Publications by authors named "Ludwig E Hoelzle"

48 Publications

Update on shedding and transmission routes of porcine haemotrophic mycoplasmas in naturally and experimentally infected pigs.

Porcine Health Manag 2021 Aug 26;7(1):49. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Clinic for Swine, Centre for Clinical Veterinary Medicine, LMU Munich, Sonnenstr. 16, Oberschleissheim, 85764, Munich, Germany.

Horizontal transmission of Mycoplasma suis via parenteral exposure during standard practices or through bites during fightings have been identified as key epidemiological routes. However, as knowledge gaps on other potential shedding and transmission routes exist, the present study combines both laboratory experiments and field surveys to gain new insights into the epidemiology of porcine haemotrophic mycoplasmas. Splenectomised pigs were orally inoculated with a M. suis field strain and investigated for clinical signs related to infectious anaemia of pigs (IAP) and the presence of M. suis in blood, urine and saliva samples by qPCR. All blood samples were negative for M. suis and animals did not show obvious clinical signs of IAP throughout the entire study period. Additionally, urine, nasal and saliva samples from sows of conventional piglet producing farms and semen samples from a boar stud revealed no detection of M. suis and 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemosuis' by qPCR. Thus, the results indicate that blood-independent transmission routes might be of minor relevance under field conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40813-021-00229-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8390202PMC
August 2021

Clinical, haematological and pathomorphological findings in Mycoplasma suis infected pigs.

BMC Vet Res 2021 Jun 10;17(1):214. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Institute of Animal Science, University of Hohenheim, Garbenstrasse 30, 70593, Stuttgart, Germany.

Background: Mycoplasma suis (M. suis) belongs to the group of haemotrophic mycoplasmas and is known as the causative agent of infectious anaemia in pigs. In the last few years valuable insights into the mechanism of adhesion and invasion, shedding patterns and cell tropism of M. suis were gained by the use of new molecular techniques. However, details on M. suis induced lesions as well as the distribution of M. suis in different organs are still lacking. Therefore, seven splenectomised pigs were experimentally infected and clinical and laboratory investigations as well as a detailed histopathological examination were performed. Detection and quantification of M. suis DNA in blood and various tissue samples was done using a quantitative real-time PCR.

Results: During the course of experimental infection, periodically occurring signs of infectious anaemia of pigs including severe icteroanaemia, fever, apathy and anorexia were observed. In addition, dermatological manifestations such as haemorrhagic diathesis presenting as petechiae occurred. The most important haematological alterations were normochromic, normocytic anaemia, hypoglycaemia as well as increased bilirubin and urea concentrations. Necropsy revealed predominant evidence of haemolysis with consecutive anaemia, as well as disseminated intravascular coagulation. M. suis was found in all investigated tissues with the highest copy numbers found in the kidneys. In Giemsa stained sections M. suis was only detected red blood cell (RBC)-associated.

Conclusion: In the present study, no RBC independent sequestration of M. suis was detected in organs of experimentally infected pigs. Pathological findings are most likely resulting from haemolysis, consecutive anaemia as well as from disseminated intravascular coagulation and subsequent organ impairments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12917-021-02919-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8193878PMC
June 2021

Study of the antibiotic residues in poultry meat in some of the EU countries and selection of the best compositions of lactic acid bacteria and essential oils against Salmonella enterica.

Poult Sci 2020 Aug 27;99(8):4065-4076. Epub 2020 May 27.

Department of Food Science and Technology, Kaunas University of Technology, 50254, Kaunas, Lithuania.

In this study, the presence of antibiotics (ANB) residues was evaluated in poultry meat purchased from German and Lithuanian markets. In addition, the antimicrobial activity of 13 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains, 2 essential oils (EO) (Thymus vulgaris and Origanum vulgare L.), and their compositions were tested for the purpose of inhibiting antibiotic-resistant Salmonella spp. ANB residues were found in 3 out of the 20 analyzed poultry meat samples: sample no. 8 contained enrofloxacin (0.46 μg/kg), sample no. 14 contained both enrofloxacin and doxycycline (0.05 and 16.8 μg/kg, respectively), and sample no. 18 contained enrofloxacin (2.06 μg/kg). The maximum residue limits (MRLs) for the sum of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin and for doxycycline in the poultry muscle are 100 μg/kg. Finally, none of the tested poultry meat samples exceeded the suggested MRLs; however, the issue of ANB residues still requires monitoring of the poultry industry in Germany, Poland, and Lithuania, despite the currently established low ANB concentrations. These findings can be explained by the increased use of alternatives to ANB in the poultry industry. Our results showed that an effective alternative to ANB, which can help to reduce the occurrence of antibiotic-resistant salmonella, is a composition containing 1.0% of thyme EO and the following LAB strains: Lactobacillus plantrum LUHS122, Enteroccocus pseudoavium LUHS242, Lactobacillus casei LUHS210, Lactobacillus paracasei LUHS244, Lactobacillus plantarum LUHS135, Lactobacillus coryniformins LUHS71, and Lactobacillus uvarum LUHS245, which can be recommended for poultry industry as components of feed or for the treatment of surfaces, to control the contamination with Salmonella strains. However, it should be mentioned that most of the tested LAB strains were inhibited by thyme EO at the concentrations of 0.5 and 1.0%, except for LUHS122, LUHS210, and LUHS245. Finally, it can be noted that the agents responsible for the inhibitory effect on Salmonella are not the viable LAB strains but rather their metabolites, and further studies are needed to identify which metabolites are the most important.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2020.05.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7597929PMC
August 2020

Detection of a novel haemoplasma species in fattening pigs with skin alterations, fever and anaemia.

Vet Rec 2020 07 24;187(2):66. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Institute of Animal Science, Institute of Environmental and Animal Hygiene and Veterinary Medicine, University of Hohenheim Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Stuttgart, Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany.

Background: In a fattening farm in Southern Germany, skin alterations (urticaria, haemorrhagic diathesis) and high fever were observed in 30% of the pigs 2 weeks after arrival. Feed intake was severely compromised in affected pigs.

Methods: After detailed clinical observation, blood samples from affected pigs were collected for haematological, PCR and serological investigations. In addition, pathological investigations were performed on one pig.

Results And Conclusion: Analysis of blood parameters revealed a normocytic, normochromic anaemia. A novel porcine haemoplasma species was detected in blood samples of affected pigs and spleen sample of the necropsied pig by PCR. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rDNA showed 99% identity to a novel porcine haemoplasma (' (.) M. haemosuis') species which has recently been described in China. Interestingly, this is the first report of '. M. haemosuis' in pigs with clinical signs resembling those of and the first description of this novel haemoplasma species outside Asia. On-farm affected pigs were treated with oxytetracycline and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Clinical signs improved after implementation of treatment and optimisation of management procedures. This case might indicate that other porcine haemoplasma species than can induce fever and skin alterations and may have an economic impact on affected farms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/vr.105721DOI Listing
July 2020

Symposium report: emerging threats for human health - impact of socioeconomic and climate change on zooanthroponosis in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), Russia.

Int J Circumpolar Health 2020 12;79(1):1715698

Yakut State Agricultural Academy, Yakutsk, Russian Federation.

Population growth, socio-cultural and economic changes as well as technological progress have an immediate impact on the environment and human health in particular. Our steadily rising needs of resources increase the pressure on the environment and narrow down untainted habitats for plants and wild animals. Balance and resilience of ecosystems are further threatened by climate change, as temperature and seasonal shifts increase the pressure for all species to find successful survival strategies. Arctic and subarctic regions are especially vulnerable to climate change, as thawing of permafrost significantly transforms soil structures, vegetation and habitats. With rising temperature, the risk of zoonotic diseases in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) has also increased. As vegetation periods prolong and habitats broaden, zoonotic pathogens and their vectors find more favourable living conditions. Moreover, permafrost degradation may expose historic burial grounds and allow for reviving the vectors of deadly infections from the past. To assess the current state of knowledge and emerging risks in the light of the "One Health" concept, a German-Russian Symposium took place on 13 August 2018 in Yakutsk, Russian Federation. This symposium report presents the main findings generated from presentations and discussions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/22423982.2020.1715698DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7034492PMC
December 2020

Detection of Mycoplasma suis in pre-suckling piglets indicates a vertical transmission.

BMC Vet Res 2019 Jul 19;15(1):252. Epub 2019 Jul 19.

Institute of Animal Science, University of Hohenheim, Garbenstrasse 30, 70593, Stuttgart, Germany.

Background: Transmission of Mycoplasma (M.) suis mainly occurs via iatrogenic or zootechnical manipulations or due to ranking fights. Other transmission routes including ingestion of secretes/excretes; blood-sucking arthropods and intra-uterine transmission have thought to play an epidemiological role without being experimentally proven. To investigate a vertical transmission of M. suis under field conditions blood samples from pre-suckling piglets and their corresponding dam were examined for M. suis by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in 21 farms in Southern Germany.

Results: A total of 14.35% of the 474 blood samples from pre-suckling piglets reacted qPCR positive. Additionally, M. suis was detected in 65 (31.25%) of the 208 sows at farrowing. On farm level, 16 (76.2%) of the 21 farms had at least one M. suis positive animal. M. suis positive farms had an average of 0.41 more stillborn piglets per litter than M. suis negative farms (p = 0.007).

Conclusion: The present study provides further insights into M. suis infection dynamics as it is the first detection of M. suis in piglets immediately after birth prior to colostrum intake and the first large scale investigation of M. suis in sows at farrowing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12917-019-2001-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6642596PMC
July 2019

Species-Specific Conservation of Linear Antigenic Sites on Vaccinia Virus A27 Protein Homologs of Orthopoxviruses.

Viruses 2019 05 29;11(6). Epub 2019 May 29.

Division of Microbiology and Animal Hygiene, Department of Animal Sciences, University of Goettingen, Burckhardtweg 2, 37077 Goettingen, Germany.

The vaccinia virus (VACV) A27 protein and its homologs, which are found in a large number of members of the genus (OPXV), are targets of viral neutralization by host antibodies. We have mapped six binding sites (epitopes #1A: aa 32-39, #1B: aa 28-33, #1C: aa 26-31, #1D: 28-34, #4: aa 9-14, and #5: aa 68-71) of A27 specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) using peptide arrays. MAbs recognizing epitopes #1A-D and #4 neutralized VACV Elstree in a complement dependent way (50% plaque-reduction: 12.5-200 µg/mL). Fusion of VACV at low pH was blocked through inhibition of epitope #1A. To determine the sequence variability of the six antigenic sites, 391 sequences of A27 protein homologs available were compared. Epitopes #4 and #5 were conserved among most of the OPXVs, while the sequential epitope complex #1A-D was more variable and, therefore, responsible for species-specific epitope characteristics. The accurate and reliable mapping of defined epitopes on immuno-protective proteins such as the A27 of VACV enables phylogenetic studies and insights into OPXV evolution as well as to pave the way to the development of safer vaccines and chemical or biological antivirals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v11060493DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6631127PMC
May 2019

Quantitative analysis of Mycoplasma wenyonii and 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos" infections in cattle using novel gapN-based realtime PCR assays.

Vet Microbiol 2018 Jul 22;220:1-6. Epub 2018 Apr 22.

Institute of Animal Science, University Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany. Electronic address:

Hemotrophic mycoplasmas (HMs) are associated with anemia and other disease complexes in a wide range of livestock and wild animals. Two bovine HM species have been identified to date, i.e. Mycoplasma wenyonii and 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos'. The study aim was to develop quantitative real-time PCR assays (qPCRs) to detect and quantify M. wenyonii and 'C. M. haemobos' and to apply these assays to DNA samples extracted from bovine blood collected in Germany (n = 220) from 22 herds. The qPCR assays specific for M. wenyonii and 'C. M. haemobos' were designed using the gapN of the respective hemoplasma species as gene target which encodes the NADP-dependent glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenases (GAPN). The sensitivity of both assays was 10 genome equivalents per reaction, corresponding to 2500 genome equivalents per ml blood. No cross-reactivity with non-target bovine HMs. and other bovine pathogens was observed. Bovine HM DNA was detected in 137 samples (62.27%) with 118 samples (53.64%) being positive for 'C.M. haemobos' and 19 samples (8.64%) being positive for M. wenyonii. Thereof, 11 animals (5.00%) were co-infected with both bovine HM species. The found herd prevalence for `C. M. haemobos` was 100.00%, and for M. wenyonii 36.36% with mean bacterial loads of 3.7 × 10 `C. M. haemobos`/mL blood and of 4.29 × 10M. wenyonii/mL blood respectively. Clinical and economic relevance of bovine HM species should be goal of future studies for which the novel gapN qPCR assays can serve as a valuable diagnostic tool.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2018.04.028DOI Listing
July 2018

Dietary changes in nutritional studies shape the structural and functional composition of the pigs' fecal microbiome-from days to weeks.

Microbiome 2017 10 27;5(1):144. Epub 2017 Oct 27.

Institute of Animal Science, University of Hohenheim, Emil-Wolff-Str. 6-10, 70593, Stuttgart, Germany.

Background: The possible impact of changes in diet composition on the intestinal microbiome is mostly studied after some days of adaptation to the diet of interest. The question arises if a few days are enough to reflect the microbial response to the diet by changing the community composition and function. The present study investigated the fecal microbiome of pigs during a time span of 4 weeks after a dietary change to obtain insights regarding the time required for adaptation. Four different diets were used differing in either protein source (field peas meal vs. soybean meal) or the concentration of calcium and phosphorus (CaP).

Results: Twelve pigs were sampled at seven time points within 4 weeks after the dietary change. Fecal samples were used to sequence the 16S rRNA gene amplicons to analyse microbial proteins via LC-MS/MS and to determine the SCFA production. The analysis of OTU abundances and quantification values of proteins showed a significant separation of three periods of time (p = 0.001). Samples from the first day are used to define the 'zero period'; samples of weeks 1 and 2 are combined as 'metabolic period' and an 'equilibrium period was defined based on samples from weeks 3 and 4. Only in this last period, a separation according to the supplementation of CaP was significantly detectable (p = 0.001). No changes were found based on the corn-soybean meal or corn-field peas administration. The analysis of possible factors causing this significant separation showed only an overall change of bacterial members and functional properties. The metaproteomic approach yielded a total of about 9700 proteins, which were used to deduce possible metabolic functions of the bacterial community.

Conclusions: A gradual taxonomic and functional rearrangement of the bacterial community has been depicted after a change of diet composition. The adaptation lasts several weeks despite the usually assumed time span of several days. The obtained knowledge is of a great importance for the design of future nutritional studies. Moreover, considering the high similarities between the porcine and human gastrointestinal tract anatomy and physiology, the findings of the current study might imply in the design of human-related nutritional studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40168-017-0362-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5659009PMC
October 2017

The Priority position paper: Protecting Europe's food chain from prions.

Prion 2016 05;10(3):165-81

p Prionics , Zürich , Switzerland ;

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) created a global European crisis in the 1980s and 90s, with very serious health and economic implications. Classical BSE now appears to be under control, to a great extent as a result of a global research effort that identified the sources of prions in meat and bone meal (MBM) and developed new animal-testing tools that guided policy. Priority ( www.prionpriority.eu ) was a European Union (EU) Framework Program 7 (FP7)-funded project through which 21 European research institutions and small and medium enterprises (SMEs) joined efforts between 2009 and 2014, to conduct coordinated basic and applied research on prions and prion diseases. At the end of the project, the Priority consortium drafted a position paper ( www.prionpriority.eu/Priority position paper) with its main conclusions. In the present opinion paper, we summarize these conclusions. With respect to the issue of re-introducing ruminant protein into the feed-chain, our opinion is that sustaining an absolute ban on feeding ruminant protein to ruminants is essential. In particular, the spread and impact of non-classical forms of scrapie and BSE in ruminants is not fully understood and the risks cannot be estimated. Atypical prion agents will probably continue to represent the dominant form of prion diseases in the near future in Europe. Atypical L-type BSE has clear zoonotic potential, as demonstrated in experimental models. Similarly, there are now data indicating that the atypical scrapie agent can cross various species barriers. More epidemiological data from large cohorts are necessary to reach any conclusion on the impact of its transmissibility on public health. Re-evaluations of safety precautions may become necessary depending on the outcome of these studies. Intensified searching for molecular determinants of the species barrier is recommended, since this barrier is key for important policy areas and risk assessment. Understanding the structural basis for strains and the basis for adaptation of a strain to a new host will require continued fundamental research, also needed to understand mechanisms of prion transmission, replication and how they cause nervous system dysfunction and death. Early detection of prion infection, ideally at a preclinical stage, also remains crucial for development of effective treatment strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19336896.2016.1175801DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4981192PMC
May 2016

Updating the proteome of the uncultivable hemotrophic Mycoplasma suis in experimentally infected pigs.

Proteomics 2016 Feb;16(4):609-13

Department of Environmental and Animal Hygiene, Institute of Animal Science, University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany.

Mycoplasma suis belongs to the hemotrophic mycoplasmas that are associated with acute and chronic anemia in a wide range of livestock and wild animals. The inability to culture M. suis in vitro has hindered its characterization at the molecular level. Since the publication of M. suis genome sequences in 2011 only one proteome study has been published. Aim of the presented study was to significantly extend the proteome coverage of M. suis strain KI_3806 during acute infection by applying three different protein extraction methods followed by 1D SDS-PAGE and LC-MS/MS. A total of 404 of 795 M. suis KI_3806 proteins (50.8%) were identified. Data analysis revealed the expression of 83.7% of the predicted ORFs with assigned functions but also highlights the expression of 179 of 523 (34.2%) hypothetical proteins with unknown functions. Computational analyses identified expressed membrane-associated hypothetical proteins that might be involved in adhesion or host-pathogen interaction. Furthermore, analyses of the expressed proteins indicated the existence of a hexose-6-phosphate-transporter and an ECF transporter. In conclusion, our proteome study provides a further step toward the elucidation of the unique life cycle of M. suis and the establishment of an in vitro culture. All MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002294 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD002294).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pmic.201500238DOI Listing
February 2016

Spatial Variation of the Gut Microbiota in Broiler Chickens as Affected by Dietary Available Phosphorus and Assessed by T-RFLP Analysis and 454 Pyrosequencing.

PLoS One 2015 20;10(11):e0143442. Epub 2015 Nov 20.

Institut für Nutztierwissenschaften, Universität Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany.

Molecular fingerprinting and sequencing based techniques have been widely used to characterize microbial communities. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and 454-pyrosequencing were used to determine the microorganisms present in the different sections of the chicken gastrointestinal tract (GIT) (crop, jejunum, ileum and caeca). Broilers fed with diets differing in phosphorous (P) and calcium (Ca) as well as in phytase levels were used to study the microbiota of the upper and lower part of the GIT. A database with terminal restriction fragments (T-RF) of the most important organism present in the different gastrointestinal sections was constructed. The analysis revealed a distinct microbial assemblage on each section. Regardless of the diet, crop, jejunum and ileum were mainly colonized by Lactobacillaceae, and caeca were the most diverse site. The correlation between Lactobacillus crispatus and L. reuteri was positive in the crop, but negative in the jejunum. In crop samples, higher P and Ca levels led to a shift in the abundance of L. reuteri and L. crispatus to L. salivarius and L. taiwanensis whereas in the ileum supplementation of phytase favored L. salivarius and L. taiwanensis but resulted in decreased abundance of L. crispatus. Both methods were correlating significantly, being T-RFLP a reliable fingerprinting method to rapidly analyze large numbers of samples in a cost-effective and rapid manner. Results are easy to interpret with no need of deep bioinformatics knowledge and can be integrated with taxonomic information.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0143442PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4654470PMC
June 2016

The impact of phosphorus on the immune system and the intestinal microbiota with special focus on the pig.

Nutr Res Rev 2015 Jun 25;28(1):67-82. Epub 2015 May 25.

Institute of Animal Husbandry and Animal Breeding, University of Hohenheim,70599Stuttgart,Germany.

There is increasing interest in dietary ingredients that are appropriate to support digestive and immune functions, but also maintain a stable microbial ecosystem in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), particularly in weaned pigs. P is an essential nutrient for both microbes and their host, as it is involved, for example, in bone formation, energy metabolism, cellular signalling and stabilisation of cell membranes. Non-ruminant animals have limited access to phytate, the main storage form of P in plant seeds. The release of P bound to phytate requires phytase activity of plant or microbial origin, resulting in the formation of variable phosphorylated inositol phosphates (InsPs). The present review focuses on interactions between variations in dietary P supply, the immune system of the host, and the intestinal microbial ecosystem. Although results on the interaction between P and the immune system are inconsistent, several studies in different species have shown a positive impact of dietary P and phytase addition on the adaptive immune response. Recent studies with pigs suggest that P supply may influence intestinal microbial composition and activity. Individual InsPs or phosphate may also affect properties of pathogenic micro-organisms, such as metabolism or virulence. In conclusion, P may be considered as part of an integrated approach to support immune functions and maintain a stable microbial ecosystem in the GIT, thereby providing a barrier against potential pathogens. Within this regard, differences in phytate-P content and intrinsic phytase activity of plant feedstuffs, as well as the formation of individual InsPs, have to be taken into account.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0954422415000049DOI Listing
June 2015

Interactions between supplemented mineral phosphorus and phytase on phytate hydrolysis and inositol phosphates in the small intestine of broilers1,2.

Poult Sci 2015 May 25;94(5):1018-29. Epub 2015 Mar 25.

Institut für Tierernährung, Universität Hohenheim, 70599 Stuttgart, Germany

Phytate breakdown in the digestive tract of broilers is affected by supplements of mineral phosphorus (P) and phytase with unknown interactions between the 2 factors. It was the objective to study phytate hydrolysis and the presence of inositol phosphate isomers (InsPs) as affected by supplements of mineral P and phytase in the small intestine of broilers. Fifteen-day old broilers were assigned to 48 pens of 20 broilers each (n = 8 pens/treatment). Two low-P corn-soybean meal-based diets without (BD-; 4.4 g P/kg dry matter) or with monocalcium phosphate (MCP; BD+; 5.2 g P/kg dry matter) were supplied without or with added phytase at 500 or 12,500 FTU/kg. On d 24, digesta from the duodenum/jejunum and lower ileum was pooled per segment on a by-pen basis, freeze-dried, and analyzed for P, InsPs, and the marker TiO2. Another 180 broilers (n = 6 pens/treatment, 10 birds each) were fed the 3 BD+ diets from d 1 to 21 to assess the influence of supplemented phytase on tibia mineralization and strength. Significant interactions between MCP and phytase supplements on myo-inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakis (dihydrogen phosphate) (InsP6) hydrolysis (duodenum/jejunum: P ≤ 0.001; ileum: P = 0.004) and level of specific lower InsPs were detected. Supplementation with 12,500 FTU/kg phytase resulted in 92% InsP6 hydrolysis and strong degradation of InsP5. This treatment resulted in higher P net absorption, affirmed by higher BW gain, tibia strength, and mineralization compared to treatments without or with 500 FTU/kg phytase (P ≤ 0.05). MCP supplementation reduced the degradation of InsP6 and specific lower InsPs in birds fed diets without or with 500 FTU/kg of phytase (P ≤ 0.05), but did not reduce InsP6 hydrolysis or degradation of InsP5 at the high phytase dose. Effects of added MCP on phytase efficacy depend on the dose of supplemented phytase. Differences in the concentrations of lower InsPs indicated that the initial step of InsP6 hydrolysis is not the only catabolic step that is influenced by MCP or phytase levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3382/ps/pev087DOI Listing
May 2015

Pathobiology of Mycoplasma suis.

Vet J 2014 Oct 30;202(1):20-5. Epub 2014 Jul 30.

Institute of Animal Nutrition, University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany.

Mycoplasma suis is an uncultivable bacterium lacking a cell wall that attaches to and may invade the red blood cells of pigs. M. suis infections occur worldwide and cause the pig industry serious economic losses due to the disease known as infectious anaemia of pigs or, historically, porcine eperythrozoonosis. Infectious anaemia of pigs is characterised predominantly by acute haemolytic or chronic anaemia, along with non-specific manifestations, such as growth retardation in feeder pigs and poor reproductive performance in sows. The fastidious nature of M. suis, as well as the lack of an in vitro cultivation system, has hampered the understanding of the biology and pathogenicity of this organism. Pathogenetic mechanisms of M. suis include direct destruction of red blood cells by adhesion, invasion, nutrient scavenging, immune-mediated lysis and eryptosis, as well as endothelial targeting. Recently published genome sequences, in combination with proteome analyses, have generated new insights into the pathogenicity of M. suis. The present review combines these data with the knowledge provided by experimental M. suis infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2014.07.023DOI Listing
October 2014

Quantitative PCR analysis of Mycoplasma suis shedding patterns during experimental infection.

Vet Microbiol 2014 Aug 2;172(3-4):581-5. Epub 2014 Jul 2.

Institute of Environmental and Animal Hygiene and Veterinary Medicine (with Animal Clinic), University Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany. Electronic address:

The uncultivable hemotrophic bacterium Mycoplasma suis causes infectious anemia in pigs worldwide. The mechanisms by which M. suis is transmitted from pig to pig are largely unknown. Thus, the present study aimed at investigating urine, feces, saliva, nasal and vaginal secrets as well as environmental samples for the presence of M. suis DNA to get insights into potential transmission routes. Seven pigs were experimentally infected with M. suis KI3806. Samples were taken for 8 days post infection (p.i.). A quantitative LightCycler msg1 PCR was used to detect and quantify M. suis. Shedding was found in saliva as well as nasal and vaginal secrets from day 6 p.i. on with a quantity of 3.4 × 10(2) to 2.7 × 10(5)M. suis/swab. In urine M. suis DNA could be detected in 100.0% of the samples from day 6 p.i. on with a quantity of 4.7 × 10(2) to 6.3 × 10(5)M. suis per mL. When shedding patterns were correlated to the median bacterial blood loads shedding was observed at loads of 2.0 × 10(9)-7.0 × 10(10)M. suis per mL blood. No M. suis DNA could be amplified from feces. Dust and water samples of the pig drinking troughs were positive for M. suis on days 2 and 6 post infection, air samples were M. suis-negative throughout the experiment. Our results indicate that blood independent direct transmission as well as indirect transmission via environmental contamination could play a role in the epidemiology of M. suis infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2014.06.019DOI Listing
August 2014

[Investigation of potential causes for the development of porcine ear necrosis: different study designs--comparable results?].

Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr 2013 Sep-Oct;126(9-10):378-87

Klinik für Schweine der Veterinärmedizinischen Universität Wien.

During the last years two studies for the investigation of the etiology of porcine ear necrosis were carried out at the Clinic for Swine of the University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna. In study 1, parameters, which are discussed in this context, were collected by veterinary practitioners by completing specially designed questionnaires in farms with symptoms of the porcine ear necrosis syndrome. In study 2, samples of piglets and feed were collected for laboratory analysis of the most important infectious agents as well as mycotoxins. In the present manuscript, the results of both projects were compared. Even if the selection criteria of both studies differed, the affected age class was comparable (5.5 to ten weeks of life in study 1 and six to ten weeks of life in study 2). The herd-specific prevalence of the porcine ear necrosis syndrome varied considerably with percentages between 2 and 10, respectively, to 100%. The evaluation of questionnaires in study 1 showed that 51% of the farms had problems with cannibalism. Particles of plant material, which were frequently seen on the histologic slides of study 2, could have got into the tissue by chewing the ears of the pen mates or cannibalism. Whereas in study 1 the negative effect of parameters as high pig density, suboptimal climate, missing enrichment material and bad quality of feed and water were considered, in study 2 all these factors were checked at sample collection and ruled out as precursor for cannibalism. In both studies bacterial agents proved to be a crucial co-factor for the expansion of the necroses to deeper tissue layers, whereas viral pathogens were classified less important. In both projects it was not possible to estimate the direct impact of infectious agents and mycotoxins as direct trigger of the necroses as well as their participation as co-factors or precursor in the sense of an immunosuppression or previous damage of blood vessels or tissue.
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April 2015

Differences in the antigen structures of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis and the induced humoral immune response in sheep and goats.

Vet Microbiol 2013 Jun 7;164(3-4):359-65. Epub 2013 Mar 7.

Institute of Environmental and Animal Hygiene and Veterinary Medicine (with Animal Clinic), University Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany.

Caseous lymphadenitis (CLA), a disease affecting sheep and goats, is caused by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis (Cp). Eradication programs are based on the serological identification of Cp infected animals. However, available diagnostic ELISAs are not similarly suitable for sheep and goats. In the present study the comparison of antigens revealed major species specific differences between sheep and goat derived Cp field isolates as well as between field isolates and the Cp ATCC reference strains. Furthermore, we found species-specific differences in the anti-Cp humoral immune response between sheep and goats. The analysis of band frequency was able to distinguish between immunodominant and non-immunodominant protein bands. The 150 kDa, 74 kDa, 48 kDa, and 30 kDa antigens were immunodominant in both, sheep and goats. Interestingly, the most commonly used diagnostic antigen, i.e. the 30 kDa phospholipase D (PLD), was recognized by 100% of the Cp positive goats but only by 70% of the Cp positive sheep. Furthermore, analysis of field sera revealed that there were a particular percentage of Cp positive sera which reacted negative with the PLD. In conclusion our results clearly showed that (1) the application of a combination of further defined immunodominant Cp antigens - in addition to the PLD antigen - and (2) consideration of species-specific differences in the anti-Cp immune response will substantially contribute to the improvement of Cp serological diagnostics and to effective eradication programs in both sheep and goats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2013.02.031DOI Listing
June 2013

Mycoplasma suis infection results endothelial cell damage and activation: new insight into the cell tropism and pathogenicity of hemotrophic mycoplasma.

Vet Res 2013 Feb 11;44. Epub 2013 Feb 11.

Institute of Environmental and Animal Hygiene and Veterinary Medicine (with Animal Clinic), University Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany.

Hemotrophic mycoplasmas (HM) are highly specialized red blood cell parasites that cause infectious anemia in a variety of mammals, including humans. To date, no in vitro cultivation systems for HM have been available, resulting in relatively little information about the pathogenesis of HM infection. In pigs, Mycoplasma suis-induced infectious anemia is associated with hemorrhagic diathesis, and coagulation dysfunction. However, intravasal coagulation and subsequent consumption coagulopathy can only partly explain the sequence of events leading to hemorrhagic diathesis manifesting as cyanosis, petechial bleeding, and ecchymosis, and to disseminated coagulation. The involvement of endothelial activation and damage in M. suis-associated pathogenesis was investigated using light and electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and cell sorting. M. suis interacted directly with endothelial cells in vitro and in vivo. Endothelial activation, widespread endothelial damage, and adherence of red blood cells to the endothelium were evident in M. suis-infected pigs. These alterations of the endothelium were accompanied by hemorrhage, intravascular coagulation, vascular occlusion, and massive morphological changes within the parenchyma. M. suis biofilm-like microcolonies formed on the surface of endothelial cells, and may represent a putative persistence mechanism of M. suis. In vitro analysis demonstrated that M. suis interacted with the endothelial cytoskeletal protein actin, and induced actin condensation and activation of endothelial cells, as determined by the up-regulation of ICAM, PECAM, E-selectin, and P-selectin. These findings demonstrate an additional cell tropism of HM for endothelial cells and suggest that M. suis interferes with the protective function of the endothelium, resulting in hemorrhagic diathesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1297-9716-44-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3575358PMC
February 2013

Nanotransformation of the haemotrophic Mycoplasma suis during in vitro cultivation attempts using modified cell free Mycoplasma media.

Vet Microbiol 2012 Nov 26;160(1-2):227-32. Epub 2012 May 26.

Institute of Environmental and Animal Hygiene and Veterinary Medicine, University of Hohenheim, Garbenstrasse 30, 70599-Stuttgart, Germany.

Mycoplasma suis belongs to haemotrophic mycoplasmas (HMs) which cause infectious anaemia in a large variety of mammals. To date, no in vitro cultivation system for M. suis or other HMs has been established. We hypothesised that M. suis could grow in classical Mycoplasma media supplemented with nutrients (e.g. glucose, iron-binding proteins) which are naturally available from its host environment, the porcine blood. Blood from experimentally M. suis-infected pigs was used to inoculate either standard SP-4 Mycoplasma medium supplemented with iron-binding proteins (transferrin, haemin, and haemoglobin) or glucose-enriched Hayflick Mycoplasma medium. A quantitative M. suis-specific real-time PCR assay was applied to determine and quantify M. suis loads weekly during 12 week-incubation. The first 2 weeks after inoculation M. suis loads decreased remarkably and then persisted at a stationary level over the observation time of 12 weeks in iron-binding protein- or glucose supplemented media variants. Scanning electron microscopic analysis of liquid M. suis sub-cultures on Hayflick agar showed small, densely-packed microcolonies of irregular M. suis cells of reduced size (0.2-0.6μm) indicating nanotransformation. The partial 16S rDNA sequence of these cultured M. suis nanocells was 99.9% identical to M. suis. M. suis cells derived from liquid cultures interact in vitro with porcine erythrocytes by fibril-like structures. We conclude, that the modified Mycoplasma media used for M. suis cultivation are obviously unfavourable for growth but lead to culture persistence. M. suis adapt to inappropriate culture conditions by alteration into nanoforms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2012.05.022DOI Listing
November 2012

Occurrence of hemotrophic mycoplasmas in horses with correlation to hematological findings.

Vet Microbiol 2012 Nov 22;160(1-2):43-52. Epub 2012 May 22.

Institute of Environmental and Animal Hygiene and Veterinary Medicine, University of Hohenheim, D-70593 Stuttgart, Germany.

Hemotrophic mycoplasmas (HM) are small, cell wall-less bacteria and infections are known for a wide range of animals. One possible indication of equine HM infection was given in 1978, when a 'haemobartonellosis' outbreak was diagnosed in Nigerian horses by microscopy. However the first molecular proof of HM in horses was not reported until 2010, when a fragment of about 900 bp of the 16S rRNA of the equine HM was obtained. This sequence was used for the development of a SYBR green I real-time PCR assay specific for equine HM. The lower detection limit of the PCR was ten 16S rDNA copy numbers per ml of blood. The newly designed assay was successfully applied for the detection and quantification of HM in horses in Germany. A high sample prevalence of 26.5% (95% CI: 18.8-35.5%) was found (31 out of 117 horses). The mean bacterial load was 1.10×10(6) 16S rDNA copy number/ml blood (range: minimum 1.05×10(3), maximum 1.27×10(7)). Equine HM were also detected by microscopy (Giemsa and acridine orange stained blood smears), but results do not correlate very well with PCR results, as microscopy proved rather unspecific and not sensitive. In horses younger than one year, a significant correlation between PCR positive status and anemia was found. No correlation was found in PCR-positive animals older than one year. Therefore we assume that HM infection has a higher clinical relevance in young animals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2012.05.016DOI Listing
November 2012

Insights into the gene expression profile of uncultivable hemotrophic Mycoplasma suis during acute infection, obtained using proteome analysis.

J Bacteriol 2012 Mar 20;194(6):1505-14. Epub 2012 Jan 20.

Institute of Environmental and Animal Hygiene and Veterinary Medicine, University Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany.

Hemotrophic mycoplasmas, bacteria without cell walls whose niche is the erythrocytes of their hosts, have never been cultivated in vitro. Therefore, knowledge of their pathogenesis is fundamental. Mycoplasma suis infects pigs, causing either acute fatal hemolytic anemia or chronic low-grade anemia, growth retardation, and immune suppression. Recently, the complete genomes of two hemotrophic mycoplasma species, M. suis and M. haemofelis, were sequenced, offering new strategies for the analysis of their pathogenesis. In this study we implemented a proteomic approach to identify M. suis proteins during acute infection by using tandem mass spectrometry. Twenty-two percent of the predicted proteins encoded in M. suis strain KI_3806 were identified. These included nearly all encoded proteins of glycolysis and nucleotide metabolism. The proteins for lipid metabolism, however, were underrepresented. A high proportion of the detected proteins are involved in information storage and processing (72.6%). In addition, several proteins of different functionalities, i.e., posttranslational modification, membrane genesis, signal transduction, intracellular trafficking, inorganic ion transport, and defense mechanisms, were identified. In its reduced genome, M. suis harbors 65.3% (strain Illinois) and 65.9% (strain KI_3806) of the genes encode hypothetical proteins. Of these, only 6.3% were identified at the proteome level. All proteins identified in this study are present in both M. suis strains and are encoded in more highly conserved regions of the genome sequence. In conclusion, our proteome approach is a further step toward the elucidation of the pathogenesis and life cycle of M. suis as well as the establishment of an in vitro cultivation system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JB.00002-12DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3294830PMC
March 2012

The surface-localised α-enolase of Mycoplasma suis is an adhesion protein.

Vet Microbiol 2012 Apr 15;156(1-2):88-95. Epub 2011 Oct 15.

Institute of Veterinary Bacteriology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, Switzerland.

Mycoplasma suis belongs to the haemotrophic mycoplasmas which colonise red blood cells of a wide range of vertebrates. Adhesion to red blood cells is the crucial step in the unique lifecycle of M. suis. Due to the lack of a cultivation system, identification of adhesion structures has been difficult. So far, only one adhesion protein, i.e. MSG1 was identified. In order to determine further adhesion molecules of M. suis, we screened genomic M. suis libraries and performed Southern blot hybridisation analyses of genomic M. suis DNA. The α-enolase of M. suis was identified and analysed genetically and functionally. The encoding gene has 1623 bp in size. The deduced amino acid sequence showed an overall identity of 59.6-65.1% to α-enolases of other pathogenic mycoplasmas. The 540 aa M. suis α-enolase displays a size extension of about 90 aa in comparison to α-enolases of other mycoplasmas. Recombinant α-enolase expressed in Escherichia coli demonstrated immunogenicity in experimentally infected pigs. Immunoblot, confocal laser scanning microscopy and immune electron microscopy analysis using antibodies against recombinant α-enolase, indicate the membrane and surface localisation of native α-enolase in M. suis, though no typical signal sequences exist. Furthermore, we showed that recombinant α-enolase binds to porcine erythrocyte lysate in a dose-dependent manner. E. coli transformants which express α-enolase on their surface acquire the ability to adhere to porcine red blood cells. In conclusion, our observations indicate that α-enolase could be involved in the adhesion of M. suis to porcine red blood cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2011.10.010DOI Listing
April 2012

Epizootiologic investigations of selected abortive agents in free-ranging Alpine ibex (Capra ibex ibex) in Switzerland.

J Wildl Dis 2011 Jul;47(3):530-43

Centre for Fish and Wildlife Health, Institute of Animal Pathology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, Postfach 8466, 3001 Bern, Switzerland.

In the early 2000s, several colonies of Alpine ibex (Capra ibex ibex) in Switzerland ceased growing or began to decrease. Reproductive problems due to infections with abortive agents might have negatively affected recruitment. We assessed the presence of selected agents of abortion in Alpine ibex by serologic, molecular, and culture techniques and evaluated whether infection with these agents might have affected population densities. Blood and fecal samples were collected from 651 ibex in 14 colonies throughout the Swiss Alps between 2006 and 2008. All samples were negative for Salmonella spp., Neospora caninum, and Bovine Herpesvirus-1. Antibodies to Coxiella burnetii, Leptospira spp., Chlamydophila abortus, Toxoplasma gondii, and Bovine Viral Diarrhea virus were detected in at least one ibex. Positive serologic results for Brucella spp. likely were false. Overall, 73 samples (11.2%) were antibody-positive for at least one abortive agent. Prevalence was highest for Leptospira spp. (7.9%, 95% CI=5.0-11.7). The low prevalences and the absence of significant differences between colonies with opposite population trends suggest these pathogens do not play a significant role in the population dynamics of Swiss ibex. Alpine ibex do not seem to be a reservoir for these abortive agents or an important source of infection for domestic livestock in Switzerland. Finally, although interactions on summer pastures occur frequently, spillover from infected livestock to free-ranging ibex apparently is uncommon.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7589/0090-3558-47.3.530DOI Listing
July 2011

Hemotrophic mycoplasmas induce programmed cell death in red blood cells.

Cell Physiol Biochem 2011 15;27(5):557-64. Epub 2011 Jun 15.

Institute of Veterinary Bacteriology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Hemotrophic mycoplasmas (HM) are uncultivable bacteria found on and in the red blood cells (RBCs). The main clinical sign of HM infections is the hemolytic anemia. However, anemia-inducing pathogenesis has not been totally clarified. In this work we used the splenectomized pig as animal model and Mycoplasma suis as a representative for hemotrophic mycoplasmas to study anemia pathogenesis. Eryptosis, i.e. programmed cell death of RBCs, is characterized by cell shrinkage, microvesiculation and phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure on the outer membrane. The eryptosis occurrence and its influence on anemia pathogenesis was observed over the time-course of M. suis infections in pigs using 3 M. suis isolates of differing virulence. All 3 isolates induced eryptosis, but with different characteristics. The occurrence of eryptosis could as well be confirmed in vitro: serum and plasma of an acutely ill pig induced PS exposure on erythrocytes drawn from healthy pigs. Since M. suis is able to induce eryptotic processes it is concluded that eryptosis is one anemia-inducing factor during M. suis infections and, therefore, plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of infectious anemia due to HM infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000329957DOI Listing
October 2011

Complete genome sequence of the hemotrophic Mycoplasma suis strain KI3806.

J Bacteriol 2011 May 11;193(9):2369-70. Epub 2011 Mar 11.

Institute of Veterinary Bacteriology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University Zurich, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland.

Mycoplasma suis, a member of the hemotrophic mycoplasma (HM) group, parasitize erythrocytes of pigs. Increasing evidence suggests that M. suis is also a zoonotic agent. Highly pathogenic strains of M. suis (e.g., M. suis KI3806) have been demonstrated to invade erythrocytes. This complete sequenced and manually annotated genome of M. suis KI3806 is the first available from this species and from the HM group. The DNA was isolated from blood samples of experimentally infected pigs due to the lack of an in vitro cultivation system. The small circular chromosome of 709,270 bp, encoding an unexpectedly high number of hypothetical proteins and limited transport and metabolic capacities, could reflect the unique lifestyle of HM on the surface of erythrocytes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JB.00187-11DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3133081PMC
May 2011

A gel-free quantitative proteomics approach to investigate temperature adaptation of the food-borne pathogen Cronobacter turicensis 3032.

Proteomics 2010 Sep;10(18):3248-61

Department of Microbiology, Institute of Plant Biology, UZH, Zurich, Switzerland.

The opportunistic food-borne pathogen Cronobacter sp. causes rare but significant illness in neonates and is capable to grow at a remarkably wide range of temperatures from 5.5 to 47 degrees C. A gel-free quantitative proteomics approach was employed to investigate the molecular basis of the Cronobacter sp. adaptation to heat and cold-stress. To this end the model strain Cronobacter turicensis 3032 was grown at 25, 37, 44, and 47 degrees C, and whole-cell and secreted proteins were iTRAQ-labelled and identified/quantified by 2-D-LC-MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. While 44 degrees C caused only minor changes in C. turicensis growth rate and protein profile, 47 degrees C affected the expression of about 20% of all 891 identified proteins and resulted in a reduced growth rate and rendered the strain non-motile and filamentous. Among the heat-induced proteins were heat shock factors, transcriptional and translational proteins, whereas proteins affecting cellular morphology, proteins involved in motility, central metabolism and energy production were down-regulated. Notably, numerous potential virulence factors were found to be up-regulated at higher temperatures, suggesting an elevated pathogenic potential of Cronobacter sp. under these growth conditions. Significant alterations in the protein expression profile and growth rate of C. turicensis exposed to 25 degrees C indicate that at this temperature the organism is cold-stressed. Up-regulated gene products comprised cold-shock, DNA-binding and ribosomal proteins, factors that support protein folding and proteins opposing cold-induced decrease in membrane fluidity, whereas down-regulated proteins were mainly involved in central metabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pmic.200900460DOI Listing
September 2010

Inorganic pyrophosphatase in uncultivable hemotrophic mycoplasmas: identification and properties of the enzyme from Mycoplasma suis.

BMC Microbiol 2010 Jul 20;10:194. Epub 2010 Jul 20.

Institute of Veterinary Bacteriology, University Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Background: Mycoplasma suis belongs to a group of highly specialized hemotrophic bacteria that attach to the surface of host erythrocytes. Hemotrophic mycoplasmas are uncultivable and the genomes are not sequenced so far. Therefore, there is a need for the clarification of essential metabolic pathways which could be crucial barriers for the establishment of an in vitro cultivation system for these veterinary significant bacteria.Inorganic pyrophosphatases (PPase) are important enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of inorganic pyrophosphate PPi to inorganic phosphate Pi. PPases are essential and ubiquitous metal-dependent enzymes providing a thermodynamic pull for many biosynthetic reactions. Here, we describe the identification, recombinant production and characterization of the soluble (s)PPase of Mycoplasma suis.

Results: Screening of genomic M. suis libraries was used to identify a gene encoding the M. suis inorganic pyrophosphatase (sPPase). The M. suis sPPase consists of 164 amino acids with a molecular mass of 20 kDa. The highest identity of 63.7% was found to the M. penetrans sPPase. The typical 13 active site residues as well as the cation binding signature could be also identified in the M. suis sPPase. The activity of the M. suis enzyme was strongly dependent on Mg2+ and significantly lower in the presence of Mn2+ and Zn2+. Addition of Ca2+ and EDTA inhibited the M. suis sPPase activity. These characteristics confirmed the affiliation of the M. suis PPase to family I soluble PPases. The highest activity was determined at pH 9.0. In M. suis the sPPase builds tetramers of 80 kDa which were detected by convalescent sera from experimentally M. suis infected pigs.

Conclusion: The identification and characterization of the sPPase of M. suis is an additional step towards the clarification of the metabolism of hemotrophic mycoplasmas and, thus, important for the establishment of an in vitro cultivation system. As an antigenic and conserved protein the M. suis sPPase could in future be further analyzed as a diagnostic antigen.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2180-10-194DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2916918PMC
July 2010
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