Publications by authors named "Luigi Nappi"

80 Publications

Uterine rupture during pregnancy: The URIDA (uterine rupture international data acquisition) study.

Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2021 Jul 1. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical School, University of Bari, Bari, Italy.

Objective: To describe the characteristics and peripartum outcomes of patients diagnosed with uterine rupture (UR) by an observational cohort retrospective study on 270 patients.

Methods: Demographic information, surgical history, symptoms, and postoperative outcome of women and neonates after UR were collected in a large database. The statistical analysis searched for correlation between UR, previous uterine interventions, fibroids, and the successive perinatal outcomes in women with previous UR.

Results: Uterine rupture was significantly associated with previous uterine surgery, occurring, on average, at 36 weeks of pregnancy in women also without previous uterine surgery. UR did not rise exponentially with an increasing number of uterine operations. Fibroids were related to UR. The earliest UR occurred at 159 days after hysteroscopic myomectomy, followed by laparoscopic myomectomy (251 days) and laparotomic myomectomy (253 days). Fertility preservation was feasible in several women. Gestational age and birth weight seemed not to be affected in the subsequent pregnancy.

Conclusion: Data analysis showed that previous laparoscopic and abdominal myomectomies were associated with UR in pregnancy, and hysteroscopic myomectomy was associated at earlier gestational ages. UR did not increase exponentially with an increasing number of previous scars. UR should not be considered a contraindication to future pregnancies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijgo.13810DOI Listing
July 2021

Comparison between Cerebroplacental Ratio and Umbilicocerebral Ratio in Predicting Adverse Perinatal Outcome in Pregnancies Complicated by Late Fetal Growth Restriction: A Multicenter, Retrospective Study.

Fetal Diagn Ther 2021 06 15:1-9. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Center for High Risk Pregnancy and Fetal Care, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Chieti, Chieti, Italy.

Introduction: The role of cerebroplacental ratio (CPR) or umbilicocerebral ratio (UCR) to predict adverse intrapartum and perinatal outcomes in pregnancies complicated by late fetal growth restriction (FGR) remains controversial.

Methods: This was a multicenter, retrospective cohort study involving 5 referral centers in Italy and Spain, including singleton pregnancies complicated by late FGR, as defined by Delphi consensus criteria, with a scan 1 week prior to delivery. The primary objective was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of the CPR and UCR for the prediction of a composite adverse outcome, defined as the presence of either an adverse intrapartum outcome (need for operative delivery/cesarean section for suspected fetal distress) or an adverse perinatal outcome (intrauterine death, Apgar score <7 at 5 min, arterial pH <7.1, base excess of >-11 mEq/mL, or neonatal intensive care unit admission).

Results: Median CPR absolute values (1.11 vs. 1.22, p = 0.018) and centiles (3 vs. 4, p = 0.028) were lower in pregnancies with a composite adverse outcome than in those without it. Median UCR absolute values (0.89 vs. 0.82, p = 0.018) and centiles (97 vs. 96, p = 0.028) were higher. However, the area under the curve, 95% confidence interval for predicting the composite adverse outcome showed a poor predictive value: 0.580 (0.512-0.646) for the raw absolute values of CPR and UCR, and 0.575 (0.507-0.642) for CPR and UCR centiles adjusted for gestational age. The use of dichotomized values (CPR <1, UCR >1 or CPR <5th centile, UCR >95th centile) did not improve the diagnostic accuracy.

Conclusion: The CPR and UCR measured in the week prior delivery are of low predictive value to assess adverse intrapartum and perinatal outcomes in pregnancies with late FGR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000516443DOI Listing
June 2021

Diagnostic performance of cerebroplacental and umbilicocerebral ratio in appropriate for gestational age and late growth restricted fetuses attempting vaginal delivery: a multicenter, retrospective study.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2021 Jun 8:1-7. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Fetal Medicine Unit, Maternal and Child Health and Development Network, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital 12 de Octubre, Complutense University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

Background: Cerebroplacental Doppler studies have been advocated to predict the risk of adverse perinatal outcome (APO) irrespective of fetal weight.

Objective: To report the diagnostic performance of cerebroplacental (CPR) and umbilicocerebral (UCR) ratios in predicting APO in appropriate for gestational age (AGA) fetuses and in those affected by late fetal growth restriction (FGR) attempting vaginal delivery.

Study Design: Multicenter, retrospective, nested case-control study between 1 January 2017 and January 2020 involving five referral centers in Italy and Spain. Singleton gestations with a scan between 36 and 40 weeks and within two weeks of attempting vaginal delivery were included. Fetal arterial Doppler and biometry were collected. The AGA group was defined as fetuses with an estimated fetal weight and abdominal circumference >10th and <90th percentile, while the late FGR group was defined by Delphi consensus criteria. The primary outcome was the prediction of a composite of perinatal adverse outcomes including either intrauterine death, Apgar score at 5 min <7, abnormal acid-base status (umbilical artery pH < 7.1 or base excess of more than -11) and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission. Area under the curve (AUC) analysis was performed.

Results: 646 pregnancies (317 in the AGA group and 329 in the late FGR group) were included. APO were present in 12.6% AGA and 24.3% late FGR pregnancies, with an odds ratio of 2.22 (95% CI 1.46-3.37). The performance of CPR and UCR for predicting APO was poor in both AGA [AUC: 0.44 (0.39-0.51)] and late FGR fetuses [AUC: 0.56 (0.49-0.61)].

Conclusions: CPR and UCR on their own are poor prognostic predictors of APO irrespective of fetal weight.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14767058.2021.1926977DOI Listing
June 2021

Endometriosis and adverse pregnancy outcome.

Minerva Obstet Gynecol 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, Institute of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Foggia, Foggia, Italy -

Introduction: Endometriosis is a gynecologic disease affecting approximately 10% of reproductive age women, around 21-47% of women presenting subfertility and 71-87% of women with chronic pelvic pain. Main symptoms are chronic pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia and infertility that seem to be well controlled by oral contraceptive pill, progestogens, GnRh antagonists.

Evidence Acquisition: The aim of this review is to illustrate the modern diagnosis of endometriosis during pregnancy, to evaluate the evolution of endometriotic lesions during pregnancy and the incidence of adverse outcomes. Pregnancy in women with endometriosis does not always lead to disappearance of symptoms and decrease in the size of endometriotic lesions, but it may be possible to observe a malignant transformation of ovarian endometriotic lesions. Onset of complications may be caused by many factors: chronic inflammation, adhesions, progesterone resistance and a dysregulation of genes involved in the embryo implantation. As results, the pregnancy can be more difficult because of endometriosis related complications (spontaneous hemoperitoneum (SH), bowel complications…) or adverse outcomes like preterm birth, FGR, hypertensive disorders, obstetrics hemorrhages (placenta previa, abruptio placenta), miscarriage or cesarean section.

Evidence Synthesis: Due to insufficient knowledge about its pathogenesis, currently literature data are contradictory and do not show a strong correlation between endometriosis and these complications except for miscarriage and cesarean delivery.

Conclusions: Future research should focus on the potential biological pathways underlying these relationships in order to inform patients planning a birth about possible complications during pregnancy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S2724-606X.20.04718-8DOI Listing
June 2021

Role of surgical treatment in endometriosis.

Minerva Obstet Gynecol 2021 Jun;73(3):317-332

Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Department of Surgical Sciences, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy.

Endometriosis can take one of three forms depending on its clinical presentation and management: endometriotic ovarian cyst (ovarian endometrioma), superficial or peritoneal endometriosis and deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE).Among them, DIE is considered the most aggressive, and the patient is often affected by more than one type together. The therapeutic methodology should not be influenced by a combination of different types of endometriotic lesion. According to the clinical context and the patient's needs, the treatment of this pathology can be medical or surgical. Although medical therapy could improve endometriosis-associated symptoms, it never offers a definite treatment for symptomatic patients, who often require surgical treatment. The rationale behind endometriosis surgical treatment is to achieve the complete removal of all lesions through a one-step surgical procedure; to obtain promising long-term results for pelvic pain, recurrence rate, and fertility; and to protect the functionality of the involved organs. Achieving these results depends on the total removal of the pathology from the pelvis, in an attempt to preserve, as much as possible, the healthy tissues surrounding the site of the disease. The choice of a surgical approach rather than medical therapy is subject to the patient's expectations, such as pregnancy desire, the effectiveness of treatment compared to possible complications, the type of pain and its intensity, and the location and severity of the disease. In this context, surgical management using a multidisciplinary endometriosis team is an important factor for achieving good outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S2724-606X.21.04737-7DOI Listing
June 2021

Case Report: Bowel Occlusion Following the Use of Barbed Sutures in Abdominal Surgery. A Single-Center Experience and Literature Review.

Front Surg 2021 20;8:626505. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Institute for Maternal and Child Health, Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico "Burlo Garofolo", Trieste, Italy.

A high level of surgical ability is required to perform endoscopic knot tying. Barbed sutures help in avoiding this procedure, thus reducing intraoperative time and lowering blood loss and hospitalization time when compared to traditional sutures. Some cases of bowel occlusion following the use of barbed sutures have been described in literature. All of them are characterized by the entanglement of an intestinal loop in wire barbs with bowel occlusion symptoms. We report two more cases which occurred in our Institute in 2020 and review those which have been reported in the literature by searching on Pubmed, Scopus, and Embase. We used the search terms: "Barbed," "Suture," "Bowel," and "Obstruction." We examined in the literature the surgical procedures, the type of complications, the time to onset of the complications, and the type of barbed suture. Twenty-two cases in total were reported in the literature from 2011 to 2020, and bowel complications were largely subsequent to interventions such as hernia surgical repair and myomectomy. In order to take advantage of barbed sutures while minimizing the risk of adverse events, such as intestinal occlusion, some precautions may be considered, such as the shortening of thread tails and use of antiadhesive barriers. Moreover, performing a few stitches backwards when ending the suture might be a useful suggestion. Further studies in this field may be useful in order to assess whether it might be better avoiding barbed suture application on serosal tissues to prevent bowel damage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fsurg.2021.626505DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8093862PMC
April 2021

Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome and adverse pregnancy outcome: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Minerva Obstet Gynecol 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Fetal Medicine Unit, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Foggia, Foggia, Italy -

Purpose Of The Article: To investigate the association between ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) and adverse pregnancy outcome.

Material And Methods: Medline, Embase and Cochrane databases were searched. The primary outcome was a composite score of adverse maternal outcome including either preterm birth (PTB), gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), pre-eclampsia (PE) or pregnancy induced hypertension, intra-hepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, thromboembolic events or need for caesarean section (CS). Secondary outcomes were a composite score of adverse fetal outcome including either miscarriage, low birthweight, fetal anomalies or intra-uterine fetal death (IUD) and the individual components of both primary and secondary outcomes.

Results: 13 studies (3303 ART pregnancies with and 89720 without OHSS) were included. The risk of composite adverse maternal outcome (RR: 8.8, 95% CI 8.1-9.5) was higher in women with compared to those without OHSS. The association between OHSS and adverse pregnancy outcome was mainly due to the higher risk of PTB (RR: 11.4, 95% CI 10.5-12.4), while there was no difference in the risk of others primary outcome. Likewise, the risk of composite fetal outcome was higher in pregnancies with a prior OHSS (RR: 1.5, 95% CI 1.1-2.0). The strength of association between OHSS and composite adverse maternal outcome persisted when considering singleton pregnancies or those with severe disease.

Conclusions: Pregnancies complicated by OHSS are at high risk of adverse pregnancy outcome, especially PTB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S2724-606X.21.04806-5DOI Listing
May 2021

Cesarean Scar Pregnancy Treated by Artery Embolization Combined with Diode Laser: A Novel Approach for a Rare Disease.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2021 Apr 23;57(5). Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Foggia, 71121 Foggia, Italy.

Cesarean scar pregnancy (CSP) is a rare form of ectopic pregnancy which represents a consequence of a previous cesarean section. It is associated with major maternal morbidity and mortality and has potential implications on future fertility. Because of possible serious complications, CSP should be swiftly diagnosed and treated. There is no management protocol for this rare, life-threatening condition, and each patient should be evaluated individually. Several types of conservative treatment have been used to treat cesarean scar pregnancy: dilation and curettage (D&C), excision of trophoblastic tissues, local or systemic administration of methotrexate, bilateral hypogastric artery ligation, and selective uterine artery embolization with curettage and/or methotrexate administration. In our study we present a cesarean scar pregnancy of a 40-year-old woman who was treated with angiographic uterine artery embolization (UAE) followed by hysteroscopic diode laser resection. Our combined UAE-hysteroscopic laser surgery appears to offer an effective, safe, and minimally invasive surgical treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/medicina57050411DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8146286PMC
April 2021

Pregnancy outcomes in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS).

Minerva Obstet Gynecol 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Department of Surgical Sciences, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy.

Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinological disease of reproductive-aged women, with an estimated incidence ranging from 5% to 15%. The clinical manifestations of PCOS are heterogeneous and vary according to the age of the patient. Insulin resistance (IR), hyperandrogenism, and obesity are widely assumed to play a pivotal role in the pathophysiological mechanism of PCOS. As previously stated by many conducted meta-analyses, PCOS can cause a rising risk of pregnancy complications, including maternal, fetal, and neonatal complications. Pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH), preeclampsia (PE), gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), spontaneous preterm birth (PTB), and an increased necessity for a cesarean section (CS) are the most documented maternal implications. Regarding fetal outcomes, PCOS has also been correlated with elevated neonatal morbidity, prematurity, fetal growth restriction (FGR), birth weight variations (large for gestational age (LGA) and small for gestational age (SGA), and transfer to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Owing to the variability of the studies performed, the association of PCOS with an elevated risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes is still controversial. This variability is found in the diagnosis and clinical presentations of PCOS, and can be influenced by pre-pregnancy circumstances and therapies as well as particular population and environmental features. The Amsterdam consensus guidelines confirm that obesity and IR can worsen maternal and fetal complications; thus, a closer follow-up should be offered to PCOS women during pregnancy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S2724-606X.21.04758-4DOI Listing
April 2021

Fertility outcomes after hysteroscopic removal of intrauterine leiomyomas and polyps.

Minerva Obstet Gynecol 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, Institute of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Foggia, Foggia, Italy.

Introduction: Thanks to the progress of science, it is now understood that a successful implantation not only depends on the quality of the embryo, but also on having a receptive endometrium. During the years, several authors have reviewed the important role of the uterine factor, ranging from the congenital anomalies, such as uterine septa and subsepta, and acquired conditions such as endometrial polyps and submucous myomas. Currently, hysteroscopy has proved to be a powerful and accurate tool for visualizing the uterine cavity and treating intrauterine pathologies.

Evidence Acquisition: This review of the literature aims to report the current available data on the effects of the two most common endouterine pathologies (i.e. endometrial polyps and submucous myomas) and the impact of hysteroscopic removal on fertility outcomes.

Evidence Synthesis: To date, the low number of randomized controlled trials available does not yet make it possible to give a definitive answer on what are the reproductive outcomes following treatment of endometrial polyps and leiomyomas. Nevertheless, existing evidence points to a benefit of removal of this two pathologies in infertile women, mostly when they have a history of recurrent pregnancy loss.

Conclusions: Further studies are needed to demonstrate that surgical treatments of endometrial polyps and myomas could improve not only the morphology but also the function of the uterine cavity before undergoing any assisted fertility treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S2724-606X.21.04739-0DOI Listing
April 2021

Possible role of microbiome in the pathogenesis of endometriosis.

Minerva Obstet Gynecol 2021 Apr;73(2):193-214

Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Department of Surgical Sciences, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy.

Introduction: There is an urgent necessity to explore the complex pathophysiological nature of endometriosis, which may enable the rationale for new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies to be discovered. This systematic review aimed to clarify the bidirectional relationship between endometriosis and the microbiome and evaluate if the microbiome may be involved in endometriosis's pathogenesis, establishing a potential connection between the different studies.

Evidence Acquisition: Studies were identified through a systematic literature search of papers that evaluated the microbiomes of human or other animal species with endometriosis and of those without in the electronic database PubMed/Medline, and Embase without a date restriction. We included all cohort studies focusing on the interaction between endometriosis and the microbiomes of humans or other mammals, evaluating if the microbiome may be involved in endometriosis's pathogenesis.

Evidence Synthesis: Endometriosis appears to be associated with elevated levels of different microorganisms across various microbiome sites. An ineffective immune response seems to play a key role in endometriosis pathogenesis, and there is some scientific proof to state that the immune response may be modulated by the microbiome. Interestingly, nine studies of our review detected species belonging to the phyla Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Negativicutes characterized by Gram-negative staining, that were significantly increased in endometriosis cohorts.

Conclusions: Laboratory and clinical investigations indicate that hosts' microbiome profiles with and without endometriosis can be significantly different. To further our understanding of the relationships between endometriosis and the host microbiome, more studies are necessary.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S2724-606X.21.04788-2DOI Listing
April 2021

Outcome of cesarean scar pregnancy according to gestational age at diagnosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2021 Mar 12;258:53-59. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Center for Fetal Care and High-Risk Pregnancy, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Chieti, Chieti, Italy. Electronic address:

Objective: The association between the most severe types of placenta accreta spectrum disorders and caesarean scar pregnancy (CSP) poses the question of whether early diagnosis may impact the clinical outcome of these anomalies. The aim of this study is to report the outcome of cesarean scar pregnancy (CSP) diagnosed in the early (≤9 weeks) versus late (>9 weeks) first trimester of pregnancy.

Study Design: Medline, Embase and Clinicaltrail.gov databases were searched. Studies including cases of CSP with an early (≤9 weeks of gestation) compared to a late (>9 weeks) first trimester diagnosis of CSP, followed by immediate treatment, were included in this systematic review. The primary outcome was a composite measure of severe maternal morbidity including either severe first trimester bleeding, need for blood transfusion, uterine rupture or emergency hysterectomy. The secondary outcomes were the individual components of the primary outcome. Random-effect meta-analyses were used to combine data.

Results: Thirty-six studies (724 women with CSP) were included. Overall, composite adverse outcome complicated 5.9 % (95 % CI 3.5-9.0) of CSP diagnosed ≤9 weeks and 32.4 % (95 % CI 15.7-51.8) of those diagnosed >9 weeks. Massive hemorrhage occurred in 4.3 % (95 % CI 2.3-7.0) of women with early and in 28.0 % (95 % CI 14.1-44.5) of those with late first trimester diagnosis of CSP, while the corresponding figures for the need for blood transfusion were 1.5 % (95 % CI 0.6-2.8) and 15.8 % (95 % CI 5.5-30.2) respectively. Uterine rupture occurred in 2.5 % (95 % CI 1.2-4.1) of women with a prenatal diagnosis of CSP ≤ 9 weeks and in 7.5 % (95 % CI 2.5-14.9) of those with CSP > 9 weeks, while an emergency intervention involving hysterectomy was required in 3.7 % (95 % CI 2.2-5.4) and 16.3 % (95 % CI5.9-30.6) respectively. When computing the risk, early diagnosis of CSP was associated with a significantly lower risk of composite adverse outcome, (OR: 0.14; 95 % CI 0.1-0.4 p < 0.001).

Conclusions: Early first trimester diagnosis of CSP is associated with a significantly lower risk of maternal complications, thus supporting a policy of universal screening for these anomalies in women with a prior cesarean delivery although the cost-effectiveness of such policy should be tested in future studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejogrb.2020.11.036DOI Listing
March 2021

Diagnostic accuracy of hysteroscopy, ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging in detecting congenital uterine anomalies.

Minerva Ginecol 2020 Dec 11. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

Minimally Invasive Gynecology Division, University of Miami, Miller School of Medicine, Miami FL, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0026-4784.20.04723-1DOI Listing
December 2020

Perinatal emotional states: a comparative study between two cohorts recruited in a Mediterranean environment.

Women Health 2021 Mar 19;61(3):221-234. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

Research Center for Behavioral Assessment (CRAMC), Department of Psychology, Universitat Rovira I Virgili, Tarragona, Spain.

Experiencing negative emotional states during pregnancy has been linked to adverse outcomes for mother and offspring. Our study aims were to compare the perinatal emotional states and obstetrical variables between pregnant women recruited in Spain (n = 202) and Italy (n = 103), and to investigate prenatal anxiety related factors. The study had two phases. In the 1 phase (3 trimester of pregnancy), prenatal anxiety was assessed using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI); other prenatal and sociodemographic variables were also collected. In the 2 phase (40 days postpartum), the STAI and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale were administered. Compared to the Spanish sample, the Italian sample presented higher STAI state and STAI factor 1 mean scores (22.5 vs. 18.6 and 10.0 vs. 7.2), shorter gestations (mean gestation weeks: 39.1 vs. 39.8), more unplanned pregnancies (31.1% vs. 16.4%), and more cesareans deliveries (42.5% vs. 16.0%). Low socioeconomic levels, younger ages, previous miscarriages and unplanned pregnancies were related to prenatal anxiety. Postpartum depression rates was 31.3% and there were no differences between countries. Our results suggested that it may be interesting in both countries to create a prenatal monitoring protocol that attaches more importance to emotional wellbeing both during pregnancy and in the long term.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03630242.2020.1847749DOI Listing
March 2021

Impact of anxiety levels on the perception of pain in patients undergoing office hysteroscopy.

Arch Gynecol Obstet 2021 04 19;303(4):999-1007. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, Institute of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Foggia, Viale L. Pinto, 71100, Foggia, Italy.

Objective: This study aimed at assessing the impact of anxiety on pain perception during hysteroscopy and to highlight the possible contribution of factors related to pain perception.

Materials And Methods: 104 women with indication for office hysteroscopy fullfilled anonymous self-report questionnaires during the waiting time, before the procedure. The first self-report questionnaire included general patient information and an overall assessment of the degree of satisfaction with the information received before the procedure. The level of pre-procedural anxiety was measured through the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory STAI-Y1 (state anxiety). The perceived stress was assessed using the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). The intensity of pain during the procedure and 20 min later was assessed with VAS score.

Results: The average waiting time was of 192.33 ± 91 min. 59 patients (56.7%) performed the examination without analgesia while 45 women (43.3%) required analgesia. 28 women (27%) experienced mild pain, 34 (33%) moderate pain and 42 (40%) severe pain. The patients who performed the procedure without analgosedation had an average STAI-Y1 score of 44.81 ± 1.20, compared to women who required analgosedation (average score of 49.40 ± 1.64). The perceived level of stress was also associated with the use of analgosedation. Patients who did not request any anesthetic intervention obtained a PSS average score of 16.66 ± 0.75, compared to the subgroup with anesthesia (score of 19.76 ± 0.90).

Conclusions: Anxiety represents a key element for the success of ambulatory hysteroscopy. The management of anxiety can reduce the request for analgesia with a consequent optimization of time, costs and safety.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00404-020-05885-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7985115PMC
April 2021

The singular case of multiple chorangioma syndrome in an IVF pregnancy. Analysis of the case and review of literature.

Placenta 2021 01 22;103:120-123. Epub 2020 Oct 22.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sant'Anna Hospital, University of Turin, Torino, Italy.

The redacted classification of placental lesions identifies in the group of fetal-stromal vascular lesions a subgroup called villous capillary lesions. The causes of villous capillary lesions appear to involve excessive angiogenesis. These conditions include chorangiosis, chorangiomatosis, chorangioma and a rare variant of the latter called multiple chorangioma syndrome where multiple chorangiomas, ranging from very small early precursor lesions to typical macroscopic chorangioma, occupy up to 80% of the total placental parenchyma. We present the first case of multiple chorangioma syndrome in an oncologic patient who obtained the pregnancy by egg donation, comparing the clinical case with ones available in literature. Fifteen cases have been previously published in literature but only 11 were eligible for the present review. We compared clinical characteristics and fetal outcomes with our clinical case, to highlight similarities and differences useful for a better understanding of this rare and partially unknown disease. Multiple chorangioma syndrome is a rare villous capillary lesion associated with poor fetal condition. All cases analyzed have been conceived naturally and our case is the first described in an IVF pregnancy. We believe that in our case the advanced maternal age, the method of conception and the previous chemo-therapeutic treatments might have played an important role in determining the manifestation of this rare placental condition. However, there is not appropriate literature supporting our consideration and, for future studies, it could be reasonable investigate the incidence of this condition, or even the incidence of all cluster of villous capillary lesions, in oncologic and IVF patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.placenta.2020.10.025DOI Listing
January 2021

Diagnostic accuracy of prenatal ultrasound in identifying the level of the lesion in fetuses with open spina bifida: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2021 02 11;100(2):210-219. Epub 2020 Oct 11.

Center for Fetal Care and High-risk Pregnancy, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Chieti, Chieti, Italy.

Introduction: The role of prenatal ultrasound in correctly identifying the level of the lesion in fetuses with open spina bifida has yet to be determined. The primary aim of this systematic review was to report the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound in determining the level of the lesion in fetuses with open spina bifida. The secondary aim was to elucidate whether prenatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) improves the diagnostic performance of prenatal imaging in correctly identifying the level of the lesion.

Material And Methods: Inclusion criteria were studies reporting the agreement between ultrasound, MRI and postnatal or postmortem assessment of fetuses with spina bifida. Agreement was defined as: complete (when the upper level of the lesion detected prenatally was the same recorded at postnatal or postmortem evaluation), within one (when the upper level of the lesion recorded prenatally was within one vertebral body higher or lower than that reported postnatally) and within two vertebral bodies (when the upper level of the lesion recorded prenatally was within two vertebral bodies higher or lower than that reported postnatally or postmortem evaluation). Meta-analyses of proportions were used to combine data.

Results: Fourteen studies (655 fetuses) were included. Ultrasound was able to identify the correct level of the lesion in 40.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] 26.9-55.6) of cases. The upper level of the lesion recorded on ultrasound was within one vertebral body in 76.2% (95% CI 65.0-85.9) of cases and within two segments in 92.4% (95% CI 84.3-97.7). Fetal MRI detected the exact level of the lesion in 42.5% (95% CI 35.9-45.2) of cases; the level of the lesion recorded on MRI was higher in 26.4% (95% CI 20.0-33.3) of cases and lower in 32.4% (95% CI 25.5-39.7) than that confirmed postnatally. The upper level of the lesion recorded on MRI was within one vertebral body in 76.2% (95% CI 65.9-85.2) of cases and within two segments in 94.2% (95% CI 90.2-97.2).

Conclusions: Both ultrasound and MRI have a moderate diagnostic accuracy in identify the upper level of the lesion in fetuses with open spina bifida.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aogs.14001DOI Listing
February 2021

Risk factors associated with adverse fetal outcomes in pregnancies affected by Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): a secondary analysis of the WAPM study on COVID-19.

J Perinat Med 2020 11;48(9):950-958

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Ospedale di San Leonardo, Castellammare di Stabia, Italy.

Objectives To evaluate the strength of association between maternal and pregnancy characteristics and the risk of adverse perinatal outcomes in pregnancies with laboratory confirmed COVID-19. Methods Secondary analysis of a multinational, cohort study on all consecutive pregnant women with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 from February 1, 2020 to April 30, 2020 from 73 centers from 22 different countries. A confirmed case of COVID-19 was defined as a positive result on real-time reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) assay of nasal and pharyngeal swab specimens. The primary outcome was a composite adverse fetal outcome, defined as the presence of either abortion (pregnancy loss before 22 weeks of gestations), stillbirth (intrauterine fetal death after 22 weeks of gestation), neonatal death (death of a live-born infant within the first 28 days of life), and perinatal death (either stillbirth or neonatal death). Logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate parameters independently associated with the primary outcome. Logistic regression was reported as odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Results Mean gestational age at diagnosis was 30.6±9.5 weeks, with 8.0% of women being diagnosed in the first, 22.2% in the second and 69.8% in the third trimester of pregnancy. There were six miscarriage (2.3%), six intrauterine device (IUD) (2.3) and 5 (2.0%) neonatal deaths, with an overall rate of perinatal death of 4.2% (11/265), thus resulting into 17 cases experiencing and 226 not experiencing composite adverse fetal outcome. Neither stillbirths nor neonatal deaths had congenital anomalies found at antenatal or postnatal evaluation. Furthermore, none of the cases experiencing IUD had signs of impending demise at arterial or venous Doppler. Neonatal deaths were all considered as prematurity-related adverse events. Of the 250 live-born neonates, one (0.4%) was found positive at RT-PCR pharyngeal swabs performed after delivery. The mother was tested positive during the third trimester of pregnancy. The newborn was asymptomatic and had negative RT-PCR test after 14 days of life. At logistic regression analysis, gestational age at diagnosis (OR: 0.85, 95% CI 0.8-0.9 per week increase; p<0.001), birthweight (OR: 1.17, 95% CI 1.09-1.12.7 per 100 g decrease; p=0.012) and maternal ventilatory support, including either need for oxygen or CPAP (OR: 4.12, 95% CI 2.3-7.9; p=0.001) were independently associated with composite adverse fetal outcome. Conclusions Early gestational age at infection, maternal ventilatory supports and low birthweight are the main determinants of adverse perinatal outcomes in fetuses with maternal COVID-19 infection. Conversely, the risk of vertical transmission seems negligible.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/jpm-2020-0355DOI Listing
November 2020

Comparison between cerebroplacental ratio and umbilicocerebral ratio in predicting adverse perinatal outcome at term.

Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2020 Sep 24;252:439-443. Epub 2020 Jul 24.

Centre for High Risk Pregnancy and Fetal Care, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Chieti, Italy. Electronic address:

Objective: Cerebroplacental ratio (CPR) has been associated with adverse perinatal outcome irrespective of fetal weight. More recently, it has been proposed that the ratio between umbilical and middle cerebral artery pulsatility index, the umbilicocerebral ratio (UCR) had a higher diagnostic accuracy compared to CPR in predicting adverse outcome. The aim of the study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of CPR and UCR in predicting adverse perinatal outcome in the third trimester of pregnancy.

Study Design: Secondary analysis of prospective study carried out in a dedicated research ultrasound clinic in a single tertiary referral center over a one-year period. Inclusion criteria were consecutive singleton pregnancies between 36 + 0 and 37 + 6 weeks of gestation. Exclusion criteria were multiple gestations, pregnancies affected by structural or chromosomal anomalies, maternal medical complications or drugs intake and abnormal Doppler waveform in the UA, defined as PI>95th or absent/end diastolic flow. All women were pre-screened at 28-32 weeks of gestation in order to rule out signs of early fetal growth restriction. The primary outcome was to compare the diagnostic performance of CPR and UCR in detecting the presence of fetuses affected by a composite adverse outcome.

Results: Mean CPR (1.35 ± 0.39 vs 1.85 ± 0.58, p < 0.001) was significantly lower while mean UCR (0.78 ± 0.25 vs 0.58 ± 0.20, p = 0.001) was significantly higher in pregnancies experiencing compared to those not experiencing composite adverse outcome. There was no difference between CPR and UCR in predicting adverse perinatal outcome in the third trimester of pregnancy and both showed a very low diagnostic accuracy. CPR had an AUC of 0.51 (95 % CI 0.43-0.58) while UCR had an AUC of 0.51 (95 % CI 0.43-0.58) in predicting composite adverse outcome. Likewise, there was no difference in the diagnostic accuracy of CRP (AUC: 0.600, 95 % CI 0.36-0.83) and UCR (AUC: 0.589, 95 % CI 0.35-0.83) when considering only SGA fetuses.

Conclusions: A low CPR and a high UCR are significantly associated with adverse perinatal outcome in singleton pregnancies at term. There was no difference between CPR and UCR in predicting perinatal outcome. Despite this, the diagnostic accuracy of both these parameters is too poor to advocate for their use as a screening tool of perinatal impairment at term, unless specific indications, such as SGA or FGR, have been identified.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejogrb.2020.07.032DOI Listing
September 2020

Adverse intrapartum outcome in pregnancies complicated by small for gestational age and late fetal growth restriction undergoing induction of labor with Dinoprostone, Misoprostol or mechanical methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2020 Sep 18;252:455-467. Epub 2020 Jul 18.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Foggia, Italy. Electronic address:

Objective: To investigate the outcome of pregnancies with small baby, including both small for gestational age (SGA) and late fetal growth restriction (FGR) fetuses, undergoing induction of labor (IOL) with Dinoprostone, Misoprostol or mechanical methods.

Study Design: Medline, Embase and Cochrane databases were searched. Inclusion criteria were non-anomalous singleton pregnancies complicated by the presence of a small fetus, defined as a fetus with estimated fetal weight (EFW) or abdominal circumference (AC) <10th centile undergoing IOL from 34 weeks of gestation with vaginal Dinoprostone, vaginal misoprostol, or mechanical methods (including either Foley or Cook balloon catheters). The primary outcome was a composite measure of adverse intrapartum outcome. Secondary outcomes were the individual components of the primary outcome, perinatal mortality and morbidity. All the explored outcomes were reported in three different sub-groups of pregnancies complicated by a small fetus including: all small fetuses (defined as those with an EFW and/or AC <10th centile irrespective of fetal Doppler status), late FGR fetuses (defined as those with EFW and/or AC <3rd centile or AC/EFW <10th centile associated with abnormal cerebroplacental Dopplers) and SGA fetuses (defined as those with EFW and/or AC <10th but >3rd centile with normal cerebroplacental Dopplers). Quality assessment of each included study was performed using the Risk of Bias in Non-randomized Studies-of Interventions tool (ROBINS-I), while the GRADE methodology was used to assess the quality of the body of retrieved evidence. Meta-analyses of proportions and individual data random-effect logistic regression were used to analyze the data.

Results: 12 studies (1711 pregnancies) were included. In the overall population of small fetuses, composite adverse intra-partum outcome occurred in 21.2 % (95 % CI 10.0-34.9) of pregnancies induced with Dinoprostone, 18.0 % (95 % CI 6.9-32.5) of those with Misoprostol and 11.6 % (95 % CI 5.5-19.3) of those undergoing IOL with mechanical methods. Cesarean section (CS) for non-reassuring fetal status (NRFS) was required in 18.1 % (95 % CI 9.9-28.3) of pregnancies induced with Dinoprostone, 9.4 % (95 % CI 1.4-22.0) of those with Misoprostol and 8.1 % (95 % CI 5.0-11.6) of those undergoing mechanical induction. Likewise, uterine tachysystole, was recorded on CTG in 13.8 % (95 % CI 6.9-22.3) of cases induced with Dinoprostone, 7.5 % (95 % CI 2.1-15.4) of those with Misoprostol and 3.8 % (95 % CI 0-4.4) of those induced with mechanical methods. Composite adverse perinatal outcome following delivery complicated 2.9 % (95 % CI 0.5-6.7) newborns after IOL with Dinoprostone, 0.6 % (95 % CI 0-2.5) with Misoprostol and 0.7 % (95 % CI 0-7.1) with mechanical methods. In pregnancies complicated by late FGR, adverse intrapartum outcome occurred in 25.3 % (95 % CI 18.8-32.5) of women undergoing IOL with Dinoprostone, compared to 7.4 % (95 % CI 3.9-11.7) of those with mechanical methods, while CS for NRFS was performed in 23.8 % (95 % CI 17.3-30.9) and 6.2 % (95 % CI 2.8-10.5) of the cases, respectively. Finally, in SGA fetuses, composite adverse intrapartum outcome complicated 8.4 % (95 % CI 4.6-13.0) of pregnancies induced with Dinoprostone, 18.6 % (95 % CI 13.1-25.2) of those with Misoprostol and 8.7 (95 % CI 2.5-17.5) of those undergoing mechanical IOL, while CS for NRF was performed in 8.4 % (95 % CI 4.6-13.0) of women induced with Dinoprostone, 18.6 % (95 % CI 13.1-25.2) of those with Misoprostol and 8.7 % (95 % CI 2.5-17.5) of those undergoing mechanical induction. Overall, the quality of the included studies was low and was downgraded due to considerable clinical and statistical heterogeneity.

Conclusions: There is limited evidence on the optimal type of IOL in pregnancies with small fetuses. Mechanical methods seem to be associated with a lower occurrence of adverse intrapartum outcomes, but a direct comparison between different techniques could not be performed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejogrb.2020.07.020DOI Listing
September 2020

Neonatal Morbidity of Monoamniotic Twin Pregnancies: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Am J Perinatol 2020 Jul 28. Epub 2020 Jul 28.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Fetal Medicine and Cardiology Unit, University of Foggia, Foggia, Italy.

Objective:  This study was aimed to report the incidence of neonatal morbidity in monochorionic monoamniotic (MCMA) twin pregnancies according to gestational age at birth and type of management adopted (inpatient or outpatient).

Study Design:  Medline and Embase databases were searched. Inclusion criteria were nonanomalous MCMA twins. The primary outcome was a composite score of neonatal morbidity, defined as the occurrence of at least one of the following outcomes: respiratory morbidity, overall neurological morbidity, severe neurological morbidity, and infectious morbidity, necrotizing enterocolitis at different gestational age windows (24-30, 31-32, 33-34, and 35-36 weeks). Secondary outcomes were the individual components of the primary outcome and admission to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Subanalysis according to the type of surveillance strategy (inpatient compared with outpatient) was also performed. Random effect meta-analyses were used to analyze the data.

Results:  A total of 14 studies including 685 MCMA twin pregnancies without fetal anomalies were included. At 24 to 30, 31 to 32, 33 to 34, and 35 to 36 weeks of gestation, the rate of composite morbidity was 75.4, 65.5, 37.6, and 18.5%, respectively, the rate of respiratory morbidity was 74.2, 59.1, 35.5, and 12.2%, respectively, while overall neurological morbidity occurred in 15.3, 10.2, 4.3, and 0% of the cases, respectively. Infectious morbidity complicated 13, 4.2, 3.1, and 0% of newborns while 92.1, 81.6, 58.7, and 0% of cases required admission to NICU. Morbidity in pregnancies delivered between 35 and 36 weeks of gestation was affected by the very small sample size of cases included. When comparing the occurrence of overall morbidity according to the type of management (inpatient or outpatient), there was no difference between the two surveillance strategies ( = 0.114).

Conclusion:  MCMA pregnancies are at high risk of composite neonatal morbidity, mainly respiratory morbidity that gradually decreases with increasing gestational age at delivery with a significant reduction for pregnancies delivered between 33 and 34 weeks. We found no difference in the occurrence of neonatal morbidity between pregnancies managed as inpatient or outpatient.

Key Points: · MCMA pregnancies are at high risk of composite neonatal morbidity, mainly respiratory morbidity.. · Neonatal morbidity gradually decreases with increasing GA at delivery, mostly between 33 and 34 weeks.. · There is no difference in the occurrence of neonatal morbidity between in- or outpatient management..
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0040-1714420DOI Listing
July 2020

Obturator nerve injury in a chemo and radio-resistant patient with a locally-advanced cervical cancer after two previous uterine artery embolizations for severe vaginal bleeding: Case report and review of literature.

Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2020 Sep 2;252:355-358. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Presidio Policlinico di Monserrato, University of Cagliari, Monserrato, Italy.

Chemo and radiotherapy are actually the gold standard of treatment for locally-advanced cervical cancer. We report a case report showing a repaired (video 1) right obturator nerve after an incidental injury during a right internal iliac artery closure with 10 mm titanium clip for severe pelvic bleeding in a patient with locally-advanced cervical cancer. A 52 year-old postmenopausal woman with a chemo and radio-resistant locally-advanced squamous cervical cancer was admitted at our department for severe vaginal bleeding after two previous uterine artery embolizations. As a consequence of the increasing vaginal bleeding, and after a MRI-scan, an open surgical treatment was decided with a type C radical hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. During dissection of obturator, paravescical and pararectal spaces and removal of metastatic pelvic lymphnodes, a severe blood loss that required a right internal iliac artery closure with 10 mm titanium clip was observed. A right obturator nerve incidental injury during this time occurred. After an immediate grasping of the two sides of the lesion, the obturator nerve was succesfully repaired using 4-0 Prolene interrupted sutures (Ethicon, Johnson & Johnson, New Jersey, USA). The patient was regularly discharged four days after the surgical procedure without neurological deficit, paresthesia or side effects. In conclusion obturator nerve repair is an emergency procedure for treatment of patients with advanced cervical cancer, but it should be reserved for oncologic surgeons trained in extensive oncological procedures and repair of nerve and vascular injuries potentially associated with high mortality rate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejogrb.2020.07.002DOI Listing
September 2020

Role of prenatal magnetic resonance imaging in fetuses with isolated agenesis of corpus callosum in the era of fetal neurosonography: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2021 01 24;100(1):7-16. Epub 2020 Aug 24.

Center for Fetal Care and High-risk Pregnancy, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital of Chieti, Chieti, Italy.

Introduction: Corpus callosum agenesis (ACC) is frequently diagnosed during fetal life; its prognosis depends also on additional anomalies. The additional value of fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in fetuses with "isolated" complete (cACC) and partial (pACC) agenesis of the corpus callosum on ultrasound is still debated.

Material And Methods: We performed a systematic literature review and meta-analysis including fetuses with a prenatal diagnosis of cACC and pACC without associated structural anomalies on ultrasound, undergoing fetal MRI. The primary outcome was the rate of additional anomalies detected at fetal MRI. Further analyses assessed the effect of type of ultrasound assessment (neurosonography vs standard axial assessment), gestational age at fetal MRI and rate of postnatally detected brain anomalies. Random-effect meta-analyses of proportions were used to analyze the data.

Results: Fourteen studies (798 fetuses) were included. In cases with isolated cACC, 10.9% (95% CI 4.1-20.6) and 4.3% (95% CI 1.4-8.8) additional anomalies were detected by fetal MRI and postnatally, respectively. Stratifying according to the type of ultrasound assessment, the rate of associated anomalies detected only on fetal MRI was 5.7% (95% CI 0.5-16.0) with dedicated neurosonography and 18.5% (95% CI 7.8-32.4) with a standard axial assessment. In fetuses with isolated pACC, 13.4% (95% CI 4.0-27.0) and 16.2% (95% CI 5.9-30.3) additional anomalies were detected by fetal MRI or postnatally, respectively. Stratifying according to the type of ultrasound assessment, the rate of associated anomalies detected only on fetal MRI was 11.4% (95% CI 2.7-25.0) when dedicated neurosonography was performed. Cortical and posterior fossa anomalies represented the most common anomalies missed at ultrasound with both cACC and pACC. Due to the very small number of included cases, stratification according to early (<24 weeks of gestation) and late (>24 weeks) fetal MRI could not be done for either cACC or pACC.

Conclusions: The rate of associated anomalies detected exclusively at fetal MRI in isolated ACC undergoing neurosonography is lower than previously reported. Cortical and posterior fossa anomalies are among the most common anomalies detected exclusively at MRI, thus confirming the crucial role of fetal MRI in determining the prognosis of these fetuses. However, some anomalies still go undetected prenatally and this should be stressed during parental counseling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aogs.13958DOI Listing
January 2021

Reproductive outcome after cesarean scar pregnancy: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2020 10 19;99(10):1278-1289. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Center for High Risk Pregnancy and Fetal Care, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Chieti, Chieti, Italy.

Introduction: To evaluate subsequent reproductive among women with a prior cesarean scar pregnancy (CSP).

Material And Methods: MEDLINE, Embase and ClinicalTrials.gov databases were searched. Inclusion criteria were women with a prior CSP, defined as the gestational sac or trophoblast within the dehiscence/niche of the previous cesarean section scar or implanted on top of it. The primary outcome was the recurrence of CSP; secondary outcomes were the chance of achieving a pregnancy after CSP, miscarriage, preterm birth, uterine rupture and the occurrence of placenta accreta spectrum disorders. Subgroup analysis according to the management of CSP (surgical vs non-surgical) was also performed. Random effect meta-analyses of proportions were used to analyze the data.

Results: Forty-four studies (3598 women with CSP) were included. CSP recurred in 17.6% of women. Miscarriage, preterm birth and placenta accreta spectrum disorders complicated 19.1% (65/341), 10.3% (25/243) and 4.0% of pregnancies, and 67.0% were uncomplicated. When stratifying the analysis according to the type of management, CSP recurred in 21% of women undergoing surgical and in 15.2% of those undergoing non-surgical management. Placenta accreta spectrum disorders complicated 4.0% and 12.0% of cases, respectively.

Conclusions: Women with a prior CSP are at high risk of recurrence, miscarriage, preterm birth and placenta accreta spectrum. There is still insufficient evidence to elucidate whether the type of management adopted (surgical vs non-surgical) can impact reproductive outcome after CSP. Further large, prospective studies sharing an objective protocol of prenatal management and long-term follow up are needed to establish the optimal management of CSP and to elucidate whether it may affect its risk of recurrence and pregnancy outcome in subsequent gestations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aogs.13918DOI Listing
October 2020

Outcome of coronavirus spectrum infections (SARS, MERS, COVID-19) during pregnancy: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM 2020 05 25;2(2):100107. Epub 2020 Mar 25.

Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Foggia, Foggia, Italy.

Objective: The aim of this systematic review was to report pregnancy and perinatal outcomes of coronavirus spectrum infections, and particularly coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) disease because of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 infection during pregnancy.

Data Sources: Medline, Embase, Cinahl, and Clinicaltrials.gov databases were searched electronically utilizing combinations of word variants for coronavirus or severe acute respiratory syndrome or SARS or Middle East respiratory syndrome or MERS or COVID-19 and pregnancy. The search and selection criteria were restricted to English language.

Study Eligibility Criteria: Inclusion criteria were hospitalized pregnant women with a confirmed coronavirus related-illness, defined as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), or COVID-19.

Study Appraisal And Synthesis Methods: We used meta-analyses of proportions to combine data and reported pooled proportions, so that a pooled proportion may not coincide with the actual raw proportion in the results. The pregnancy outcomes observed included miscarriage, preterm birth, preeclampsia, preterm prelabor rupture of membranes, fetal growth restriction, and mode of delivery. The perinatal outcomes observed were fetal distress, Apgar score <7 at 5 minutes, neonatal asphyxia, admission to a neonatal intensive care unit, perinatal death, and evidence of vertical transmission.

Results: Nineteen studies including 79 hospitalized women were eligible for this systematic review: 41 pregnancies (51.9%) affected by COVID-19, 12 (15.2%) by MERS, and 26 (32.9%) by SARS. An overt diagnosis of pneumonia was made in 91.8%, and the most common symptoms were fever (82.6%), cough (57.1%), and dyspnea (27.0%). For all coronavirus infections, the pooled proportion of miscarriage was 64.7% (8/12; 95% confidence interval, 37.9-87.3), although reported only for women affected by SARS in two studies with no control group; the pooled proportion of preterm birth <37 weeks was 24.3% (14/56; 95% confidence interval, 12.5-38.6); premature prelabor rupture of membranes occurred in 20.7% (6/34; 95% confidence interval, 9.5-34.9), preeclampsia in 16.2% (2/19; 95% confidence interval, 4.2-34.1), and fetal growth restriction in 11.7% (2/29; 95% confidence interval, 3.2-24.4), although reported only for women affected by SARS; 84% (50/58) were delivered by cesarean; the pooled proportion of perinatal death was 11.1% (5/60; 95% confidence interval, 84.8-19.6), and 57.2% of newborns (3/12; 95% confidence interval, 3.6-99.8) were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit. When focusing on COVID-19, the most common adverse pregnancy outcome was preterm birth <37 weeks, occurring in 41.1% of cases (14/32; 95% confidence interval, 25.6-57.6), while the pooled proportion of perinatal death was 7.0% (2/41; 95% confidence interval, 1.4-16.3). None of the 41 newborns assessed showed clinical signs of vertical transmission.

Conclusion: In hospitalized mothers infected with coronavirus infections, including COVID-19, >90% of whom also had pneumonia, preterm birth is the most common adverse pregnancy outcome. COVID-19 infection was associated with higher rate (and pooled proportions) of preterm birth, preeclampsia, cesarean, and perinatal death. There have been no published cases of clinical evidence of vertical transmission. Evidence is accumulating rapidly, so these data may need to be updated soon. The findings from this study can guide and enhance prenatal counseling of women with COVID-19 infection occurring during pregnancy, although they should be interpreted with caution in view of the very small number of included cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajogmf.2020.100107DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7104131PMC
May 2020

Pre- and postnatal brain hemodynamics in pregnancies at term: correlation with Doppler ultrasound, birthweight, and adverse perinatal outcome.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2020 Mar 9:1-7. Epub 2020 Mar 9.

Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, Institute of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Foggia, Foggia, Italy.

To elucidate the correlation between pre- and postnatal cerebral Doppler in pregnancies close to term and to explore whether they are associated with perinatal outcome. Prospective study on singleton pregnancies at 36-37 weeks of gestation. The primary outcome was a composite score of perinatal morbidity, while secondary outcomes were adverse intra-partum outcome and abnormal acid-base status. All pregnancies underwent ultrasound assessment of umbilical artery (UA), middle cerebral artery (MCA), uterine arteries (UtAs) pulsatility index (PI), and cerebroplacental ratio (CPR). At birth, neonatal MCA PI was measured 72 h from delivery and correlated with prenatal Doppler, primary and secondary outcomes. Fisher's test and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to analyze the data. One hundred and sixty-six fetuses with both pre- and postnatal Doppler assessment of the MCA were included in the study. The risk of composite perinatal morbidity was higher in fetuses (OR: 5.7, 95% CI 2.2-14.6) and newborns (OR: 4.1, 95% CI 1.8-9.6) with fetal MCA PI < 10th centile. Likewise, the incidence of abnormal acid-base status was higher both in fetuses (20 versus 4.2%,  = .026) and newborns (17.1 versus 3.2%,  = .001) with a low MCA PI before and at birth, respectively. At logistic regression analysis, fetal and neonatal MCAPI were independently associated with composite perinatal morbidity and abnormal acid-base status, but not with adverse intra-partum outcome. In small for gestational age (SGA) fetuses, the incidence of composite perinatal morbidity was higher in fetuses and new-borns presenting compared to those not presenting with an MCA PI < 10th centile (61.5 versus 20%,  = .003 and 52.6% versus 7.1%,  = .008, respectively), while such association was lost when considering non-SGA fetuses. A low MCA PI is associated with adverse perinatal outcome in pregnancies at term and tends to persist after birth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14767058.2020.1731456DOI Listing
March 2020

Prenatal risk factors for urgent atrial septostomy at birth in fetuses with transposition of the great arteries: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2020 Feb 10:1-9. Epub 2020 Feb 10.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Ospedali Riuniti, University of Foggia, Foggia, Italy.

To explore the role of fetal echocardiography in predicting the risk of urgent balloon atrial septostomy (BAS) at birth in fetuses diagnosed with transposition of the great arteries (TGA). Medline, Embase, and Cochrane databases were searched. The primary aim was to explore the differences in prenatal echocardiographic parameters among fetuses diagnosed with TGA that required urgent BAS within 24 h of birth due to life-threatening cyanosis compared to those who did not require such procedure. Random-effect meta-analyses were used to compute the data. Six studies (292 fetuses) were included. Restrictive appearance of the FO was present in 64.5% (95% CI = 39.8-85.7) of fetuses with TGA requiring BAS at birth compared to 7.9% (95% CI = 2.1-16.8) not requiring such procedure (OR = 71.1; 95% CI = 8.3-608.5,  < .0001). Hypermobile appearance of the atrial septum was present in 39.1% (95% CI = 26.4-56.5) of fetuses requiring BAS at birth compared to 9.8% (95% CI = 1.4-24.3) of those which did (OR 3.6; 95% CI = 1.4-9.0,  = .05). There was no difference in the prevalence of redundant ( = .374) or fixed ( = .051) atrial septum, bidirectional flow in the DA ( = .26) or an abnormal size of the DA ( = .06) in fetuses requiring urgent BAS at birth compared to those which did not. Mean (±SD) size of the right atrium was smaller in the fetuses with TGA undergoing urgent BAS at birth (23.4 ± 6.7) compared to those which did not (29.2 ± 6.2,  = .01). The mean (±SD) ratio between the FO and the aortic valve diameters (1.01 ± 0.41 versus 1.41 ± 0.43,  = .009) and the mean (±SD) ratio between the FO diameter and the septal length (0.36 ± 0.13 versus 0.51 ± 0.14,  = .001) were significantly smaller in fetuses requiring compared to those not undergoing urgent BAS at birth. The diagnostic accuracy of each independent ultrasound marker of the need for urgent BAS showed an overall good specificity but a low sensitivity. Fetal echocardiography prior to birth can stratify the risk of BAS in fetuses with TGA. Further studies are needed to validate these findings and build individualized multiparametric predictive models in order to more accurately identify those fetuses with TGA at a higher risk of urgent BAS after birth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14767058.2020.1725883DOI Listing
February 2020

Diagnostic Accuracy of Doppler Ultrasound in Predicting Perinatal Outcome in Appropriate for Gestational Age Fetuses: A Prospective Study.

Ultraschall Med 2020 Feb 10. Epub 2020 Feb 10.

Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University-Hospital of Northern Norway, UiT Norges arktiske universitet Alta, Norway.

Objective:  To elucidate the role of Doppler ultrasound in predicting perinatal outcome in appropriate for gestational age (AGA) fetuses at term.

Material And Methods:  Prospective study carried out in a dedicated research ultrasound clinic. The inclusion criterion was AGA fetuses, defined as those with an estimated fetal weight between the 10 and 90 percentile, at 36 + 0-37 + 6 weeks of gestation. The primary outcome was a composite score of adverse perinatal outcome including either adverse intrapartum events or abnormal acid-base status at birth. Secondary outcomes were the individual components of the primary outcome. The Doppler parameters explored were umbilical artery (UA) PI, middle cerebral artery (MCA) PI, uterine arteries (UtA) PI and cerebroplacental ratio (CPR). Attending clinicians were blinded to Doppler findings. Logistic regression and ROC curve analyses were used to analyze the data.

Results:  553 AGA fetuses were included. There was no difference in mean UA PI (p = 0.486), MCA PI (p = 0.621), CPR (p = 0.832) and UtA PI (p = 0.611) between pregnancies complicated by composite perinatal morbidity compared to those not complicated by composite perinatal morbidity. In pregnancies complicated by adverse intrapartum outcome, the mean MCA PI (1.47 ± 0.4 vs 1.61 ± 0.4, p = 0.0039) was lower compared to the control group, while there was no difference in UA PI (p = 0.758), CPR (p = 0.108), and UtA PI (p = 0.177). Finally, there was no difference in any of the Doppler parameters explored between AGA fetuses with abnormal acid-base status at birth compared to those without abnormal acid-base status at birth. In the logistic regression analysis, UA PI, MCA PI, CPR, UtA PI, EFW and AC percentiles were not independently associated with composite adverse outcome, adverse intrapartum outcome or abnormal acid-base status at birth in non-SGA fetuses. The diagnostic performance of all of these Doppler parameters for predicting composite adverse outcome, adverse intrapartum outcome and abnormal acid-base status was poor.

Conclusion:  Cerebroplacental and maternal Doppler is not associated with or predictive of adverse pregnancy outcome in AGA fetuses close to term.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1072-5161DOI Listing
February 2020

Outcome of fetal echogenic bowel: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Prenat Diagn 2021 Mar 21;41(4):391-399. Epub 2021 Feb 21.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Foggia, Foggia, Italy.

The main aim of this systematic review was to explore the outcome of fetuses with isolated echogenic bowel (EB) on antenatal ultrasound. Inclusion criteria were singleton pregnancies with isolated EB no associated major structural anomalies at the time of diagnosis. The outcomes observed were: chromosomal anomalies, cystic fibrosis (CF), associated structural anomalies detected only at follow-up scans and at birth, regression during pregnancy, congenital infections, intra-uterine (IUD), neonatal (NND) and perinatal (PND) death. Twenty-five studies (12 971 fetuses) were included. Chromosomal anomalies occurred in 3.3% of the fetuses, mainly Trisomy 21 and aneuploidies involving the sex chromosomes. Cystic fibrosis occurred in 2.2%. Congenital infections affected 2.2%, mainly congenital Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. The majority of fetuses with EB experienced regression or disappearance of the EB at follow-up scans. Associated anomalies were detected at a follow-up scan in 1.8%. Associated anomalies were detected at birth and missed at ultrasound in 2.1% of cases. IUD occurred in 3.2% of cases while the corresponding figures for NND and PND were 0.4% and 3.1%. Fetuses with EB are at increased risk of adverse perinatal outcome, highlighting the need for a thorough antenatal management and postnatal follow-up. Assessment during pregnancy and after birth should be performed in order to look for signs of fetal aneuploidy, congenital infections and associated structural anomalies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pd.5638DOI Listing
March 2021

Data on correction of pelvic organ prolapse by laparoscopic lateral suspension with mesh: A clinical series.

Data Brief 2019 Oct 23;26:104425. Epub 2019 Aug 23.

Institute of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Department of Morphology, Surgery and Experimental Medicine, University of Ferrara, Italy.

This DIB article provides additional data on laparoscopic lateral suspension with mesh for correcting pelvic organ prolapse. Data come from a multicentric sample of Italian women (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejogrb.2019.07.025). Data are collected retrospectively. Descriptive and raw data on surgery and descriptive and raw data on symptoms of pelvic organ prolapse pre-surgery and post-surgery are provided. Kaplan-Meier curves and scores of 7-items King's Health Questionnaire for quality of life assessment are also reported.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2019.104425DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6736775PMC
October 2019
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