Publications by authors named "Luis M Lozano"

18 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Individual and societal risk factors of attitudes justifying intimate partner violence against women: a multilevel cross-sectional study.

BMJ Open 2020 12 10;10(12):e037993. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

Methodology for Behavioral Sciences, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.

Objectives: Attitudes justifying intimate partner violence against women (IPVAW) can play an essential role in explaining the prevalence of such public health problem. The study aim was to explain attitudes justifying IPVAW identifying individual and societal risk factors.

Design And Setting: A multilevel cross-sectional study of the World Values Survey (WVS) in 54 global countries.

Participants: A representative transnational community-based sample of 81 516 participants (47.8% male, 52.1% female), aged mean of 42.41.

Measures: Attitudes justifying IPVAW, sociodemographic, sexism, self-transcendence and conservation values were measured using questions from WVS. Country and regional gender inequality were assessed by Gender Inequality Index.

Results: Around 16% (intraclass correlation=0.16) of individual differences in attitudes justifying IPVAW are explained by countries. Statistically significant predictors at individual and country level were: sex (B=-0.24, 95% CI -0.27 to -0.22), age (B=-0.08 to -0.25, 95% CI -0.34 to -0.03), marital status (B=0.09 to 0.23, 95% CI 0.002 to 0.33), educational level (B=-0.10 to -0.14, 95% CI -0.20 to -0.04), self-transcendence values (B=-0.10, 95% CI -0.20 to -0.12), sexism (B=0.21, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.28), country (B=2.18, 95% CI 1.09 to 3.26) and regional (B=2.23, 95% CI 1.04 to 3.42) gender inequality. Country gender inequality (B=-0.18, p=0.12) and regional gender inequality (B=-0.21, p=0.10) did not moderate the associations between self-transcendence values and attitudes justifying IPVAW. In the same way for sexism, data did not provide support for a moderating role of country gender inequality (B=0.22, p=0.26) and regional gender inequality (B=0.10, p=0.66).

Conclusions: Individual and country predictors accounted for differences in attitudes justifying IPVAW. However, neither gender inequality of country nor gender inequality of region interacted with sexism and self-transcendence values. Theoretical and methodological implications are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-037993DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7733202PMC
December 2020

Assessment of the Enterprising Personality: A Short Form of The BEPE Battery.

Psicothema 2020 11;32(4):575-582

Universidad de Oviedo.

Background: Enterprising personality is related to business creation and success. The objective of this study was the development and psychometric analysis of a reduced version of the BEPE Battery for the Evaluation of Enterprising Personality.

Method: We used a sample of 1,170 people, 60% women, with a mean age of 42.34 years (SD = 12.96). We carried out psychometric analyses within the frameworks of Classical Test Theory and Item Response Theory models.

Results: The short version (BEPE-16) consists of 16 items, demonstrating an essentially unidimensional structure. The reliability was excellent (α= .94; Ω= .94) and evidence of validity was found in relation to various variables: Measure Of Entrepreneurial Talents And Abilities (META test) (r=.71), extraversion (r=.57), conscientiousness (r=.50), neuroticism (r=-.54). The correlation between scores from the BEPE-16 and the original version was very high (r=.95).

Conclusions: The BEPE-16 reduced version for the evaluation of enterprising personality demonstrated good psychometric properties, both in terms of reliability and validity. As such, it can be used in place of the original when the professional or research circumstances require it.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7334/psicothema2020.193DOI Listing
November 2020

Predicting Job Satisfaction in Military Organizations: Unpacking the Relationship Between Emotional Intelligence, Teamwork Communication, and Job Attitudes in Spanish Military Cadets.

Front Psychol 2020 7;11:875. Epub 2020 May 7.

Department of Business Organization, Faculty of Economics and Business Management, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.

Although prior research has extensively examined the association of emotional intelligence (EI) with various job attitudes (e.g., job satisfaction), empirical and systematic investigation of this link within military institutions has captured considerably less attention. The present research analyzed the relationship between EI, teamwork communication, and job satisfaction among Spanish military cadets. We tested the potential unique contribution of EI to job satisfaction over and above demographics (i.e., gender and age), proactive personality, and resilience. Moreover, we also examined whether EI was indirectly linked to job satisfaction via its relationship with teamwork communication. A sample of 363 cadet officers of the Spanish General Military Academy completed questionnaires assessing EI, teamwork communication, proactive personality, resilience, and job satisfaction. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that EI exhibited incremental variance (Δ = 5.2%) in predicting job satisfaction ( = 0.539, 95% CI [0.306,0.771]) even after accounting for demographics, proactive personality, and resilience. Additionally, mediation analysis showed that the association of EI with job satisfaction was partially driven by enhanced teamwork communication. This research provides empirical evidence suggesting a pathway (i.e., effective teamwork communication) through which EI could help military cadets to experience higher job satisfaction. Implications for future academic programs including EI and teamwork communication to promote positive job attitudes among military personnel are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.00875DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7221124PMC
May 2020

Adaptation of the Accommodation among Romantic Couples Scale (ARCS) to the Spanish Population.

Psicothema 2020 02;32(1):145-152

Mind, Brain and Behavioral Research Center, Universidad de Granada.

Background: The different conflict resolution strategies that couples use are crucial in preserving or ending their relationships. Despite the importance of these strategies, no instrument for measuring them has been adequately adapted to Spanish culture. The goal of this study is to adapt the Accommodation among Romantic Couples Scale to Spanish culture, filling this gap by providing a rigorous instrument to evaluate the construct.

Method: A total of 489 participants from the general population responded to the instrument after adaptation. The scale's psychometric properties were then evaluated from a classical perspective.

Results: The indexes of fit from confirmatory factor analysis indicated good fit to the four-factor structure proposed by the authors of the original scale: voice, loyalty, exit, and neglect. The reliability of these dimensions was similar to that obtained in the original version. Evidence of validity relative to other variables indicated good convergent and discriminant validity.

Conclusions: The Spanish version of the Accommodation among Romantic Couples Scale is a reliable instrument with sufficient valid evidence to provide accurate measurement of conflict resolution strategies in couple relationships.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7334/psicothema2019.123DOI Listing
February 2020

Corrigendum: Assessment of Eight Entrepreneurial Personality Dimensions: Validity Evidence of the BEPE Battery.

Front Psychol 2019 9;10:725. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

CIBERSAM, Department of Psychology, University of Oviedo, Oviedo, Spain.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02352.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00725DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6465623PMC
April 2019

Assessment of Eight Entrepreneurial Personality Dimensions: Validity Evidence of the BEPE Battery.

Front Psychol 2018 29;9:2352. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

CIBERSAM, Department of Psychology, University of Oviedo, Oviedo, Spain.

The study of entrepreneurial activity has undergone intense development in recent decades. Traditionally this topic has been addressed from three approaches: economic, sociological and psychological. In the study of enterprising personality, two fundamental perspectives stand out: the use of general personality traits, like the Big Five, and the use of more specific traits related to entrepreneurial spirit, such as self-efficacy, autonomy, innovation, optimism, and others. The objective of this study is to provide validity evidence for a new instrument for measuring eight specific dimensions of entrepreneurial personality (BEPE). The sample was composed of 1,170 adults from the general population (59.9% women). The average age was 42.34 years with a standard deviation of 12.96. Of the sample, 13% were self-employed. Internal factorial structure and reliability of BEPE were examined. The relationships with other variables and the discriminative capacity of the BEPE between different groups of workers were analyzed. First order exploratory factor analyses show the essential unidimensionality of each of the eight proposed sub-scales, with factorial weights ranging between 0.341 and 0.825. In the Confirmatory Factor Analysis, the best fit was achieved with a Bifactor model. With regards to reliability, the eight BEPE sub-scales gave high alpha coefficient values, between 0.81 and 0.89, as did the total battery (0.97). BEPE sub-scales show a high canonical correlation with the Big Five personality factors (0.796) and with the sub-scales of the Measure of Entrepreneurial Talents and Abilities questionnaire (0.779). The BEPE questionnaire for the evaluation of the eight fundamental specific dimensions of the entrepreneurial personality presents adequate psychometric properties. Its relationships with other measures of personality traits are in line with what is expected. Therefore, the BEPE is a new measurement instrument that can be used with confidence both in the applied field and in research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02352DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6281960PMC
November 2018

Do Economic Crises Always Undermine Trust in Others? The Case of Generalized, Interpersonal, and In-Group Trust.

Front Psychol 2018 15;9:1955. Epub 2018 Oct 15.

Mind, Brain and Behavior Research Center, Department of Social Psychology, Universidad de Granada, Granada, Spain.

After the global economic collapse triggered by the Great Recession, there has been an increased interest in the potential psychological implications of periods of economic decline. Recent evidence suggests that negative personal experiences linked to the economic crisis may lead to diminished generalized trust (i.e., the belief that most of the people of the society are honest and can be trusted). Adding to the growing literature on the psychological consequences of the economic crisis, we propose that the perceived personal impact of the economic crisis not only would undermine generalized trust but also may lead to increased interpersonal trust (i.e., directed to specific and close people) and depersonalized in-group trust [i.e., directed to individuals who, while strangers, belong to the same group (e.g., social class)]. Across three studies ( = 1379), we tested these central hypotheses and ascertained whether the perceived personal impact of the crisis would predict these types of trust (assessed using questionnaire and behavioral measures) independent of individuals' socioeconomic status. Non-experimental data from Study 1 revealed that a higher perceived personal impact of the crisis is related to lower levels of generalized trust and higher levels of interpersonal trust. These effects were independent of participants' socioeconomic status. Non-experimental data from Study 2 replicated the findings obtained in Study 1 and also showed a positive association between the perceived personal impact of the crisis and depersonalized in-group trust. This pattern of results emerged even after controlling for socioeconomic status, gender, age, political orientation, religiosity, and unemployment status. In Study 3, using an experimental design, we found that the salience of a possible economic downturn led to decreased generalized trust and increased interpersonal and depersonalized in-group trust - independently of socioeconomic status - compared with the control condition. These results challenge the conventional wisdom that economic crises invariably undermine trust in others. The implications of the present research as well as future research directions are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01955DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6196242PMC
October 2018

Multifactor implicit measures to assess enterprising personality dimensions.

Psicothema 2018 11;30(4):357-363

University of Oviedo.

Background: Several implicit measures have been proposed to overcome limitations of self-reports. The present study aimed to develop a new implicit association test (MFT-IAT) to assess enterprising-related traits, exploring its reliability and validity evidence.

Method: A total of 1,142 individuals (Mean age 42.36 years, SD = 13.17) from the general population were assessed. Participants were asked about sociodemographic data, employment status, and personality traits using the Battery for the Assessment of the Enterprising Personality (BEPE). They completed an MFT-IAT designed to assess the BEPE's traits (achievement motivation, autonomy, innovativeness, self-efficacy, locus of control, optimism, stress tolerance and risk taking). Reliability was estimated using Cronbach's alpha. Exploratory Factor Analyses (EFAs) were performed to assess the internal structure of the MFT-IAT. Correlations and a Multiple Analysis of Variance were used to estimate validity evidence based on the relationship towith participants' employment status.

Results: EFAs provided validity evidence for all dimensions with high internal consistency (a = .92-.93). Correlations between implicit and explicit measures were non-significant. Non- implicit measures yielded significant differences between employment statuses.

Discussion: This is a pioneering study in this field and more research is needed to improve the feasibility and practicality of implicit measures in applied assessment settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7334/psicothema2018.204DOI Listing
November 2018

Using reversed items in Likert scales: A questionable practice.

Psicothema 2018 May;30(2):149-158

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.

Background: The use of positively worded items and reversed forms aims to reduce response bias and is a commonly used practice nowadays. The main goal of this research is to analyze the psychometric implications of the use of positive and reversed items in measurement instruments.

Method: A sample of 374 participants was tested aged between 18 and 73 (M=33.98; SD=14.12), 62.60% were women. A repeated measures design was used, evaluating the participants with positive, reversed, and combined forms of a self-efficacy test.

Results: When combinations of positive and reversed items are used in the same test the reliability of the test is flawed and the unidimensionality of the test is jeopardized by secondary sources of variance. In addition, the variance of the scores is reduced, and the means differ significantly from those in tests in which all items are either positive or reversed, but not combined.

Conclusions: The results of this study present a trade-off between a potential acquiescence bias when items are positively worded and a potential different understanding when combining regular and reversed items in the same test. The specialized literature recommends combining regular and reversed items for controlling for response style bias, but these results caution researchers in using them as well after accounting for the potential effect of linguistic skills and the findings presented in this study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7334/psicothema2018.33DOI Listing
May 2018

Spanish validation of the Domain-Specific Risk-Taking (DOSPERT-30) Scale.

Psicothema 2017 02;29(1):111-118

University of Granada.

Background: The aim of the present study was to develop and validate a Spanish version of the short Domain-Specific Risk-Taking (DOSPERT-30) scale, measuring risk-taking behavior, risk perception, and expected beneficial consequences (from taking risks) in five life domains: ethics, finance, health/security, recreational, and social decisions.

Method: The scale was back-translated, and administered online to 826 participants. Validity evidence was tested using correlations with construct-related instruments (UPPS-P and SSS-V), as well as using factor analysis. Internal consistency reliability was calculated with the ordinal Alpha coefficient, and gender differences were considered.

Results: Internal consistency was good, and factor analysis confirmed the five factors proposed by the authors. With respect to the external validity, high correlations with the positive urgency and the sensation seeking subscales of the UPPS-P, as well as with the thrill and adventure seeking and disinhibition subscales of the SSS-V were found. Finally, gender differences were found in all subscales and domains, with men tending to take more risks, perceive less risk and expect more beneficial consequences, except for the social domain where an inverse pattern was found.

Conclusions: As these findings are in line with the original version, they indicate the scale was successfully adapted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7334/psicothema2016.132DOI Listing
February 2017

The Spanish adaptation of the Interpersonal Sexual Objectification Scale (ISOS).

Psicothema 2015 ;27(2):134-40

Universidad de Granada.

Background: Sexual objectification of women is a subtle manifestation of gender violence. The aim of this study was to adapt the 15-item Interpersonal Sexual Objectification Scale (ISOS) to Spanish to obtain a valid instrument to evaluate this construct.

Method: After its adaptation, the questionnaire was administered to 771 women from the general population. Subsequently, the psychometric properties of the questionnaire were evaluated from both the classical perspective and item response theory.

Results: The data obtained were very similar to those of the original version. The ISOS showed good internal consistency and a two-factor structure: body evaluation and unwanted explicit sexual advances. In addition, the ISOS showed correlations with benevolent sexism, state-anxiety and self-esteem.

Conclusions: The Spanish version of the ISOS is a reliable and valid measure of sexual objectification of women in the interpersonal context.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7334/psicothema2014.124DOI Listing
January 2017

Spanish adaptation of the Illinois Sexual Harassment Myth Acceptance.

Span J Psychol 2014 ;17:E40

Universidad de Granada (Spain).

Sexual harassment is among the most serious forms of gender violence, and what all violent acts have in common are the many myths associated with them. Three studies were conducted to adapt a Spanish version of the Illinois Sexual Harassment Myth Acceptance (ISHMA) scale, which assesses myths about sexual harassment. The first study aimed to, for the first time, present psychometric data on the Spanish version of the ISHMA. The participants were 339 college students. After adapting the items and measuring their content validity, we examined the test's dimensional structure, statistically analyzed the items, and determined the instrument's reliability (α = .91 for the total scale and between .77 and .84 for the different dimensions). Study 2 involved 326 adult participants from the general population and its objective was to evaluate the scale's dimensional structure through confirmatory factor analysis (χ2 143 = 244.860, p < .001; GFI = .952; CFI = .958; RMSEA = .034 [.026 - .041]). The third study was conducted in order to measure convergent validity in both students and adults from the general population. Differences by gender were found in all dimensions being the females' means higher than males (Cohen´s d between .38 and .62). Our findings suggest the Spanish version of the ISHMA is a useful instrument to study myths about sexual harassment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/sjp.2014.42DOI Listing
April 2015

Severe and morbid obesity (BMI ≥ 35 kg/m(2)) does not increase surgical time and length of hospital stay in total knee arthroplasty surgery.

Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2015 Jun 26;23(6):1713-9. Epub 2014 Apr 26.

Knee Unit, Orthopaedic Department, Hospital Clinic, University of Barcelona, c/Villarroel 170, 08036, Barcelona, Spain,

Purpose: Certain aspects of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in severely and morbidly obese (SMO) patients (BMI ≥ 35 kg/m(2)) remain controversial. This study aimed to assess the duration of TKA surgery and hospital stay in relation to patients' BMI.

Methods: Three operative times during TKA surgery were recorded: tourniquet time, to determine surgical difficulty, total surgical time, to assess the difficulty of achieving anaesthesia, and time in the surgical area, to assess patient management in the surgical area. Length of hospital stay was also calculated. Data were collected prospectively from consecutive patients and were recorded in a database for retrospective analysis.

Results: Data were obtained from 922 consecutive patients undergoing TKA. The non-obese group comprised 418 patients (45.3%), obese group Class I 331 (36%), and the SMO group (Class II-III) 173 (18.7%). Mean tourniquet time was 53 min, mean total surgical time was 84 min, and mean time in the surgical area was 132 min. There were no differences according to BMI group. Median length hospital stay (LHS) was 6 days in all patients regardless of BMI. Factors that significantly prolonged LHS were ASA III-IV and pre-operative haemoglobin between 12 and 13 g/dl.

Conclusion: Severely and morbidly obese (SMO) patients (BMI ≥ 35 kg/m(2)) undergoing TKA surgery do not require longer operative time or hospital stay than non-obese or obese Class I patients. The fact that surgical time was not significantly different could be due to greater specialisation in the treatment of these patients, which may favour a lower incidence of post-operative complications.

Level Of Evidence: Retrospective comparative study, Level IV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00167-014-3002-9DOI Listing
June 2015

New modified Achilles tendon allograft for treatment of chronic patellar tendon ruptures following total knee arthroplasty.

Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 2014 May 14;134(5):713-7. Epub 2014 Feb 14.

Department of Orthopedics, Hospital Clínic Barcelona, Universitat de Barcelona, C/Villarroel 170, 08036, Barcelona, Spain,

Introduction: Patellar tendon rupture is an infrequent but debilitating lesion. Several surgical repairs have been suggested for patellar tendon rupture. Our aim is to propose a modified technique from the classic Achilles allograft procedure.

Materials And Methods: Five consecutive patients diagnosed with chronic patellar tendon rupture following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) were included in the presented study. All patients were operated with a modified Achilles allograft technique, dividing the Achilles tendon into two bundles and overcrossing these through the distal part of the quadricipital tendon.

Results: All patients regained their extension mechanism and have discontinued using crutches. No complications were observed.

Conclusions: The modified Achilles allograft has shown to be a safe, time-reducing repair for chronic patellar tendon ruptures following TKA, and should be considered as an alternative surgical repair.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00402-014-1951-6DOI Listing
May 2014

Better outcomes in severe and morbid obese patients (BMI > 35 kg/m2) in primary Endo-Model rotating-hinge total knee arthroplasty.

ScientificWorldJournal 2012 30;2012:249391. Epub 2012 Apr 30.

Knee Surgery Unit, Orthopaedic Department, Hospital Clínic, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

The Endo-Model rotating-hinge prosthesis is preferably indicated as a primary implant in patients with advanced axial deviation of the lower limbs or unstable knees with severe bone defects. Outcomes were studied in 111 knees, operated in a three-year period; the mean followup was 28 months. Joint balance enhancement and limbs mechanical axis correction were achieved after surgery. There were 6 deep infections and 16 patients referred postoperative anterior knee pain. WOMAC index scores disaggregated by gender and BMI showed better outcomes in obese patients (specifically, those with a BMI of 35-40 kg/m(2)) and in men. Although the lack of a control group did not allow definite conclusions and despite a nonnegligible complication rate, our results reveal that the Endo-Model total knee arthroplasty can be a useful tool to deal with severe and morbid obese patients affected of severe gonarthrosis associated with marked axial deviations, ligament instability, or bone defects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1100/2012/249391DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3353285PMC
October 2012

Better outcomes in severe and morbid obese patients (BMI > 35 kg/m2) in primary Endo-Model rotating-hinge total knee arthroplasty.

ScientificWorldJournal 2012 30;2012:249391. Epub 2012 Apr 30.

Knee Surgery Unit, Orthopaedic Department, Hospital Clínic, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

The Endo-Model rotating-hinge prosthesis is preferably indicated as a primary implant in patients with advanced axial deviation of the lower limbs or unstable knees with severe bone defects. Outcomes were studied in 111 knees, operated in a three-year period; the mean followup was 28 months. Joint balance enhancement and limbs mechanical axis correction were achieved after surgery. There were 6 deep infections and 16 patients referred postoperative anterior knee pain. WOMAC index scores disaggregated by gender and BMI showed better outcomes in obese patients (specifically, those with a BMI of 35-40 kg/m(2)) and in men. Although the lack of a control group did not allow definite conclusions and despite a nonnegligible complication rate, our results reveal that the Endo-Model total knee arthroplasty can be a useful tool to deal with severe and morbid obese patients affected of severe gonarthrosis associated with marked axial deviations, ligament instability, or bone defects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1100/2012/249391DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3353285PMC
October 2012

[Cross-cultural validation of Antonovsky's Sense of Coherence Scale (OLQ-13) in Spanish elders aged 70 years or more].

Med Clin (Barc) 2007 Apr;128(13):486-92

Centro Nacional de Epidemiología, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, España.

Background And Objective: Sense of Coherence (SOC) is a construct relating to coping strategies in the face of traumatic events. SOC is defined as a personal disposition towards perceiving life experiences as understandable, manageable and meaningful. The construct has shown itself to be a predictor of self-reported and objective health in a variety of contexts. Although the SOC construct has been studied, among the elderly in particular, the scale has never been validated in the Spanish aged population. This paper reports on the cross-cultural validation of Antonovsky's Sense of Coherence Scale (OLQ-13) in a sample of Spanish senior citizens.

Subjects And Method: We studied a sample of population from 8 locations across Spain, totaling 419 subjects aged 70 years or over. The psychometric attributes of the scale were studied. These included acceptability, scale assumptions, internal consistency, factor structure, construct validity (convergent validity, differential analyses, inter-domains correlation), and precision.

Results: The internal consistency of the scale was adequate (Cronbach = 0.80). SOC showed moderate correlations with self-reported indices of physical health, quality of life and depression. The scale was found valid in differential analyses conducted for gender, age groups, levels of disability and functional impact of diseases. Principal components analysis yielded four factors accounting for 65.59% of the variance. The Meaningfulness domain acted as an independent factor.

Conclusions: The OLQ-13 is a valid and reliable instrument for use on Spanish elderly populations, including those with low educational level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1157/13100935DOI Listing
April 2007

[Multivariate repeated measures designs].

Psicothema 2006 May;18(2):293-9

Facultad de Psicología, Universidad de Oviedo, Spain.

In the social, behavioral, and health researches it is a common strategy to collect data along time on more than one group of participants on multiple dependent variables. To analyse this kind of data is very complicated due to the correlations between the measures taken in different points of the time, and between the answers. Usually to analyse these data the multivariate mixed model, or the doubly multivariate model, are the most frequent approaches. Both of them require combined multivariate normality, equal covariance matrices, independence between the observations of different participants, complete measurements on all subjects, and time-independent covariates. When one ore more of these assumptions are not accomplished these approaches do not control in the correct way the Type I error, and this affects the validity and the accuracy of the inferences. In this paper some solutions that solve the problems with the error Type I will be shown. Several programs for a correct realization of the analyses through the SAS Proc Mixed procedure are presented.
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May 2006