituto de Investigación Hospital 12 de Octubre (i+12), Av. de Córdoba S/N, 28041 Madrid, Spain.

One key feature of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a dense desmoplastic reaction that has been recognized as playing important roles in metastasis and therapeutic resistance. We aim to study tumor-stromal interactions in an in vitro coculture model between human PDAC cells (Capan-1 or PL-45) and fibroblasts (LC5). Confocal immunofluorescence, Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), and Western blotting were used to evaluate the expressions of activation markers; cytokines arrays were performed to identify secretome profiles associated with migratory and invasive properties of tumor cells; extracellular vesicle production was examined by ELISA and transmission electron microscopy. Coculture conditions increased FGF-7 secretion and α-SMA expression, characterized by fibroblast activation and decreased epithelial marker E-cadherin in tumor cells. Interestingly, tumor cells and fibroblasts migrate together, with tumor cells in forming a center surrounded by fibroblasts, maximizing the contact between cells. We show a different mechanism for tumor spread through a cooperative migration between tumor cells and activated fibroblasts. Furthermore, IL-6 levels change significantly in coculture conditions, and this could affect the invasive and migratory capacities of cells. Targeting the interaction between tumor cells and the tumor microenvironment might represent a novel therapeutic approach to advanced PDAC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9040364DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8065458PMC
March 2021

Identification of Predictive Biomarkers of Response to HSP90 Inhibitors in Lung Adenocarcinoma.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 3;22(5). Epub 2021 Mar 3.

CIBERONC, Respiratory Tract Tumors Program, 28029 Madrid, Spain.

Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) plays an essential role in lung adenocarcinoma, acting as a key chaperone involved in the correct functioning of numerous highly relevant protein drivers of this disease. To this end, HSP90 inhibitors have emerged as promising therapeutic strategies, even though responses to them have been limited to date. Given the need to maximize treatment efficacy, the objective of this study was to use isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based proteomic techniques to identify proteins in human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines whose basal abundances were correlated with response to HSP90 inhibitors (geldanamycin and radicicol derivatives). From the protein profiles identified according to response, the relationship between lactate dehydrogenase B (LDHB) and DNA topoisomerase 1 (TOP1) with respect to sensitivity and resistance, respectively, to geldanamycin derivatives is noteworthy. Likewise, rhotekin (RTKN) and decaprenyl diphosphate synthase subunit 2 (PDSS2) were correlated with sensitivity and resistance to radicicol derivatives. We also identified a relationship between resistance to HSP90 inhibition and the p53 pathway by glucose deprivation. In contrast, arginine biosynthesis was correlated with sensitivity to HSP90 inhibitors. Further study of these outcomes could enable the development of strategies to improve the clinical efficacy of HSP90 inhibition in patients with lung adenocarcinoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22052538DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7962034PMC
March 2021

An Fc-free EGFR-specific 4-1BB-agonistic Trimerbody Displays Broad Antitumor Activity in Humanized Murine Cancer Models without Toxicity.

Clin Cancer Res 2021 Jun 30;27(11):3167-3177. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Immunotherapy and Cell Engineering Laboratory, Department of Engineering, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.

Purpose: The induction of 4-1BB signaling by agonistic antibodies can drive the activation and proliferation of effector T cells and thereby enhance a T-cell-mediated antitumor response. Systemic administration of anti-4-1BB-agonistic IgGs, although effective preclinically, has not advanced in clinical development due to their severe hepatotoxicity.

Experimental Design: Here, we generated a humanized EGFR-specific 4-1BB-agonistic trimerbody, which replaces the IgG Fc region with a human collagen homotrimerization domain. It was characterized by structural analysis and functional studies. We also assessed pharmacokinetics, antitumor efficacy, and toxicity .

Results: In the presence of a T-cell receptor signal, the trimerbody provided potent T-cell costimulation that was strictly dependent on 4-1BB hyperclustering at the point of contact with a tumor antigen-displaying cell surface. It exhibits significant antitumor activity , without hepatotoxicity, in a wide range of human tumors including colorectal and breast cancer cell-derived xenografts, and non-small cell lung cancer patient-derived xenografts associated with increased tumor-infiltrating CD8 T cells. The combination of the trimerbody with a PD-L1 blocker led to increased IFNγ secretion and resulted in tumor regression in humanized mice bearing aggressive triple-negative breast cancer.

Conclusions: These results demonstrate the nontoxic broad antitumor activity of humanized Fc-free tumor-specific 4-1BB-agonistic trimerbodies and their synergy with checkpoint blockers, which may provide a way to elicit responses in most patients with cancer while avoiding Fc-mediated adverse reactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-20-4625DOI Listing
June 2021

Response to: Bintrafusp Alfa in Second-Line Treatment of Patients With NSCLC.

Authors:
Luis Paz-Ares

J Thorac Oncol 2021 04;16(4):e24

HI2O-CNIO Haematological Malignancies Clinical Research Unit (Hospital Universitario 12, de Octubre-CNIO), Universidad Complutense & Ciberonc, Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtho.2021.01.1608DOI Listing
April 2021

Lurbinectedin in the treatment of relapsed small cell lung cancer.

Future Oncol 2021 Jun 19;17(18):2279-2289. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Medical Oncology, Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, Madrid, 28041, Spain.

Lurbinectedin is a marine-derived drug that inhibits transcription, a process that is frequently dysregulated in small cell lung cancer. The activity of lurbinectedin has been studied in many solid tumors, showing not only promising results but also a favorable safety profile. In relapsed small cell lung cancer, the drug has shown encouraging activity both as a single agent and in combination with doxorubicin, paclitaxel or irinotecan. The USA FDA has recently granted accelerated approval to lurbinectedin monotherapy in this setting. This article provides an update on available data and ongoing studies of lurbinectedin in small cell lung cancer, including Phase I combination trials, the basket Phase II trial and the ATLANTIS Phase III trial.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/fon-2020-1212DOI Listing
June 2021

Combination treatment options for small-cell lung cancer - Authors' reply.

Lancet Oncol 2021 03;22(3):e84

Department of Medical Oncology, Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, H120-CNIO Lung Cancer Unit, Universidad Complutense and Ciberonc, Madrid 28041, Spain. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(21)00083-8DOI Listing
March 2021

Patient-reported outcomes with durvalumab by PD-L1 expression and prior chemoradiotherapy-related variables in unresectable stage III non-small-cell lung cancer.

Future Oncol 2021 Apr 15;17(10):1165-1184. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center & Research Institute, Tampa, FL 33612, USA.

We retrospectively investigated the impact of tumor PD-L1 expression and prior chemoradiotherapy (CRT)-related variables on patient-reported outcomes (PROs) from PACIFIC. PACIFIC was a Phase III study of durvalumab versus placebo after CRT in patients with unresectable, stage III non-small-cell lung cancer. If available, pre-CRT tumor tissue was tested for PD-L1 tumor-cell expression, scored at prespecified (25%) and (1%) cut-offs. PROs were assessed using EORTC QLQ C30/-LC13. Similar to the intent-to-treat (ITT) population, most PROs remained stable over time across PD-L1 and CRT subgroups, with few clinically relevant differences between treatment arms. Time to deterioration was generally similar to the ITT population. Neither PD-L1 expression nor prior CRT-related variables influenced PROs with durvalumab therapy. NCT02125461 (ClinicalTrials.gov).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/fon-2020-1102DOI Listing
April 2021

Bringing Greater Accuracy to Europe's Healthcare Systems: The Unexploited Potential of Biomarker Testing in Oncology.

Biomed Hub 2020 Sep-Dec;5(3):182-223. Epub 2020 Sep 14.

Digestive Cancers Europe, Brussels, Belgium.

Rapid and continuing advances in biomarker testing are not being matched by take-up in health systems, and this is hampering both patient care and innovation. It also risks costing health systems the opportunity to make their services more efficient and, over time, more economical. This paper sets out the potential of biomarker testing, the unfolding precision and range of possible diagnosis and prediction, and the many obstacles to adoption. It offers case studies of biomarker testing in breast, ovarian, prostate, lung, thyroid and colon cancers, and derives specific lessons as to the potential and actual use of each of them. It also draws lessons about how to improve access and alignment, and to remedy the data deficiencies that impede development. And it suggests solutions to outstanding issues - notably including funding and the tangled web of obtaining reimbursement or equivalent coverage that Europe's fragmented health system implies. It urges a European evolution towards an initial minimum testing scenario, which would guarantee universal access to a suite of biomarker tests for the currently most common conditions, and, further into the future, to an optimum testing scenario in which a much wider range of biomarker tests would be introduced and become part of a more sophisticated health system articulated around personalised medicine. For exploiting genomics to the full, it argues the need for a new policy framework for Europe. Biomarker testing is not an issue that can be treated in isolation, since the purpose of testing is to improve health. Its use is therefore always closely linked to specific health challenges and needs to be viewed in the broader policy context in the EU and more widely. The paper is the result of extensive engagement with experts and decision makers to develop the framework, and consequently represents a wide consensus of views on how healthcare systems should respond from push and pull factors at local, national and cross-border and EU level. It contains strong views and clear recommendations springing from the convictions of patients, clinicians, academics, medicines authorities, HTA bodies, payers, the diagnostic, pharmaceutical and ICT industries, and national policy makers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000511209DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7841733PMC
September 2020

Four-Year Survival With Durvalumab After Chemoradiotherapy in Stage III NSCLC-an Update From the PACIFIC Trial.

J Thorac Oncol 2021 05 19;16(5):860-867. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Department of Thoracic Oncology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida.

Introduction: In the Phase 3, placebo-controlled PACIFIC trial of patients with unresectable, stage III NSCLC without disease progression after concurrent chemoradiotherapy, consolidative durvalumab was associated with significant improvements in the primary end points of overall survival (OS) (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.68; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.53-0.87; p = 0.00251; data cutoff, March 22, 2018) and progression-free survival (PFS) (blinded independent central review; Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors version 1.1) (HR = 0.52; 95% CI: 0.42-65; p < 0.0001; February 13, 2017) with manageable safety. Here, we report updated analyses of OS and PFS, approximately 4 years after the last patient was randomized.

Methods: Patients with WHO performance status of 0 or 1 (and any tumor programmed death-ligand 1 status) were randomized (2:1) to intravenous durvalumab (10 mg/kg) or placebo, administered every 2 weeks (≤12 months), stratified by age, sex, and smoking history. OS and PFS were analyzed using a stratified log-rank test in the intent-to-treat population. Medians and 4-year OS and PFS rates were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method.

Results: Overall, 709 of 713 randomized patients received durvalumab (n/N=473/476) or placebo (n/N=236/237). As of March 20, 2020 (median follow-up = 34.2 months; range: 0.2-64.9), updated OS (HR = 0.71; 95% CI: 0.57-0.88) and PFS (HR = 0.55; 95% CI: 0.44-0.67) remained consistent with the primary analyses. The median OS for durvalumab was reached (47.5 mo; placebo, 29.1 months). Estimated 4-year OS rates were 49.6% versus 36.3% for durvalumab versus placebo, and 4-year PFS rates were 35.3% versus 19.5% respectively.

Conclusion: These updated exploratory analyses demonstrate durable PFS and sustained OS benefit with durvalumab after chemoradiotherapy. An estimated 49.6% of patients randomized to durvalumab remain alive at 4 years (placebo, 36.3%), and 35.3% remain alive and progression-free (placebo, 19.5%).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtho.2020.12.015DOI Listing
May 2021

First-line nivolumab plus ipilimumab combined with two cycles of chemotherapy in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (CheckMate 9LA): an international, randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial.

Lancet Oncol 2021 02 18;22(2):198-211. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Department of Thoracic Oncology, Airway Research Center North, German Center for Lung Research, LungClinic, Grosshansdorf, Germany.

Background: First-line nivolumab plus ipilimumab has shown improved overall survival in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We aimed to investigate whether the addition of a limited course (two cycles) of chemotherapy to this combination would further enhance the clinical benefit.

Methods: This randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial was done at 103 hospitals in 19 countries. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older with treatment-naive, histologically confirmed stage IV or recurrent NSCLC, and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-1. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) by an interactive web response system via permuted blocks (block size of four) to nivolumab (360 mg intravenously every 3 weeks) plus ipilimumab (1 mg/kg intravenously every 6 weeks) combined with histology-based, platinum doublet chemotherapy (intravenously every 3 weeks for two cycles; experimental group), or chemotherapy alone (every 3 weeks for four cycles; control group). Randomisation was stratified by tumour histology, sex, and PD-L1 expression. The primary endpoint was overall survival in all randomly assigned patients. Safety was analysed in all treated patients. Results reported here are from a pre-planned interim analysis (when the study met its primary endpoint) and an exploratory longer-term follow-up analysis. This study is active but no longer recruiting patients, and is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT03215706.

Findings: Between Aug 24, 2017, and Jan 30, 2019, 1150 patients were enrolled and 719 (62·5%) randomly assigned to nivolumab plus ipilimumab with two cycles of chemotherapy (n=361 [50%]) or four cycles of chemotherapy alone (n=358 [50%]). At the pre-planned interim analysis (median follow-up 9·7 months [IQR 6·4-12·8]), overall survival in all randomly assigned patients was significantly longer in the experimental group than in the control group (median 14·1 months [95% CI 13·2-16·2] vs 10·7 months [9·5-12·4]; hazard ratio [HR] 0·69 [96·71% CI 0·55-0·87]; p=0·00065). With 3·5 months longer median follow-up (median 13·2 months [IQR 6·4-17·0]), median overall survival was 15·6 months (95% CI 13·9-20·0) in the experimental group versus 10·9 months (9·5-12·6) in the control group (HR 0·66 [95% CI 0·55-0·80]). The most common grade 3-4 treatment-related adverse events were neutropenia (in 24 [7%] patients in the experimental group vs 32 [9%] in the control group), anaemia (21 [6%] vs 50 [14%]), diarrhoea (14 [4%] vs two [1%]), increased lipase (22 [6%] vs three [1%]), and asthenia (tjree [1%] vs eight [2%]). Serious treatment-related adverse events of any grade occurred in 106 (30%) patients in the experimental group and 62 (18%) in the control group. Seven (2%) deaths in the experimental group (acute kidney failure, diarrhoea, hepatotoxicity, hepatitis, pneumonitis, sepsis with acute renal insufficiency, and thrombocytopenia; one patient each) and six (2%) deaths in the control group (anaemia, febrile neutropenia, pancytopenia, pulmonary sepsis, respiratory failure, and sepsis; one patient each) were treatment related.

Interpretation: Nivolumab plus ipilimumab with two cycles of chemotherapy provided a significant improvement in overall survival versus chemotherapy alone and had a favourable risk-benefit profile. These data support this regimen as a new first-line treatment option for patients with advanced NSCLC.

Funding: Bristol Myers Squibb.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(20)30641-0DOI Listing
February 2021

Impact of prior chemoradiotherapy-related variables on outcomes with durvalumab in unresectable Stage III NSCLC (PACIFIC).

Lung Cancer 2021 01 26;151:30-38. Epub 2020 Nov 26.

H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, FL, USA.

Introduction: The PACIFIC trial demonstrated that durvalumab significantly improved progression-free and overall survival (PFS/OS), versus placebo, in patients with Stage III NSCLC and stable or responding disease following concurrent, platinum-based chemoradiotherapy (CRT). A range of CT and RT regimens were permitted, and used, in the trial. We report post-hoc, exploratory analyses of clinical outcomes from PACIFIC according to CRT-related variables.

Methods: Patients were randomized 2:1 (1-42 days post-CRT) to up to 12 months durvalumab (10 mg/kg intravenously every 2 weeks) or placebo. Efficacy and safety were analyzed in patient subgroups defined by the following baseline variables: platinum-based CT (cisplatin/carboplatin); vinorelbine, etoposide, or taxane-based CT (all yes/no); total RT dose (<60 Gy/60-66 Gy/>66 Gy); time from last RT dose to randomization (<14 days/≥14 days); and use of pre-CRT induction CT (yes/no). Treatment effects for time-to-event endpoints were estimated by hazard ratios (HRs) from unstratified Cox-proportional-hazards models.

Results: Overall, 713 patients were randomized, of whom 709 received treatment in either the durvalumab (n/N = 473/476) or placebo arms (n/N = 236/237). Durvalumab improved PFS, versus placebo, across all subgroups (median follow up, 14.5 months; HR range, 0.34-0.63). Durvalumab improved OS across most subgroups (median follow up, 25.2 months; HR range, 0.35-0.86); however, the 95 % confidence interval (CI) of the estimated treatment effect crossed one for the subgroups of patients who received induction CT (HR, 0.78 [95 % CI, 0.51-1.20]); carboplatin (0.86 [0.60-1.23]); vinorelbine (0.79 [0.49-1.27]); and taxane-based CT (0.73 [0.51-1.04]); and patients who were randomized ≥14 days post-RT (0.81 [0.62-1.06]). Safety was broadly similar across the CRT subgroups.

Conclusion: Durvalumab prolonged PFS and OS irrespective of treatment variables related to prior CRT to which patients with Stage III NSCLC had previously stabilized or responded. Limited patient numbers and imbalances in baseline factors in each subgroup preclude robust conclusions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lungcan.2020.11.024DOI Listing
January 2021

Durvalumab, with or without tremelimumab, plus platinum-etoposide versus platinum-etoposide alone in first-line treatment of extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer (CASPIAN): updated results from a randomised, controlled, open-label, phase 3 trial.

Lancet Oncol 2021 01 4;22(1):51-65. Epub 2020 Dec 4.

Department of Medical Oncology, Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, H120-CNIO Lung Cancer Unit, Universidad Complutense and Ciberonc, Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

Background: First-line durvalumab plus etoposide with either cisplatin or carboplatin (platinum-etoposide) showed a significant improvement in overall survival versus platinum-etoposide alone in patients with extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer (ES-SCLC) in the CASPIAN study. Here we report updated results, including the primary analysis for overall survival with durvalumab plus tremelimumab plus platinum-etoposide versus platinum-etoposide alone.

Methods: CASPIAN is an ongoing, open-label, sponsor-blind, randomised, controlled phase 3 trial at 209 cancer treatment centres in 23 countries worldwide. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older (20 years in Japan) and had treatment-naive, histologically or cytologically documented ES-SCLC, with a WHO performance status of 0 or 1. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1:1) in blocks of six, stratified by planned platinum, using an interactive voice-response or web-response system to receive intravenous durvalumab plus tremelimumab plus platinum-etoposide, durvalumab plus platinum-etoposide, or platinum-etoposide alone. In all groups, patients received etoposide 80-100 mg/m on days 1-3 of each cycle with investigator's choice of either carboplatin area under the curve 5-6 mg/mL/min or cisplatin 75-80 mg/m on day 1 of each cycle. Patients in the platinum-etoposide group received up to six cycles of platinum-etoposide every 3 weeks and optional prophylactic cranial irradiation (investigator's discretion). Patients in the immunotherapy groups received four cycles of platinum-etoposide plus durvalumab 1500 mg with or without tremelimumab 75 mg every 3 weeks followed by maintenance durvalumab 1500 mg every 4 weeks. The two primary endpoints were overall survival for durvalumab plus platinum-etoposide versus platinum-etoposide and for durvalumab plus tremelimumab plus platinum-etoposide versus platinum-etoposide in the intention-to-treat population. Safety was assessed in all patients who received at least one dose of study treatment. This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03043872.

Findings: Between March 27, 2017, and May 29, 2018, 972 patients were screened and 805 were randomly assigned (268 to durvalumab plus tremelimumab plus platinum-etoposide, 268 to durvalumab plus platinum-etoposide, and 269 to platinum-etoposide). As of Jan 27, 2020, the median follow-up was 25·1 months (IQR 22·3-27·9). Durvalumab plus tremelimumab plus platinum-etoposide was not associated with a significant improvement in overall survival versus platinum-etoposide (hazard ratio [HR] 0·82 [95% CI 0·68-1·00]; p=0·045); median overall survival was 10·4 months (95% CI 9·6-12·0) versus 10·5 months (9·3-11·2). Durvalumab plus platinum-etoposide showed sustained improvement in overall survival versus platinum-etoposide (HR 0·75 [95% CI 0·62-0·91]; nominal p=0·0032); median overall survival was 12·9 months (95% CI 11·3-14·7) versus 10·5 months (9·3-11·2). The most common any-cause grade 3 or worse adverse events were neutropenia (85 [32%] of 266 patients in the durvalumab plus tremelimumab plus platinum-etoposide group, 64 [24%] of 265 patients in the durvalumab plus platinum-etoposide group, and 88 [33%] of 266 patients in the platinum-etoposide group) and anaemia (34 [13%], 24 [9%], and 48 [18%]). Any-cause serious adverse events were reported in 121 (45%) patients in the durvalumab plus tremelimumab plus platinum-etoposide group, 85 (32%) in the durvalumab plus platinum-etoposide group, and 97 (36%) in the platinum-etoposide group. Treatment-related deaths occurred in 12 (5%) patients in the durvalumab plus tremelimumab plus platinum-etoposide group (death, febrile neutropenia, and pulmonary embolism [n=2 each]; enterocolitis, general physical health deterioration and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, pneumonia, pneumonitis and hepatitis, respiratory failure, and sudden death [n=1 each]), six (2%) patients in the durvalumab plus platinum-etoposide group (cardiac arrest, dehydration, hepatotoxicity, interstitial lung disease, pancytopenia, and sepsis [n=1 each]), and two (1%) in the platinum-etoposide group (pancytopenia and thrombocytopenia [n=1 each]).

Interpretation: First-line durvalumab plus platinum-etoposide showed sustained overall survival improvement versus platinum-etoposide but the addition of tremelimumab to durvalumab plus platinum-etoposide did not significantly improve outcomes versus platinum-etoposide. These results support the use of durvalumab plus platinum-etoposide as a new standard of care for the first-line treatment of ES-SCLC.

Funding: AstraZeneca.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(20)30539-8DOI Listing
January 2021

A Randomized Phase III Study of Abemaciclib Versus Erlotinib in Patients with Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer With a Detectable Mutation Who Failed Prior Platinum-Based Therapy: JUNIPER.

Front Oncol 2020 26;10:578756. Epub 2020 Oct 26.

Department of Medicine, Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, CNIO and Universidad Complutense, Madrid, Spain.

Introduction: JUNIPER compared the efficacy and safety of abemaciclib, a selective cyclin-dependent kinase 4 and 6 inhibitor, with erlotinib in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring a Kirsten rat sarcoma () mutation.

Methods: JUNIPER was a Phase III, multicenter, randomized, open-label trial of abemaciclib versus erlotinib in patients with stage IV NSCLC and a detectable mutation in codons 12 or 13 of the oncogene, who progressed after platinum-based chemotherapy and 1 additional therapy (could include immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy). Randomized patients (3:2) received either 200 mg abemaciclib twice daily or 150 mg erlotinib once daily with best supportive care until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS); secondary endpoints included overall response rate (ORR), progression-free survival (PFS), and safety.

Results: Between December 2014 and April 2017, 453 patients were randomly assigned to receive abemaciclib (N = 270) or erlotinib (N = 183). Median OS was 7.4 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.5, 8.8) with abemaciclib and 7.8 months (95% CI: 6.4, 9.5) with erlotinib (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.968 [95% CI: 0.768, 1.219]; p = .77). Median PFS was 3.6 months (95% CI: 2.8, 3.8) with abemaciclib and 1.9 months (95% CI: 1.9, 2.0) with erlotinib (HR = 0.583 [95% CI: 0.470, 0.723]; p <.000001). ORR was 8.9% and 2.7% (p = .010), and the disease control rate was 54.4% and 31.7% (p <.001) with abemaciclib and erlotinib, respectively. Safety results reflected the known safety profiles of abemaciclib and erlotinib.

Conclusions: In this study, the primary endpoint of OS was not met; PFS and ORR were improved with manageable toxicity in the abemaciclib arm. The increases in response rates and PFS support further investigation of abemaciclib in other NSCLC subpopulations or in combination with other agents.

Clinical Trial Registration: www.ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier: NCT02152631.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2020.578756DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7649422PMC
October 2020

High risk of thrombosis in patients with advanced lung cancer harboring rearrangements in ROS1.

Eur J Cancer 2020 12 7;141:193-198. Epub 2020 Nov 7.

Portuguese Institute of Oncology of Porto, Portugal.

Introduction: Based on the high incidence of thromboembolic events (TEs) observed in lung adenocarcinomas with ALK translocations and taking into account the biological proximity of ROS1 and ALK, we conducted a retrospective analysis of patients with advanced lung carcinoma carrying rearrangements in ROS1 from 23 centres in Spain and one centre in Portugal.

Methods: The main objective of the study was to analyse the incidence of TE in this population, looking for predictive risk factors, and its impact on overall survival.

Results: A total of 58 patients were included. The incidence of TEs throughout the disease was 46.6% (n = 27) with a median follow-up of 19 months (range: 1-78 months) and a median overall survival of 52 months in the total population and 50 months for the patients presenting TEs, with a hazards ratio of 1.12 (95% confidence interval: 0.47-2.65) p = 0.78. The majority of the events were venous (n = 24; 89%) and occurred in the ambulatory setting (n = 18; 67%). Almost half of the patients (n = 13; 48%) presented the TE in the peri-diagnostic period.

Conclusions: The high incidence of thrombosis, especially during the cancer diagnosis process, requires special attention from a clinician. Despite the limitations of such a small descriptive study, its results are in accordance with previously reported data. It would be important to design prospective studies of antithrombotic prophylaxis in this population because of their possible impact in reducing the risk of TEs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2020.10.002DOI Listing
December 2020

Antitumor activity of lurbinectedin in second-line small cell lung cancer patients who are candidates for re-challenge with the first-line treatment.

Lung Cancer 2020 12 10;150:90-96. Epub 2020 Oct 10.

Ospedale Santa Maria delle Croci, Ravenna, Italy.

Introduction: The National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines recommend re-challenge with the first-line treatment for relapsed small cell lung cancer (SCLC) with chemotherapy-free interval (CTFI)≥180 days. A phase II study (NCT02454972) showed remarkable antitumor activity in SCLC patients treated with lurbinectedin 3.2 mg/m 1 -h intravenous infusion every 3 weeks as second-line therapy. We report results for the pre-planned subset of patients with CTFI ≥ 180 days.

Material And Methods: Twenty patients aged ≥18 years with pathologically proven SCLC diagnosis, pretreated with only one prior platinum-containing line, no CNS metastases, and with CTFI ≥ 180 days were evaluated. The primary efficacy endpoint was the overall response rate (ORR) assessed by the Investigators according to RECIST v1.1.

Results: ORR was 60.0 % (95 %CI, 36.1-86.9), with a median duration of response of 5.5 months (95 %CI, 2.9-11.2) and disease control rate of 95.0 % (95 %CI, 75.1-99.9). Median progression-free survival was 4.6 months (95 %CI, 2.6-7.3). With a censoring of 55.0 %, the median overall survival was 16.2 months (95 %CI, 9.6-upper level not reached). Of note, 60.9 % and 27.1 % of patients were alive at 1 and 2 years, respectively. The most common grade 3/4 adverse events and laboratory abnormalities were hematological disorders (neutropenia, 55.0 %; anemia; 10.0 % thrombocytopenia, 10.0 %), fatigue (10.0 %) and increased liver function tests (GGT, 10 %; ALT and AP, 5.0 % each). No febrile neutropenia was reported.

Conclusion: Lurbinectedin is an effective treatment for platinum-sensitive relapsed SCLC, especially in patients with CTFI ≥ 180 days, with acceptable safety and tolerability. These encouraging results suggest that lurbinectedin can be another valuable therapeutic option rather than platinum re-challenge.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lungcan.2020.10.003DOI Listing
December 2020

Dual EGFR-VEGF Pathway Inhibition: A Promising Strategy for Patients With EGFR-Mutant NSCLC.

J Thorac Oncol 2021 02 20;16(2):205-215. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California. Electronic address:

The VEGF pathway has been recognized as a key mediator of angiogenesis to support tumorigenesis. Multiple therapeutic agents targeting VEGF and VEGF receptors have been developed and approved for use in NSCLCs. Preclinical studies have found that the VEGF and EGFR pathways share common downstream signaling, and these pathways can function exclusively of one another during oncogenesis. In EGFR-mutant NSCLCs, up-regulated EGFR signaling increases VEGF through hypoxia-independent mechanisms, and elevated VEGF, in turn, contributes to the emergence of resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). In clinical trials, the addition of anti-VEGF therapy to EGFR TKIs considerably improved clinical outcomes. In recently reported large randomized studies, the addition of bevacizumab or ramucirumab to EGFR TKIs substantially improved progression-free survival in patients with TKI-naive EGFR-mutant NSCLC. This article reviews the preclinical and clinical data supporting dual inhibition of EGFR and VEGF in EGFR-mutant NSCLC as a way to improve patient outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtho.2020.10.006DOI Listing
February 2021

Phase 1 Expansion Cohort of Ramucirumab Plus Pembrolizumab in Advanced Treatment-Naive NSCLC.

J Thorac Oncol 2021 02 15;16(2):289-298. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

CNIO-H12o Lung Cancer Unit, Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, Universidad Complutense & CIBERONC, Madrid, Spain.

Introduction: Data of first-line ramucirumab plus pembrolizumab treatment of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1)-positive NSCLC (cohort E) are reported (NCT02443324).

Methods: In this multicenter, open-label phase 1a/b trial, patients received ramucirumab 10 mg/kg and pembrolizumab 200 mg every 21 days for up to 35 cycles. PD-L1 positivity was defined as tumor proportion score (TPS) greater than or equal to 1%. Exploratory NanoString biomarker analyses included three T-cell signatures (T-cell-inflamed, Gajewski, and effector T cells) and CD274 gene expression.

Results: Cohort E included 26 patients. Treatment-related adverse events of any grade occurred in 22 patients (84.6%). Treatment-related adverse events of grade greater than or equal to 3 were reported in 11 patients (42.3%); the most frequent was hypertension (n = 4, 15.4%). Objective response rate was 42.3% in the treated population and 56.3% and 22.2% for patients with high (TPS ≥ 50%) and lower levels (TPS 1%-49%) of PD-L1 expression, respectively. Median progression-free survival (PFS) in the treated population was 9.3 months, and 12-month and 18-month PFS rates were 45% each. Median PFS was not reached in patients with PD-L1 TPS greater than or equal to 50% and was 4.2 months in patients with PD-L1 TPS 1% to 49%. Median overall survival was not reached in the treated population, and 12-month and 18-month overall survival rates were 73% and 64%, respectively. Biomarker data suggested a positive association among clinical response, three T-cell signatures, CD274 gene expression, and PD-L1 immunohistochemistry.

Conclusions: First-line therapy with ramucirumab plus pembrolizumab has a manageable safety profile in patients with NSCLC, and the efficacy signal seems to be strongest in tumors with high PD-L1 expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtho.2020.10.004DOI Listing
February 2021

Phase I Study of the Efficacy and Safety of Ramucirumab in Combination with Osimertinib in Advanced T790M-positive -mutant Non-small Cell Lung Cancer.

Clin Cancer Res 2021 02 12;27(4):992-1002. Epub 2020 Oct 12.

Department of Medical Oncology, Thoracic Unit, Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France.

Purpose: We report the final analysis of JVDL (NCT02789345), which examined the combination of the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) osimertinib plus the VEGFR2-directed antibody ramucirumab in patients with T790M-positive -mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

Patients And Methods: This open-label, single-arm phase I study enrolled patients with T790M-positive NSCLC, who had progressed following EGFR TKI but were third-generation EGFR TKI-naïve. A dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) period with as-needed dose deescalation was followed by an expansion cohort. Patients received daily oral osimertinib and intravenous ramucirumab every 2 weeks until progression or discontinuation.

Results: Twenty-five patients were enrolled. No DLTs were observed. Median follow-up time was 25.0 months. Common grade 3 or higher treatment-related adverse events (TRAE) were hypertension (8%) and platelet count decreased (16%); grade 5 TRAE (subdural hemorrhage) occurred in 1 patient. Patients with ( = 10) and without central nervous system (CNS) metastasis ( = 15) had similar safety outcomes. Five patients remain on treatment. Objective response rate (ORR) was 76%. Median duration of response was 13.4 months [90% confidence interval (CI): 9.6-21.2]. Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 11.0 months (90% CI: 5.5-19.3). Efficacy was observed in patients with and without CNS metastasis (ORR 60% and 87%; median PFS 10.9 and 14.7 months, respectively). Exploratory biomarker analyses in circulating tumor DNA suggested that on-treatment loss of EGFR Exon 19 deletion or L858R mutations, detectable at baseline, correlated with longer PFS, but on-treatment loss of T790M did not. Emergent genetic alterations postprogression included C797S, MET amplification, and EGFR amplification.

Conclusions: Ramucirumab plus osimertinib demonstrated encouraging safety and antitumor activity in T790M-positive -mutant NSCLC..
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-20-1690DOI Listing
February 2021
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