Publications by authors named "Luis A Gomez-Puerta"

36 Publications

Cloacal myiasis by Lucilia spp. (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in a rooster (Gallus gallus domesticus) and two Harris's hawks (Parabuteo unicinctus).

Parasitol Int 2021 Apr 24;83:102363. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Administración Técnicas Forestal y de Fauna Silvestre (ATFFS), Servicio Nacional Forestal y de Fauna Silvestre (SERFOR), Lima, Peru.

In this study, cloacal myiasis caused by dipterans of Lucilia genus was found in a rooster (Gallus gallus domesticus) and two Harris's hawks (Parabuteo unicinctus) from Peru. Larval dipteran were collected and preserved in ethanol. Morphological analysis indicated two species: Lucilia sericata in the rooster and in one Harris's hawk, and Lucilia cuprina in the other Harris's hawk. Molecular analysis confirmed the diagnosis by amplification of the nucleotide sequences of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene and internal transcribed spacer 2 region. The sequences were compared with sequence references from a public sequence database, which showed a 100% matched identity. This study demonstrated for first time cloacal myiasis by L. sericata in a domestic bird from Peru and in Harris's hawk. Also, for the first time, L. cuprina was found in a bird of prey.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.parint.2021.102363DOI Listing
April 2021

Diphyllobothrium sprakeri n. sp. (Cestoda: Diphyllobothriidae): a hidden broad tapeworm from sea lions off North and South America.

Parasit Vectors 2021 Apr 22;14(1):219. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Institute of Parasitology, Biology Centre, Czech Academy of Sciences, Branišovská 31, 37005, České Budějovice, Czech Republic.

Background: The systematic of several marine diphyllobothriid tapeworms of pinnipeds has been revised in recent years. However, 20 species of Diphyllobothrium from phocids and otariids are still recognized as incertae sedis. We describe a new species of Diphyllobothrium from the intestine of California sea lions Zalophus californianus (Lesson) (type-host) and South American sea lions Otaria flavescens (Shaw).

Methods: Zalophus californianus from the Pacific coast of the USA and O. flavescens from Peru and Argentina were screened for parasites. Partial fragments of the large ribosomal subunit gene (lsrDNA) and the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) mitochondrial gene were amplified for 22 isolates. Properly fixed material from California sea lions was examined using light and scanning electron microscopy.

Results: A total of four lsrDNA and 21 cox1 sequences were generated and aligned with published sequences of other diphyllobothriid taxa. Based on cox1 sequences, four diphyllobothriid tapeworms from O. flavescens in Peru were found to be conspecific with Adenocephalus pacificus Nybelin, 1931. The other newly generated sequences fall into a well-supported clade with sequences of a putative new species previously identified as Diphyllobothrium sp. 1. from Z. californianus and O. flavescens. A new species, Diphyllobothrium sprakeri n. sp., is proposed for tapeworms of this clade.

Conclusions: Diphyllobothrium sprakeri n. sp. is the first diphyllobothriid species described from Z. californianus from the Pacific coast of North America, but O. flavescens from Argentina, Chile and Peru was confirmed as an additional host. The present study molecularly confirmed the first coinfection of two diphyllobothriid species in sea lions from the Southern Hemisphere.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-021-04661-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8063393PMC
April 2021

Abdominal dioctophymosis in a domestic cat from the Peruvian rainforest confirmed morphologically and molecularly.

Parasitol Int 2021 Apr 18;83:102359. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Laboratorio de Epidemiologia y Economía Veterinaria, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Av. Circunvalación 2800, San Borja. Lima, Peru.

A case of abdominal dioctophymosis in a domestic cat was found in San Juan Bautista district, the Peruvian rainforest, in the Loreto department of Peru. The pet went to a veterinary clinic for a routine ovariohysterectomy during which a large nematode was found in the abdominal cavity. The nematode was morphologically identified as an adult female of Dioctophyme sp. A few morphological parameters, such as the vagina distance from the anterior part and the egg size, were different than D. renale. Partial sequences of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox1) and the small subunit 18S ribosomal RNA genes were compared with the references from public sequence database and showed a genetic identifies of 89.25% and 99.65% with D. renale, respectively. This is the first mitochondrial molecular analysis of a Dioctophyme specimen from South America and the results showed up to 12.5% nucleotide sequence variation in cox 1 gene of D. renale.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.parint.2021.102359DOI Listing
April 2021

Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-range pigs in northern Peru.

Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports 2021 Jan 18;23:100533. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Laboratorio de Investigación y Desarrollo, Laboratorio de Investigación en Enfermedades Infecciosas, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru.

Toxoplasma gondii is an important foodborne pathogen worldwide, with undercooked meat as the main source of human transmission. In this study, we determined the seroprevalence of T. gondii in free-range pigs from two adjacent villages in the Tumbes region of northern Peru, El Tutumo and Nuevo Progreso. We randomly selected 100 pig serum samples collected during a prior study and processed these using Western Blot to detect IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies. Results indicated a prevalence of 32% (32/100) to T. gondii in pigs. Free-ranging pigs from northern Peru represent a substantial risk for transmission of T. gondii to humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vprsr.2021.100533DOI Listing
January 2021

Morphological and molecular evidence of Oslerus osleri (Nematoda: Filaroididae) in the Andean fox (Lycalopex culpaeus).

Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports 2021 Jan 7;23:100532. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

School of Veterinary Medicine, National University of San Marcos, Lima, Peru.

Oslerus osleri is a cosmopolitan filaroid nematode that parasitizes the respiratory system of domestic and wild canids. Natural infection by O. osleri is reported in the Andean fox (Lycalopex culpaeus) in this study. Nematodes, enclosed in small and compact fibrous nodules of 1 to 5 mm in diameter, were found on the surface of the trachea near the bronchial bifurcation on four Andean foxes during necropsy (one from Cuzco, Peru and three from Northwestern Patagonia in Argentina). The nematodes were identified as O. osleri by morphological and molecular methods. Ribosomal and mitochondrial DNA analyses were performed amplifying the second internal transcribed spacer region (ITS-2), the partial cytochrome c oxidase 1 (cox1), and the large subunit of nuclear ribosomal RNA (LSU rRNA) genes. Sequences of the ITS-2 and LSU rRNA had a genetic variation of 1.5% and 1.0%, respectively, with previous sequences of O. osleri registered in Genbank. This is the first amplification of the cox1 gene of O. osleri and demonstrated an identity of 92% to Perostrongylus falciformis (KY365437), and 90% to Angiostrongylus cantonensis (KY779735) and Angiostrongylus costaricensis (AP017675).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vprsr.2021.100532DOI Listing
January 2021

Brain Infection in Pigs is Not Associated with Visible Lesions on Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 07 14;103(1):273-275. Epub 2020 May 14.

Cysticercosis Unit, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Neurologicas, Lima, Peru.

Human exposure to spp. is very frequent, and its larvae can cross the blood-brain barrier and invade the central nervous system (CNS), causing neurotoxocariasis. We aimed to establish a neurotoxocariasis animal model in pigs confirmed by necropsy. Also, the presence of larvae in the CNS was assessed using magnetic resonance imagings (MRIs), to establish brain lesions caused by the larvae migration. Ten pigs were infected intraperitoneally with 3,000 larvae. Cerebral toxocariasis was evaluated using MRIs at days 7, 14, 21, and 49, and pigs were euthanized after the examination. Brain tissues were examined by microscopy, and five pigs presented , most frequently at day 21 after infection. None of the 10 pigs showed alterations on MRIs. Our study confirms that intraperitoneal infection produces neurotoxocariasis in pigs. larvae passage through the brain does not seem to produce lesions detectable at MRIs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0912DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7356436PMC
July 2020

Cryptosporidium parvum as a risk factor of diarrhea occurrence in neonatal alpacas in Peru.

Parasitol Res 2020 Jan 22;119(1):243-248. Epub 2019 Nov 22.

College of Veterinary Medicine, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, 510642, China.

Cryptosporidiosis has been reported as an important cause of neonatal diarrhea and mortality in cattle, sheep, and other ruminants, but its impact on alpaca health has not been studied thoroughly. In this study, we have determined the prevalence and evaluated the role of cryptosporidiosis as a risk factor for diarrhea occurrence in newborn alpacas. During the calving season (January-March) of 2006, stool specimens (N = 1312) were collected from 24 herds of newborn alpacas in Puno and Cuzco, departments that account for the largest populations of alpacas in Peru. All the specimens were microscopically screened for Cryptosporidium spp. using the acid-fast technique. The association between Cryptosporidium detection and diarrhea was analyzed using χ test and generalized lineal model. Cryptosporidium species were determined by PCR-RFLP analysis of the small subunit rRNA gene. Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in 159 of 1312 (12.4%) newborn alpacas. Results of the analyses demonstrated that crypstosporidiosis was significantly associated with diarrhea (PR = 3.84; CI 2.54-5.81; p < 0.0001). Only Cryptosporidium parvum was detected in the 153 Cryptosporidium-infected animals. Thus, there is an association of C. parvum infection with diarrhea in neonatal alpacas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-019-06468-7DOI Listing
January 2020

Alopecia a potential adverse side effect of albendazole use in alpacas.

Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports 2019 08 24;17:100297. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, School of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics Av. Circunvalacion 2800. San Borja Lima 41. Peru.

Albendazole is a benzimidazole derivative with anthelmintic activity. It is the treatment of choice for fasciolosis. The use of albendazole in South American camelids is common, however, there are no studies about the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of albendazole in alpacas and llamas. In the present study, a case of fiber loss (alopecia) in alpacas is described because of the suspected use of a high dose of albendazole. In a fasciolosis control program of an alpaca ranch located in the district of Nuñoa in Puno, Peru, 2184 alpacas were oral treated with albendazole (35-40 mg/kg). After 2 weeks of treatment the alpacas began to show loss of fiber in the abdomen, flanks and neck. The alpacas showed no other sign of disease. The alpacas recovered their fiber after 6 months. We suggest studies are needed to determine the safe dose of albendazole in alpacas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vprsr.2019.100297DOI Listing
August 2019

A defined mechanistic correlate of protection against Plasmodium falciparum malaria in non-human primates.

Nat Commun 2019 04 26;10(1):1953. Epub 2019 Apr 26.

Jenner Institute, University of Oxford, Old Road Campus Research Building, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford, OX3 7DQ, UK.

Malaria vaccine design and prioritization has been hindered by the lack of a mechanistic correlate of protection. We previously demonstrated a strong association between protection and merozoite-neutralizing antibody responses following vaccination of non-human primates against Plasmodium falciparum reticulocyte binding protein homolog 5 (PfRH5). Here, we test the mechanism of protection. Using mutant human IgG1 Fc regions engineered not to engage complement or FcR-dependent effector mechanisms, we produce merozoite-neutralizing and non-neutralizing anti-PfRH5 chimeric monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and perform a passive transfer-P. falciparum challenge study in Aotus nancymaae monkeys. At the highest dose tested, 6/6 animals given the neutralizing PfRH5-binding mAb c2AC7 survive the challenge without treatment, compared to 0/6 animals given non-neutralizing PfRH5-binding mAb c4BA7 and 0/6 animals given an isotype control mAb. Our results address the controversy regarding whether merozoite-neutralizing antibody can cause protection against P. falciparum blood-stage infections, and highlight the quantitative challenge of achieving such protection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-09894-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6486575PMC
April 2019

Correction to: Molecular characterization of the Taenia solium Tso31 antigen and homologous of other Taenia species from Peru.

Parasitol Res 2019 04;118(4):1311

School of Veterinary Medicine, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Av. Circunvalación Cdra. 28, San Borja, Lima, Peru.

The original version of this article contained a mistake.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-019-06269-yDOI Listing
April 2019

Molecular characterization of the Taenia solium Tso31 antigen and homologous of other Taenia species from Peru.

Parasitol Res 2019 Apr 9;118(4):1307-1309. Epub 2019 Jan 9.

School of Veterinary Medicine, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Av. Circunvalación Cdra. 28, San Borja, Lima, Peru.

Several studies have been performed to determine specific antigens for the diagnosis of tapeworms. One of these antigens is Tso31, which is used to differentiate Taenia solium and Taenia saginata in human feces. The aim of the present work was the molecular characterization of this protein in different tapeworm specimens collected in Peru: T. omisa (n = 6), T. hydatigena (n = 7), T. taeniaeformis (n = 4), T. pisiformes (n = 1), T. multiceps (n = 7), and T. solium (n = 10). Total DNA was extracted from each proglottid using a commercial DNA kit for tissue. A nested PCR was used to amplify a fragment of the previously described oncosphere-specific protein Tso31 gene. The nested PCR products were analyzed by 1.5% agarose gel electrophoresis and visualized after ethidium bromide staining. All nested PCR-positive products were sequenced and their sequences were compared. Of all the tapeworms analyzed, only T. solium and T. multiceps amplified the Tso31 gene. All sequences were identical for each species. Our T. solium Tso31 showed 100% similarity when compared with published GenBank sequences. The difference between T. solium and T. multiceps Tso31 samples was 8.1%. In conclusion, our results show that the tsol31 gene is not exclusive to T. solium.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-018-06195-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6980357PMC
April 2019

Molecular Detection of Taeniid Eggs in Beetles Collected in an Area Endemic for .

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2018 11;99(5):1198-1200

School of Veterinary Medicine, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Peru.

The aim of this study was to demonstrate the presence of eggs in beetles collected from sources within the natural environment through molecular techniques. Fifty-four pools of beetles were collected in three villages in Piura, Peru. DNA was extracted using the FastDNA spin kit for soil. Molecular identification of species was then performed through partial amplification of the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit I gene. Finally, positive samples were sequenced to determine the tapeworm species. Seven positive samples were obtained through polymerase chain reaction amplification. Sequencing confirmed that two samples were from and three samples were from . The other two samples could not be specifically identified. Our findings demonstrate that dung beetles ingest and eggs under natural conditions and suggest that beetles may play a role in the dynamics of transmission of these cestodes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0355DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6221249PMC
November 2018

Morphological and molecular identification of (Nematoda: Spiruridae) found in the Andean fox ().

J Parasit Dis 2018 Sep 24;42(3):449-454. Epub 2018 May 24.

1Department of Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics, School of Veterinary Medicine, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Av. Circunvalacion 2800, San Borja, Lima 41, Lima, Peru.

Lesions compatible with spirocercosis were found in the esophagus and aorta of an Andean fox from Cuzco, Peru. The esophageal and aortic lesions were 5.5 and 1.5 cm in diameter, respectively. A total of 12 adult nematodes (6 males and 6 females) were collected from the esophageal lesion, and all were identified as by morphological and molecular methods. Molecular characterization was performed by analyzing two sources of the cox1 gene, and the sequences were compared with previous sequences from other work deposited in GenBank. Analysis of the partial cox1 gene from (n = 3) showed 2 haplotypes and had 95-99% nucleotide similarity to previously described sequences. Also, molecular analysis showed that is a very diverse group, due to the genetic variability of the partial sequences of the cox1 gene of . This study is the first to report finding of spirocercosis in the Andean fox.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12639-018-1009-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6104241PMC
September 2018

First Report of Infection in Salivary Gland of Bats from the Peruvian Amazon.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2018 09 12;99(3):723-728. Epub 2018 Jul 12.

U.S. Naval Medical Research Unit No. 6 (NAMRU-6), Lima, Peru.

In the Americas, 8 million people are infected with Chagas disease, and an additional 90 million people are at risk for infection. Little is known about the role bats play in the sylvatic transmission cycle of , the parasite causing Chagas disease. Here, we captured bats in the villages of Palmiche, Pachacutec, Nuevo San Martin, and Mayuriaga located in the Datem del Marañon Province in Loreto, Peru. Venous blood samples were collected by cardiac puncture or from the upper extremities, and trypanosomatids were identified by microscopy and molecularly. We collected blood samples from 121 bats on filter paper for molecular studies and 111 slides for microscopic examination of thin and thick blood smears from 16 different bat species. The prevalence of trypanosomatids in all bats species was 34.7% (42/121) and the prevalence of 4.1% (5/121). In hematophagous bat species, the prevalence of trypanosomatids and was 36.9% (27/73) and 2.7% (2/73), respectively. In non-hematophagous bats, the prevalences of trypanosomatids and were 31.2% (15/48) and 6.2% (3/48), respectively. Also, we confirm the presence of in salivary glands of hematophagous bats . These results suggest a sylvatic cycle of trypanosomatid transmission in which bats may harbor infectious parasites that could be transmitted to humans via hematophagous bat bites or salivary contamination by non-hematophagous bats of vegetables consumed by humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.17-0816DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6169177PMC
September 2018

Carotid Oncosphere Infection: A Novel Porcine Neurocysticercosis Model.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2018 08 7;99(2):380-387. Epub 2018 Jun 7.

Microbiology of the School of Science, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru.

Neurocysticercosis (NCC), the infection of the human central nervous system (CNS) with larval cysts of causes widespread neurological morbidity. Animal models are crucial for studying the pathophysiology and treatment of NCC. Some drawbacks of current NCC models include differences in the pathogenesis of the model and wild-type parasite, low rates of infection efficiency and lack of reproducibility. We describe a novel porcine model that recreates infection in the CNS with high efficiency. Activated oncospheres, either in a high (45,000-50,000) or low (10,000) dose were inoculated in the common carotid artery of 12 pigs by ultrasound-guided catheterization. Following oncosphere injection, either a high (30 mL) or low (1-3 mL) volume of saline flush was also administered. Cyst burden in the CNS was evaluated independently according to oncosphere dose and flush volume. Neurocysticercosis was achieved in 8/12 (66.7%) pigs. Cyst burden in the CNS of pigs was higher in the high versus the low oncosphere dose category (median: 4.5; interquartile ranges [IQR]: 1-8 and median: 1; IQR: 0-4, respectively) and in the high versus the low flush volume category (median 5.5; IQR: 1-8 and median: 1; IQR: 0-2, respectively), although not statistically different. All cysts in the CNS were viable, whereas both viable and degenerated cysts were found in the musculature. Carotid injection of activated oncospheres in pigs is effective in reproducing NCC. Oncosphere entry into the CNS by way of vasculature mimics wild-type infection, and provides a useful alternative for future investigations on the pathogenesis and antiparasitic treatment of NCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.17-0912DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6090325PMC
August 2018

Experimental porcine cysticercosis using infected beetles with Taenia solium eggs.

Acta Trop 2018 Jul 4;183:92-94. Epub 2018 Apr 4.

School of Veterinary Medicine, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Peru.

Beetles are intermediate hosts for human and animal parasites, and several beetle species have been shown to carry Taenia eggs. An experimental porcine cysticercosis infection model was developed using beetles (Ammophorus rubripes) infected with Taenia solium eggs and then using these beetles for oral pig challenge. A total of 18 three months-old Landrace pigs were divided in four groups. Pigs from groups 1, 2, and 3 (n = 6 pigs per group) were challenged with one, three, and six beetles infected with T. solium eggs, containing approximately 52, 156 or 312 eggs respectively. Pigs were necropsied 12 weeks after infection to assess the presence of T. solium metacestode. Porcine cysticercosis by T. solium was produced in 17 out of 18 pigs (94.4%) challenged with infected beetles, all infected pigs had viable cysts. Only one pig from group 1 was negative to the presence of cysts. The median number of metacestodes per pig in groups 1, 2, and 3 were 2 (range 0-71), 26 (range 5-33) and 40 cysts (range 4-111), respectively. Experimental porcine cysticercosis infection is consistently obtained using beetles as mechanical vectors for T. solium eggs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.04.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5935534PMC
July 2018

Coprophagous Insects and the Ecology of Infectious Diseases of Wildlife.

ILAR J 2017 12;58(3):336-342

Elizabeth Nichols, PhD, is an assistant professor at the Department of Biology, Swarthmore College, in Swarthmore, Pennsylvania. Viviana Alarcón, BSc, is a project manager at the Ecology Department, University of São Paulo, in São Paulo, Brazil. Shaun Forgie is a research associate at Landcare Research, Tamaki, in Auckland, New Zealand. Luis A. Gomez-Puerta is a DVM at the School of Veterinary Medicine, National University of San Marcos, in Lima, Peru. Matthew S. Jones is a doctoral candidate at the Department of Entomology, Washington State University, in Pullman, Washington.

A diversity of macro- and microparasitic species exert strong influences on wildlife population density, community structure, and ecosystem functioning, all through their impacts on individual host fitness. Through consuming, manipulating, and relocating wildlife feces, over 7,000 species of coprophagous dung beetles interact with a staggering diversity of wildlife parasites with fecal-oral transmission in ways that both increase and decrease transmission. Here, we review the mechanisms by which dung beetles influence micro- and macroparasite transmission and outline a future research framework that integrates theory and empirical insights to advance our understanding of how these relationships may interact with ongoing environmental change drivers to further influence wildlife populations and community structure. Any organism that significantly influences parasite transmission will impact multiple levels of biological organization. Therefore, improving our understanding of the role of dung beetle interactions within disease ecology will be key to future efforts to understand the overall dynamics of infection in wildlife and how parasites contribute to the maintenance of ecosystem structure and function and evolutionary processes in wild animals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ilar/ilx022DOI Listing
December 2017

Porcine Cysticercosis: Possible Cross-Reactivity of to GP50 Antigen in the Enzyme-Linked Immunoelectrotransfer Blot Assay.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2017 12 28;97(6):1830-1832. Epub 2017 Sep 28.

School of Public Health, Oregon Health & Science University and Portland State University, Portland, Oregon.

The lentil lectin glycoprotein enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (LLGP EITB, reported sensitivity 99% and specificity 100%) is used as a serologic marker of exposure to in pigs. However, only a limited number of parasites have been evaluated for cross reactivity. Pigs may host other related cestode infections, including which have not been formally evaluated for cross-reactions. We investigated a corral in Tumbes, Peru, a region where a cysticercosis elimination demonstration project was completed in 2012. In this corral, 14/19 (73.7%) 6-8-week-old piglets were reactive to GP50 on LLGP EITB, and all had circulating sp. antigens. From eight necropsied piglets; four were infected with metacestodes whereas none had evidence of infection. Two resident dogs were subsequently confirmed to have taeniasis. These results suggest GP50 cross-reactivity in infected pigs, although controlled experimental infection is needed to confirm this hypothesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.17-0378DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5805061PMC
December 2017

The alpaca (Vicugna pacos) as a natural intermediate host of Taenia omissa (Cestoda: Taeniidae).

Vet Parasitol 2017 Nov 9;246:93-95. Epub 2017 Sep 9.

School of Veterinary Medicine, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Peru.

Three metacestodes were collected from the mesentery and the surface of the liver of three adult alpacas (Vicugna pacos) in a slaughterhouse located in Puno, Peru. Various features of the metacestodes were observed for morphological identification. A molecular diagnosis was performed by PCR-based sequencing of mitochondrial genes of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1). All metacestodes were identified as Taenia omissa by morphology and molecular methods The isolates from alpacas showed significant sequence similarity with previously reported isolates of T. omissa (95.7-98.1% in cox1 and 94.6-95.1% in nad1). Our report is the first to detect T. omissa metacestodes in alpacas and to reveal that alpacas are natural intermediate hosts for this parasite.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2017.09.007DOI Listing
November 2017

First finding of nymphal stages of Linguatula serrata in a South American camelid, a vicuña from Peru.

Vet Parasitol 2017 Sep 21;244:21-24. Epub 2017 Jul 21.

School of Veterinary Medicine, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Peru.

Linguatula serrata, a pentastomid, was found parasitizing the lungs of a vicuña (Vicugna vicugna) from Cuzco, Peru. A total of 13 larvae were found encysted in the parenchymal tissue of the lungs. All larvae were identified as nymphal stages of L. serrata by morphological methods Diagnosis was confirmed by molecular analysis amplifying the cytochrome c oxidase 1 gene of three nymphs. Nucleotide sequences from the isolates were compared to previous sequences from GenBank, and it showed high similarity between them (>99%). This finding constitutes the first detection of L. serrata in a South American camelid.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2017.07.019DOI Listing
September 2017

Congenital Filariasis Caused by Setaria bidentata (Nematoda: Filarioidea) in the Red Brocket Deer (Mazama americana).

J Parasitol 2017 02 27;103(1):123-126. Epub 2016 Oct 27.

Department of Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics, School of Veterinary Medicine, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Peru.

The filarial nematode Setaria bidentata was found in 10 of 31 fetuses of the red brocket deer ( Mazama americana ) from the Loreto region of the Peruvian Amazon. A total of 25 specimens were collected and morphologically identified as S. bidentata. Filarial nematodes were found in the peritoneal cavity of 9 deer fetuses and the thoracic cavity of 1 fetus. Most specimens were adult stage. In this report, we provide morphometric data for these filarial specimens. This is the first study to demonstrate prenatal S. bidentata infection in cervid fetuses. Also, the finding of S. bidentata in Peru expands the geographic range of this parasite.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1645/16-86DOI Listing
February 2017

Finding of pentastomes of genus Reighardia (Pentastomida) in the Belcher's gull (Larus belcheri).

Parasitol Int 2016 Jun 15;65(3):288-90. Epub 2016 Feb 15.

School of Veterinary Medicine, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Peru. Electronic address:

This report describes the finding of Reighardia sp. (Pentastomida) infecting the air sac of two Belcher's gulls (Larus belcheri) found dead on the beaches of Pucusana, a district in southern Lima, Peru. Three pentastomes were collected from two Belcher's gulls. Then, they were morphologically and molecular analyzed. Molecular characterization of the parasite was achieved by amplifying a fragment of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rRNA). Based on both morphological and molecular data the pentastomes were identified as pentastomes of the genus Reighardia. This is the first report showing that the Belcher's gull is a new natural definitive host for this pentastome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.parint.2016.02.006DOI Listing
June 2016

In Vitro Study of Taenia solium Postoncospheral Form.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2016 Feb 10;10(2):e0004396. Epub 2016 Feb 10.

Department of Cellular and Molecular Sciences, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru.

Background: The transitional period between the oncosphere and the cysticercus of Taenia solium is the postoncospheral (PO) form, which has not yet been completely characterized. The aim of this work was to standardize a method to obtain T. solium PO forms by in vitro cultivation. We studied the morphology of the PO form and compared the expression of antigenic proteins among the PO form, oncosphere, and cysticerci stages.

Methodology/principal Findings: T. solium activated oncospheres were co-cultured with ten cell lines to obtain PO forms, which we studied at three stages of development--days 15, 30, and 60. A high percentage (32%) of PO forms was obtained using HCT-8 cells in comparison to the other cell lines. The morphology was observed by bright field, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. Morphology of the PO form changed over time, with the six hooks commonly seen in the oncosphere stage disappearing in the PO forms, and vesicles and microtriches observed in the tegument. The PO forms grew as they aged, reaching a diameter of 2.5 mm at 60 days of culture. 15-30 day PO forms developed into mature cysticerci when inoculated into rats. Antigenic proteins expressed in the PO forms are also expressed by the oncosphere and cysticerci stages, with more cysticerci antigenic proteins expressed as the PO forms ages.

Conclusions/significance: This is the first report of an in vitro production method of T. solium PO forms. The changes observed in protein expression may be useful in identifying new targets for vaccine development. In vitro culture of PO form will aid in understanding the host-parasite relationship, since the structural changes of the developing PO forms may reflect the parasite's immunoprotective mechanisms. A wider application of this method could significantly reduce the use of animals, and thus the costs and time required for further experimental investigations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0004396DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4749246PMC
February 2016

Evaluation of activity of triclabendazole against Taenia solium metacestode in naturally infected pigs.

Asian Pac J Trop Med 2016 Jan 19;9(1):23-6. Epub 2015 Dec 19.

School of Veterinary Medicine, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima 41, Peru.

Objective: To assess the efficacy of triclabendazole (TCBZ) in porcine cysticercosis.

Methods: Eighteen naturally infected cysticercosis pigs were divided into 3 groups of 6 individuals each. The first group was treated orally with TCBZ at a single dose of 30 mg/kg of body weight, the second group was treated orally with oxfendazole at a single dose of 30 mg/kg of body weight and the third group received a placebo (control group). All animals were kept under the same management conditions. The pigs were euthanized 17 wk post-treatment and the number of surviving cysts in muscles was assessed and compared between groups.

Results: All pigs treated with oxfendazole had only degenerated cysts in their carcasses. In contrast, TCBZ had very little effect against the parasitic cysts. Cysts from pigs in the TCBZ group looked apparently normal after treatment. However, histological evaluation showed a mild to moderate degree of inflammation.

Conclusions: TCBZ is not an efficacious drug against Taenia solium cysticercosis in swine using a single dose.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apjtm.2015.12.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6984010PMC
January 2016

The taruca (Hippocamelus antisensis) and the red brocket deer (Mazama americana) as intermediate hosts of Taenia hydatigena in Peru, morphological and molecular evidence.

Vet Parasitol 2015 Sep 6;212(3-4):465-8. Epub 2015 Aug 6.

School of Veterinary Medicine, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Peru.

In the present report metacestodes were collected from the mesentery of a taruca (Hippocamelus antisensis) and from the omentum of a red brocket deer (Mazama americana) in Peru. Various metacestodes parameters, including rostellar hook characteristics, were measured. Molecular analysis was performed to amplify the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene from metacestode isolates. Metacestodes were identified as T. hydatigena by morphology and molecular methods. This constitutes the first molecular detection of T. hydatigena metacestodes in the taruca and the red brocket deer and demonstrates that these animal species are natural intermediate hosts for this parasite.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2015.08.004DOI Listing
September 2015

Polycystic echinococcosis in Pacas, Amazon region, Peru.

Emerg Infect Dis 2015 Mar;21(3):456-9

In the Peruvian Amazon, paca meat is consumed by humans. To determine human risk for polycystic echinococcosis, we examined wild pacas from 2 villages; 15 (11.7%) of 128 were infected with Echinococcus vogeli tapeworms. High E. vogeli prevalence among pacas indicates potential risk for humans living in E. vogeli-contaminated areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2103.141197DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4344274PMC
March 2015

New insights in cysticercosis transmission.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2014 Oct 16;8(10):e3247. Epub 2014 Oct 16.

Johns Hopkins University, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, United States of America.

Taenia solium infection causes severe neurological disease in humans. Even though infection and exposure to swine cysticercosis is scattered throughout endemic villages, location of the tapeworm only explains some of the nearby infections and is not related to location of seropositive pigs. Other players might be involved in cysticercosis transmission. In this study we hypothesize that pigs that carry nematodes specific to dung beetles are associated with cysticercosis infection and/or exposure. We carried out a cross-sectional study of six villages in an endemic region in northern Peru. We euthanized all pigs (326) in the villages and performed necropsies to diagnose cysticercosis. For each pig, we counted cysticerci; measured anti-cysticercus antibodies; identified intestinal nematodes; tabulated distance to nearest human tapeworm infection; and recorded age, sex, productive stage, and geographic reference. For the purpose of this paper, we defined cysticercosis infection as the presence of at least one cysticercus in pig muscles, and cysticercosis exposure as seropositivity to anti-cysticercus antibodies with the presence of 0-5 cysticerci. Compared to pigs without nematode infections, those pigs infected with the nematode Ascarops strongylina were significantly associated with the presence of cysticerci (OR: 4.30, 95%CI: 1.83-10.09). Similarly, pigs infected with the nematode Physocephalus sexalatus were more likely to have cysticercosis exposure (OR: 2.21, 95%CI: 1.50-3.28). In conclusion, our results suggest that there appears to be a strong positive association between the presence of nematodes and both cysticercosis infection and exposure in pigs. The role of dung beetles in cysticercosis dynamics should be further investigated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003247DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4199528PMC
October 2014

Occurrence of Giardia duodenalis assemblages in alpacas in the Andean region.

Parasitol Int 2014 Feb 18;63(1):31-4. Epub 2013 Oct 18.

School of Veterinary Medicine, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Peru. Electronic address:

In this study, 352 fecal samples were analyzed for G. duodenalis from alpaca mothers and crias from three different areas of highland in Peru. The triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) gene of Giardia was amplified using a nested PCR protocol. Forty-six G. duodenalis-PCR positive samples were sequenced. G. duodenalis assemblage A was the most frequent followed by assemblage E. The former was seen in 37 animals whereas the latter was seen in nine. Most of the assemblage A infections were caused by the A1 subtype of sub-assemblage AI, except for three, which were caused by the A2 subtype of sub-assemblage AI. Assemblage A was found in all three geographic regions, while assemblage E was detected in crias from two regions. Among the four alpaca mothers positive for Giardia, three had assemblage AI and one had assemblage AII. Results of this study indicate that possible zoonotic transmission human to alpacas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.parint.2013.10.003DOI Listing
February 2014

Hemi-nested PCR and RFLP methodologies for identifying blood meals of the Chagas disease vector, Triatoma infestans.

PLoS One 2013 11;8(9):e74713. Epub 2013 Sep 11.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America.

Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease, is transmitted by hematophagous reduviid bugs within the subfamily Triatominae. These vectors take blood meals from a wide range of hosts, and their feeding behaviors have been used to investigate the ecology and epidemiology of T. cruzi. In this study we describe two PCR-based methodologies that amplify a fragment of the 16S mitochondrial rDNA, aimed to improve the identification of blood meal sources for Triatoma infestans: a.--Sequence analyses of two heminested PCRs that allow the identification of mammalian and avian species, and b.--restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis from the mammalian PCR to identify and differentiate multi-host blood meals. Findings from both methodologies indicate that host DNA could be detected and the host species identified in samples from laboratory reared and field collected triatomines. The implications of this study are two-fold. First, these methods can be used in areas where the fauna diversity and feeding behavior of the triatomines are unknown. Secondly, the RFLP method led to the identification of multi-host DNA from T. infestans gut contents, enhancing the information provided by this assay. These tools are important contributions for ecological and epidemiological studies of vector-borne diseases.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0074713PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3770599PMC
July 2014

Trombiculiasis caused by chigger mites Eutrombicula (Acari: Trombiculidae) in Peruvian alpacas.

Vet Parasitol 2012 Nov 19;190(1-2):294-6. Epub 2012 Jun 19.

School of Veterinary Medicine, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Av. Circunvalación 2800, Lima 41, Peru.

Trombiculiasis is an infestation caused by larvae members of the family Trombiculidae, common called chigger mites. In this study is presented the first case of trombiculiasis caused by the infestation of chigger mite Eutrombicula in alpacas from Peru. Twenty-two alpacas of a total of 130 animals were infested by Eutrombicula sp. The chigger mite location was only in the face skin folds and around the eyes. In addition, all alpacas infested had alopecia and dermatitis in the infected zone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2012.06.012DOI Listing
November 2012