Publications by authors named "Ludmilla de Plater"

13 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

aPKCi triggers basal extrusion of luminal mammary epithelial cells by tuning contractility and vinculin localization at cell junctions.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019 11 7;116(48):24108-24114. Epub 2019 Nov 7.

Institut Curie, Paris Université Sciences et Lettres, Sorbonne Université, CNRS, UMR144, 75005 Paris, France;

Metastasis is the main cause of cancer-related deaths. How a single oncogenic cell evolves within highly organized epithelium is still unknown. Here, we found that the overexpression of the protein kinase atypical protein kinase C ι (aPKCi), an oncogene, triggers basally oriented epithelial cell extrusion in vivo as a potential mechanism for early breast tumor cell invasion. We found that cell segregation is the first step required for basal extrusion of luminal cells and identify aPKCi and vinculin as regulators of cell segregation. We propose that asymmetric vinculin levels at the junction between normal and aPKCi cells trigger an increase in tension at these cell junctions. Moreover, we show that aPKCi cells acquire promigratory features, including increased vinculin levels and vinculin dynamics at the cell-substratum contacts. Overall, this study shows that a balance between cell contractility and cell-cell adhesion is crucial for promoting basally oriented cell extrusion, a mechanism for early breast cancer cell invasion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1906779116DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6883778PMC
November 2019

Hydraulic fracturing and active coarsening position the lumen of the mouse blastocyst.

Science 2019 08;365(6452):465-468

Institut Curie, PSL Research University, Sorbonne Université, CNRS UMR3215, INSERM U934, Paris, France.

During mouse pre-implantation development, the formation of the blastocoel, a fluid-filled lumen, breaks the radial symmetry of the blastocyst. The factors that control the formation and positioning of this basolateral lumen remain obscure. We found that accumulation of pressurized fluid fractures cell-cell contacts into hundreds of micrometer-size lumens. These microlumens eventually discharge their volumes into a single dominant lumen, which we model as a process akin to Ostwald ripening, underlying the coarsening of foams. Using chimeric mutant embryos, we tuned the hydraulic fracturing of cell-cell contacts and steered the coarsening of microlumens, allowing us to successfully manipulate the final position of the lumen. We conclude that hydraulic fracturing of cell-cell contacts followed by contractility-directed coarsening of microlumens sets the first axis of symmetry of the mouse embryo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aaw7709DOI Listing
August 2019

Capecitabine Efficacy Is Correlated with TYMP and RB1 Expression in PDX Established from Triple-Negative Breast Cancers.

Clin Cancer Res 2018 06 20;24(11):2605-2615. Epub 2018 Feb 20.

Translational Research Department, Institut Curie, PSL Research University, Paris, France.

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients with residual disease after neoadjuvant chemotherapy have a poor outcome. We developed patient-derived xenografts (PDX) from residual tumors to identify efficient chemotherapies and predictive biomarkers in a context of resistance to anthracyclines- and taxanes-based treatments. PDX were established from residual tumors of primary breast cancer patients treated in neoadjuvant setting. TNBC PDX were treated by anthracyclines, taxanes, platins, and capecitabine. Predictive biomarkers were identified by transcriptomic and immunohistologic analysis. Downregulation of was performed by siRNA in a cell line established from a PDX. Residual TNBC PDX were characterized by a high tumor take, a short latency, and a poor prognosis of the corresponding patients. With the exception of BRCA1/2-mutated models, residual PDX were resistant to anthracyclines, taxanes, and platins. Capecitabine, the oral prodrug of 5-FU, was highly efficient in 60% of PDX, with two models showing complete responses. Prior treatment of a responder PDX with 5-FU increased expression of thymidylate synthase and decreased efficacy of capecitabine. Transcriptomic and IHC analyses of 32 TNBC PDX, including both residual tumors and treatment-naïve derived tumors, identified RB1 and TYMP proteins as predictive biomarkers for capecitabine response. Finally, knockdown in a cell line established from a capecitabine-responder PDX decreased sensitivity to 5-FU treatment. We identified capecitabine as efficient chemotherapy in TNBC PDX models established from residual disease and resistant to anthracyclines, taxanes, and platins. RB1 positivity and high expression of TYMP were significantly associated with capecitabine response. .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-17-3490DOI Listing
June 2018

Sensitization of EGFR Wild-Type Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells to EGFR-Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Erlotinib.

Mol Cancer Ther 2017 08 18;16(8):1634-1644. Epub 2017 May 18.

CRCINA, INSERM, Université d'Angers, Université de Nantes, Nantes, France.

The benefit of EGFR-TKI in non-small cell lung cancer has been demonstrated in mutant EGFR tumors as first-line treatment but the benefit in wild-type EGFR tumors is marginal as well as restricted to maintenance therapy in pretreated patients. This work aimed at questioning the effects of cisplatin initial treatment on the EGFR pathway in non-small cell lung cancer and the functional consequences and in animal models of patient-derived xenografts (PDX). We establish here that cisplatin pretreatment specifically sensitizes wild-type EGFR-expressing cells to erlotinib, contrary to what happens in mutant EGFR cells and with a blocking EGFR antibody, both and The sensitization entails the activation of the kinase Src upstream of EGFR, thereafter transactivating EGFR through a ligand-independent activation. We propose a combination of markers that enable to discriminate between the tumors sensitized to erlotinib or not in PDX models, which should be worth testing in patients. These markers might be useful for the selection of patients who would benefit from erlotinib as a maintenance therapy. .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-17-0075DOI Listing
August 2017

Characterization of Breast Cancer Preclinical Models Reveals a Specific Pattern of Macrophage Polarization.

PLoS One 2016 7;11(7):e0157670. Epub 2016 Jul 7.

Translational Research Department, Laboratory of Preclinical Investigation, Institut Curie, PSL University, Paris, France.

Drug discovery efforts have focused on the tumor microenvironment in recent years. However, few studies have characterized the stroma component in patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) and genetically engineered mouse models (GEMs). In this study, we characterized the stroma in various models of breast cancer tumors in mice. We performed transcriptomic and flow cytometry analyses on murine populations for a series of 25 PDXs and the two most commonly used GEMs (MMTV-PyMT and MMTV-erBb2). We sorted macrophages from five models. We then profiled gene expression in these cells, which were also subjected to flow cytometry for phenotypic characterization. Hematopoietic cell composition, mostly macrophages and granulocytes, differed between tumors. Macrophages had a specific polarization phenotype related to their M1/M2 classification and associated with the expression of genes involved in the recruitment, invasion and metastasis processes. The heterogeneity of the stroma component of the models studied suggests that tumor cells modify their microenvironment to satisfy their needs. Our observations suggest that such models are of relevance for preclinical studies.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0157670PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4936680PMC
July 2017

Targeting mTOR pathway inhibits tumor growth in different molecular subtypes of triple-negative breast cancers.

Oncotarget 2016 07;7(30):48206-48219

Translational Research Department, Institut Curie, PSL Research University, Paris, France.

Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) are characterized by frequent alterations in the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. In this study, we analyzed PI3K pathway activation in 67 patient-derived xenografts (PDX) of breast cancer and investigated the anti-tumor activity of the mTOR inhibitor everolimus in 15 TNBC PDX with different expression and mutational status of PI3K pathway markers. Expression of the tumor suppressors PTEN and INPP4B was lost in 55% and 76% of TNBC PDX, respectively, while mutations in PIK3CA and AKT1 genes were rare. In 7 PDX treatment with everolimus resulted in a tumor growth inhibition higher than 50%, while 8 models were classified as low responder or resistant. Basal-like, LAR (Luminal AR), mesenchymal and HER2-enriched tumors were present in both responder and resistant groups, suggesting that tumor response to everolimus is not restricted to a specific TNBC subtype. Analysis of treated tumors showed a correlation between tumor response and post-treatment phosphorylation of AKT, increased in responder PDX, while PI3K pathway markers at baseline were not sufficient to predict everolimus response. In conclusion, targeting mTOR decreased tumor growth in 7 out of 15 TNBC PDX tested. Response to everolimus occurred in different TNBC subtypes and was associated with post-treatment increase of P-AKT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.10195DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5217012PMC
July 2016

Vandetanib as a potential new treatment for estrogen receptor-negative breast cancers.

Int J Cancer 2016 May 6;138(10):2510-21. Epub 2016 Jan 6.

Translational Research Department, Institut Curie, Paris, 75005, France.

The receptor tyrosine kinase RET is implicated in the progression of luminal breast cancers (BC) but its role in estrogen receptor (ER) negative tumors is unknown. Here we investigated the expression of RET in breast cancer patients tumors and patient-derived xenografts (PDX) and evaluated the therapeutic potential of Vandetanib, a tyrosin kinase inhibitor with strong activity against RET, EGFR and VEGFR2, in ER negative breast cancer PDX. The RT-PCR analysis of RET expression in breast tumors of 446 patients and 57 PDX, showed elevated levels of RET in ER+ and HER2+ subtypes and in a small subgroup of triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC). The activity of Vandetanib was tested in vivo in three PDX models of TNBC and one model of HER2+ BC with different expression levels of RET and EGFR. Vandetanib induced tumor regression in PDX models with high expression of RET or EGFR. The effect was associated with inhibition of RET/EGFR phosphorylation and MAP kinase pathway and increased necrosis. In a PDX model with no expression of RET nor EGFR, Vandetanib slowed tumor growth without inducing tumor regression. In addition, treatment by Vandetanib decreased expression of murine Vegf receptors and the endothelial marker Cd31 in the four PDX models tested, suggesting inhibition of tumor vascularization. In summary, these preclinical results suggest that Vandetanib treatment could be useful for patients with ER negative breast cancers overexpressing Vandetanib's main targets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.29974DOI Listing
May 2016

Predictive gene signature of response to the anti-TweakR mAb PDL192 in patient-derived breast cancer xenografts.

PLoS One 2014 6;9(11):e104227. Epub 2014 Nov 6.

Laboratory of preclinical investigation, Translational Research Department, Institut Curie, Paris, France; Department of Oncogenetic, Institut Curie, Paris, France.

Purpose: (1) To determine TweakR expression in human breast cancers (BC), (2) evaluate the antitumor effect of the anti-TweakR antibody PDL192, used alone or after chemotherapy-induced complete remission (CR), on patient-derived BC xenografts (PDX) and (3) define predictive markers of response.

Experimental Design: TweakR expression was analyzed by IHC on patients and PDXs BC samples. In vivo antitumor effect of PDL192 was evaluated on eight TweakR-positive BC PDXs alone or after complete remission induced by a combination of doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide. Using both responding and resistant PDX tumors after PDL192 administration, RT-QPCR were performed on a wide list of selected candidate genes to identify predictive markers of response.

Results: TweakR protein was expressed in about half of human BC samples. In vivo PDL192 treatment had significantly anti-tumor activity in 4 of 8 TweakR-positive BC PDXs, but no correlation between the expression level of the Tweak receptor and response to therapy was observed. PDL192 also significantly delayed tumor relapse after CR. Finally, an 8 gene signature was defined from sensitive and resistant PDXs.

Conclusions: PDL192 was highly efficient in some BC PDXs. We found 8 genes that were differentially expressed in responding and resistant tumors and could constitute a gene expression signature which would need to be extended to other xenograft models for confirmation. These data confirm the therapeutic potential of TweakR targeting in BC and the possibility of prospectively selecting patients who might benefit from therapy.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0104227PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4222831PMC
July 2015

Vasculature analysis of patient derived tumor xenografts using species-specific PCR assays: evidence of tumor endothelial cells and atypical VEGFA-VEGFR1/2 signalings.

BMC Cancer 2014 Mar 13;14:178. Epub 2014 Mar 13.

Département de Recherche Translationnelle, Laboratoire d'Investigation Préclinique, Paris, France.

Background: Tumor endothelial transdifferentiation and VEGFR1/2 expression by cancer cells have been reported in glioblastoma but remain poorly documented for many other cancer types.

Methods: To characterize vasculature of patient-derived tumor xenografts (PDXs), largely used in preclinical anti-angiogenic assays, we designed here species-specific real-time quantitative RT-PCR assays. Human and mouse PECAM1/CD31, ENG/CD105, FLT1/VEGFR1, KDR/VEGFR2 and VEGFA transcripts were analyzed in a large series of 150 PDXs established from 8 different tumor types (53 colorectal, 14 ovarian, 39 breast and 15 renal cell cancers, 6 small cell and 5 non small cell lung carcinomas, 13 cutaneous melanomas and 5 glioblastomas) and in two bevacizumab-treated non small cell lung carcinomas xenografts.

Results: As expected, mouse cell proportion in PDXs -evaluated by quantifying expression of the housekeeping gene TBP- correlated with all mouse endothelial markers and human VEGFA RNA levels. More interestingly, we observed human PECAM1/CD31 and ENG/CD105 expression in all tumor types, with higher rate in glioblastoma and renal cancer xenografts. Human VEGFR expression profile varied widely depending on tumor types with particularly high levels of human FLT1/VEGFR1 transcripts in colon cancers and non small cell lung carcinomas, and upper levels of human KDR/VEGFR2 transcripts in non small cell lung carcinomas. Bevacizumab treatment induced significant low expression of mouse Pecam1/Cd31, Eng/Cd105, Flt1/Vegfr1 and Kdr/Vefr2 while the human PECAM1/CD31 and VEGFA were upregulated.

Conclusions: Taken together, our results strongly suggest existence of human tumor endothelial cells in all tumor types tested and of both stromal and tumoral autocrine VEGFA-VEGFR1/2 signalings. These findings should be considered when evaluating molecular mechanisms of preclinical response and resistance to tumor anti-angiogenic strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2407-14-178DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4007753PMC
March 2014

Targeting Bcl-2/Bcl-XL induces antitumor activity in uveal melanoma patient-derived xenografts.

PLoS One 2014 13;9(1):e80836. Epub 2014 Jan 13.

Laboratory of Preclinical Investigation, Department of Translational Research, Institut Curie, Paris, France ; Department of Medical Oncology, Institut Curie, Paris, France.

Purpose: Uveal melanoma (UM) is associated with a high risk of metastases and lack of efficient therapies. Reduced capacity for apoptosis induction by chemotherapies is one obstacle to efficient treatments. Human UM is characterized by high expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. Consequently, regulators of apoptosis such as Bcl-2 family inhibitors may constitute an attractive approach to UM therapeutics. In this aim, we have investigated the efficacy of the Bcl-2/Bcl-XL inhibitor S44563 on 4 UM Patient-Derived Xenografts (PDXs) and derived-cell lines.

Experimental Design: Four well characterized UM PDXs were used for in vivo experiments. S44563 was administered alone or combined with fotemustine either concomitantly or after the alkylating agent. Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, and Mcl-1 expressions after S44563 administration were evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC).

Results: S44563 administered alone by at 50 and 100 mg/kg i.p. induced a significant tumour growth inhibition in only one xenograft model with a clear dose effect. However, when S44563 was concomitantly administered with fotemustine, we observed a synergistic activity in 3 out of the 4 tested models. In addition, S44563 administered after fotemustine induced a tumour growth delay in 2 out of 3 tested xenografts. Finally, IHC analyses showed that Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, and Mcl-1 expression were not modified after S44563 administration.

Conclusion: The novel anti-apoptotic experimental compound S44563, despite a relative low efficacy when administered alone, increased the efficacy of fotemustine in either concomitant or sequential combinations or indeed subsequent to fotemustine. These data support further exploration of potential therapeutic effect of Bcl-2/Bcl-xl inhibition in human UM.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0080836PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3890263PMC
September 2014

Molecular profiling of patient-derived breast cancer xenografts.

Breast Cancer Res 2012 Jan 16;14(1):R11. Epub 2012 Jan 16.

Translational Research Department, Institut Curie, 26 rue d'Ulm, 75005 Paris, France.

Introduction: Identification of new therapeutic agents for breast cancer (BC) requires preclinical models that reproduce the molecular characteristics of their respective clinical tumors. In this work, we analyzed the genomic and gene expression profiles of human BC xenografts and the corresponding patient tumors.

Methods: Eighteen BC xenografts were obtained by grafting tumor fragments from patients into Swiss nude mice. Molecular characterization of patient tumors and xenografts was performed by DNA copy number analysis and gene expression analysis using Affymetrix Microarrays.

Results: Comparison analysis showed that 14/18 pairs of tumors shared more than 56% of copy number alterations (CNA). Unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis showed that 16/18 pairs segregated together, confirming the similarity between tumor pairs. Analysis of recurrent CNA changes between patient tumors and xenografts showed losses in 176 chromosomal regions and gains in 202 chromosomal regions. Gene expression profile analysis showed that less than 5% of genes had recurrent variations between patient tumors and their respective xenografts; these genes largely corresponded to human stromal compartment genes. Finally, analysis of different passages of the same tumor showed that sequential mouse-to-mouse tumor grafts did not affect genomic rearrangements or gene expression profiles, suggesting genetic stability of these models over time.

Conclusions: This panel of human BC xenografts maintains the overall genomic and gene expression profile of the corresponding patient tumors and remains stable throughout sequential in vivo generations. The observed genomic profile and gene expression differences appear to be due to the loss of human stromal genes. These xenografts, therefore, represent a validated model for preclinical investigation of new therapeutic agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/bcr3095DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3496128PMC
January 2012

A preclinical therapeutic schedule optimizing docetaxel plus estramustine administration in prostate cancer.

Anticancer Drugs 2010 Nov;21(10):927-31

Department of Translational Research, Laboratory of Preclinical Investigation, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, Paris, France.

Androgen-dependent and castration-resistant prostate cancer (PC) is usually sensitive to docetaxel chemotherapy. Nevertheless, docetaxel resistance frequently appears after several cycles of treatment, raising the problem of salvage treatment for docetaxel-resistant PC patients. Although the combination of docetaxel and estramustine prolongs metastasis-free and overall survival of patients with androgen-independent PC, the use of this modality remains limited in elderly patients or patients with several comorbidities, especially vascular disease or gastrointestinal toxicity, because of unacceptable toxicity including venous thrombosis. The aims of this study were therefore (i) to evaluate the in-vivo efficacy of estramustine combined with docetaxel since initial tumor growth and following the appearance of docetaxel resistance in the androgen-dependent human PC xenograft PAC120, and (ii) to evaluate the efficacy of estramustine in six human androgen-independent PC models derived from PAC120. In docetaxel-resistant tumor-bearing mice, estramustine alone induced a TGD2 of 18 days, whereas the combination of docetaxel and estramustine induced a TGD2 of 50 days (P<0.05) with no significantly different overall survival of mice treated by docetaxel and estramustine since day 1 or since the onset of resistance to docetaxel. Among the six human androgen-independent tumors treated with estramustine alone, two highly sensitive models, two intermediate responding tumors, and two resistant models were observed. Altogether, these results suggest that estramustine should be combined with docetaxel in PC patients, but the use of this treatment could be limited, particularly in elderly patients, to docetaxel-resistant cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CAD.0b013e32833db887DOI Listing
November 2010

A new model of patient tumor-derived breast cancer xenografts for preclinical assays.

Clin Cancer Res 2007 Jul;13(13):3989-98

U612 Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, Pharmacologie Préclinique Antitumorale, Paris Anatomie et Cytologie Pathologique, Hôpital Trousseau, Tours, France.

Purpose: To establish a panel of human breast cancer (HBC) xenografts in immunodeficient mice suitable for pharmacologic preclinical assays.

Experimental Design: 200 samples of HBCs were grafted into Swiss nude mice. Twenty-five transplantable xenografts were established (12.5%). Their characterization included histology, p53 status, genetic analysis by array comparative genomic hybridization, gene expression by Western blotting, and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. Biological profiles of nine xenografts were compared with those of the corresponding patient's tumor. Chemosensitivities of 17 xenografts to a combination of Adriamycin and cyclophosphamide (AC), docetaxel, trastuzumab, and Degarelix were evaluated.

Results: Almost all patient tumors established as xenografts displayed an aggressive phenotype, i.e., high-grade, triple-negative status. The histology of the xenografts recapitulated the features of the original tumors. Mutation of p53 and inactivation of Rb and PTEN proteins were found in 83%, 30%, and 42% of HBC xenografts, respectively. Two HBCx had an ERBB2 (HER2) amplification. Large variations were observed in the expression of HER family receptors and in genomic profiles. Genomic alterations were close to those of original samples in paired tumors. Three xenografts formed lung metastases. A total of 15 of the 17 HBCx (88%) responded to AC, and 8 (47%) responded to docetaxel. One ERBB2-amplified xenograft responded to trastuzumab, whereas the other did not. The drug response of HBC xenografts was concordant with that of the patient's tumor in five of seven analyzable cases.

Conclusions: This panel of breast cancer xenografts includes 15 triple-negative, one ER positive and 2 ERBB2 positive. This panel represents a useful preclinical tool for testing new agents and protocols and for further exploration of the biological basis of drug responses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-07-0078DOI Listing
July 2007