Publications by authors named "Lucy Eunju Lee"

12 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

The Efficacy of Mycophenolate Mofetil in Remission Maintenance Therapy for Microscopic Polyangiitis and Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis.

Yonsei Med J 2021 Jun;62(6):494-502

Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Purpose: The present study compared the efficacy of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) with that of azathioprine (AZA) in Korean patients with microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) and granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA).

Materials And Methods: The medical records of 69 patients with MPA and GPA who received cyclophosphamide and subsequently received AZA or MMF for remission maintenance therapy were reviewed. All-cause mortality, relapse, end-stage renal disease (ESRD), cerebrovascular accident, and cardiovascular disease were evaluated as poor outcomes. Having a lower Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score (BVAS) was defined as the lowest tertile of BVAS (BVAS ≤11 in this study).

Results: In comparative analysis of the occurrence of poor outcomes among patients taking AZA only, MMF only, and MMF after AZA, patients taking MMF only exhibited a significantly lower cumulative ESRD-free survival rate than patients taking AZA only (=0.028). In terms of ESRD occurrence between the groups based on BVAS at diagnosis, among patients with MPA and GPA with higher BVAS at diagnosis, patients taking MMF only exhibited a significantly lower cumulative ESRD-free survival rate than those taking AZA only (=0.047). Among patients with MPA and GPA with the lowest tertile of BVAS at diagnosis, cumulative ESRD-free survival rates did not differ.

Conclusion: With regard to ESRD occurrence, the efficacy of MMF in remission maintenance therapy was less effective than AZA in patients with MPA and GPA. However, among patients with lower BVAS, there was no difference in the occurrence of poor outcomes between patients taking MMF and those taking AZA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3349/ymj.2021.62.6.494DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8149928PMC
June 2021

Serum galectin-9 could be a potential biomarker in assessing the disease activity of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis.

Clin Exp Rheumatol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, and Institute for Immunology and Immunological Diseases, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Objectives: Serum galectin levels have been reported to be associated with the activity in autoimmune diseases. This study investigated whether serum levels of galectin (Gal)-1, Gal-3, and Gal-9 could be used as biomarkers in assessing the disease activity of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV).

Methods: Eighty AAV patients were selected for inclusion in our AAV cohort. AAV-specific indices and clinical and laboratory data were assessed on the same day when blood samples were obtained from the patient and serum levels of Gal-1, Gal-3, and Gal-9 were measured by ELISA from obtained sera. High disease activity was defined as Birmingham vasculitis activity score (BVAS) ≥ 12. The optimal cut-off value of galectins was extrapolated by receiver operator characteristic analysis and linear and logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the association between Gal-3, Gal-9, and BVAS.

Results: The median values of BVAS, Gal-1, Gal-3, and Gal-9 were 8.0, 38.1 ng/mL, 12.4 ng/mL, and 1017.7 ng/mL, respectively. Serum Gal-3 and Gal-9 levels were correlated with BVAS (r=0.375 and r=0.462), while only serum Gal-9 levels were independently associated with BVAS (β=0.250) in linear regression analyses. Serum Gal-9 ≥10.28 ng/mL was also associated with high activity of AAV (odds ratio 5.303) in multivariable logistic regression analysis. In addition, serum Gal-1, Gal-3, and Gal-9 levels were found to differ according to ANCA positivity status and the presence of renal manifestations.

Conclusions: These results suggest the potential possibility of serum Gal-9 levels in assessing AAV disease activity.
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May 2021

Detection of intracellular monosodium urate crystals in gout synovial fluid using optical diffraction tomography.

Sci Rep 2021 May 11;11(1):10019. Epub 2021 May 11.

Division of Aging Research, Gwangju Center, Korea Basic Science Institute (KBSI), 49 Dosicheomdansaneop-ro, Nam-gu, Gwangju, 61751, South Korea.

Optical diffraction tomography (ODT) enables imaging of unlabeled intracellular components by measuring the three-dimensional (3D) refractive index (RI). We aimed to detect intracellular monosodium urate (MSU) crystals in synovial leukocytes derived from gout patients using ODT. The 3D RI values of the synthetic MSU crystals, measured by ODT, ranged between 1.383 and 1.440. After adding synthetic MSU crystals to a macrophage, RI tomograms were reconstructed using ODT, and the reconstructed RI tomograms discerned intracellular and extracellular MSU crystals. We observed unlabeled synthetic MSU crystal entry into the cytoplasm of a macrophage through time-lapse imaging. Furthermore, using gout patient-derived synovial leukocytes, we successfully obtained RI tomogram images of intracellular MSU crystals. The 3D RI identification of MSU crystals was verified with birefringence through polarization-sensitive ODT measurements. Together, our results provide evidence that this novel ODT can identify birefringent MSU crystals in synovial leukocytes of patients with gout.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-89337-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8113554PMC
May 2021

Male Sex Is a Significant Predictor of All-cause Mortality in Patients with Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-associated Vasculitis.

J Korean Med Sci 2021 May 10;36(18):e120. Epub 2021 May 10.

Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background: We investigated and compared the initial clinical features at diagnosis and the poor outcomes during follow-up in Korean patients with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) based on sex.

Methods: The medical records of 223 immunosuppressive drug-naïve patients with AAV were reviewed. Age, body mass index (BMI), smoking history, AAV subtypes, ANCA positivity, clinical manifestations, Birmingham vasculitis activity score (BVAS), five-factor score (FFS), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) at diagnosis were collected. All-cause mortality, end-stage renal disease (ESRD), cerebrovascular accident (CVA) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) were assessed as the poor outcomes of AAV during follow-up.

Results: The median age was 59.0 years and 74 of 223 AAV patients (33.2%) were men. Among variables at diagnosis, male patients exhibited higher BMI than female. However, there were no differences in other demographic data, AAV subtypes, ANCA positivity, BVAS, FFS, ESR and CRP between the two groups. Male patients received cyclophosphamide more frequently, but there were no significant differences in the frequencies of the poor outcomes of AAV between the two groups. Male patients exhibited a significantly lower cumulative patients' survival rate than female patients during the follow-up period based on all-cause mortality ( = 0.037). In the multivariable analysis, both male sex (hazard ratio [HR], 2.378) and FFS (HR, 1.693) at diagnosis were significantly and independently associated with all-cause mortality during follow-up.

Conclusion: Male sex is a significant and independent predictor of all-cause mortality in AAV patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3346/jkms.2021.36.e120DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8111045PMC
May 2021

The novel fibrosis index at diagnosis may predict all-cause mortality in patients with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis without substantial liver diseases.

Clinics (Sao Paulo) 2021 9;76:e2501. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Objectives: Antineutrophil cyto plasmic antibody-associated vasculitis (AAV) is a fatal disease. Currently, predictors of mortality due to AAV are based on the distribution of organ involvement. The novel fibrosis index (NFI) is an index composed of laboratory results that reflect the degree of liver fibrosis. This study aimed to evaluate whether NFI can predict poor outcomes in patients with AAV without substantial liver disease.

Methods: A total of 210 patients with immunosuppressive drug-naïve AAV were retrospectively reviewed. NFI was calculated as follows: NFI=(serum bilirubin × (alkaline phosphatase)2)/(platelet count×(serum albumin)2). NFI cut-off was set at 1.24 (the highest quartile). Poor outcomes were defined as all-cause mortality, relapse, and end-stage renal disease (ESRD).

Results: During the median 34.5 months of follow-up, 21 patients (10%) died, 72 patients (34.3%) relapsed, and 38 patients (18.1%) had ESRD due to AAV progression. The median calculated NFI was 0.61, and it was higher in AAV patients with all-cause mortality than in those without mortality, but the difference was not statistically significant (1.26 vs. 0.59). AAV patients with NFI at diagnosis ≥1.24 exhibited a significantly lower cumulative patient survival rate than those with NFI at diagnosis <1.24 (p=0.002). Multivariate Cox hazard model analysis showed that NFI at diagnosis ≥1.24 was an independent predictor of all-cause mortality in AAV (hazard ratios [HR] 2.850, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.026, 7.910).

Conclusions: NFI ≥1.24, which may be an independent predictive marker for all-cause mortality in AAV patients without substantial liver disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.6061/clinics/2021/e2501DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8009064PMC
April 2021

Correlation between serum cysteine-rich protein 61 and disease activity of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis.

Clin Rheumatol 2021 Mar 23. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50-1 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, 03722, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Objectives: Cysteine-rich protein 61 (CYR61) stimulates protein kinase B (Akt)-mediated nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signalling leading to an increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines, which play important roles in the pathogenesis of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV). Hence, we investigated whether serum CYR61 was correlated with disease activity of AAV in a single-centre prospective cohort.

Methods: Seventy-two patients with AAV were randomly selected and included. Serum CYR61, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 levels were quantified with the patients' stored sera, and clinical and laboratory data at the time of blood sampling were collected. Spearman's correlation and linear regression analysis was conducted to analyse the correlation between continuous variables. The optimal cut-off of serum CYR61 for predicting high disease activity was identified using the receiver operator characteristic curve. Birmingham vasculitis activity score (BVAS) was used as a measure to assess disease activity, and high disease activity was defined as BVAS ≥ 12.

Results: Serum CYR61 significantly correlated with BVAS (r = 0.249), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (r = 0.283), C-reactive protein (r = 0.298) and serum IL-6 (r = 0.319). However, a linear association was not found between CYR61 and BVAS (β = 0.102, P = 0.304). The relative risk (RR) for high disease activity in AAV patients with serum CYR61 ≥ 236.2 pg/mL was higher than those with serum CYR61 < 236.2 pg/mL (RR 3.316, P = 0.018).

Conclusion: Even though serum CYR61 was not directly proportional to the increase of BVAS, it could be predictive of high disease activity in AAV. Key Points • Serum CYR61 was significantly correlated with BVAS along with ESR, CRP and serum IL-6. • The cut-off of serum CYR61 for high disease activity of AAV was obtained as 236.2 pg/mL. • AAV patients with serum CYR61 ≥ 236.2 pg/mL had increased risk of having higher disease activity than those with serum CYR61 < 236.2 pg/mL (RR 3.316, P = 0.018).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10067-021-05701-yDOI Listing
March 2021

Fibrinogen to albumin ratio reflects the activity of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis.

J Clin Lab Anal 2021 Apr 16;35(4):e23731. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: We investigated whether fibrinogen to albumin ratio (FAR) at diagnosis could reflect the cross-sectional activity and predict poor outcomes in patients with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV).

Methods: This cross-sectional study included 54 immunosuppressant drug-naïve patients with AAV who had the results of plasma fibrinogen and serum albumin at diagnosis. Clinical and laboratory data at diagnosis were collected, and all-cause mortality, cerebrovascular accident, cardiovascular disease, end-stage renal disease occurrences were assessed as poor outcomes. FAR was calculated by the following equation: FAR = plasma fibrinogen (g/dl)/serum albumin (g/dl).

Results: The median age was 65.5 years, and 59.3% of patients were men (33 MPA, 13 GPA and 8 EGPA). FAR was significantly correlated with Birmingham vasculitis activity score (BVAS; r = 0.271), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR; r = 0.668) and C-reactive protein (CRP; r = 0.638). High BVAS was defined as BVAS ≥16, and the cut-off of FAR at diagnosis was set as 0.118. AAV patients with FAR at diagnosis ≥0.118 had a significantly higher risk for the cross-sectional high BVAS than those without (RR 3.361). In the univariable linear regression analysis, CRP (β = 0.383) and FAR (β = 0.297) were significantly correlated with BVAS at diagnosis. However, in the multivariable analysis, none of them was correlated with the cross-sectional BVAS. FAR at diagnosis could not predict poor outcomes during follow-up in AAV patients.

Conclusions: Fibrinogen to albumin ratio at diagnosis could reflect the cross-sectional BVAS but could not predict poor outcomes in patients with AAV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcla.23731DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8059749PMC
April 2021

Systemic inflammation response index predicts all-cause mortality in patients with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis.

Int Urol Nephrol 2021 Jan 11. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50-1 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, 03722, Republic of Korea.

Objectives: A systemic inflammation response index (SIRI) has been recently introduced as a tool for the assessment of the prognosis of several critical medical conditions. In this study, we investigated whether SIRI at diagnosis could estimate the cross-sectional disease activity and predict poor prognosis during follow-up in patients with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV).

Methods: We reviewed the medical records of 224 immunosuppressive drug-naïve AAV patients and obtained clinical and laboratory data both at diagnosis and during follow-up. SIRI was calculated using the following equation: SIRI = peripheral blood neutrophil count × monocyte count/lymphocyte count.

Results: The median age of AAV patients at diagnosis was 59.0 years and 33% were male. In the univariable linear regression analysis, SIRI value at diagnosis was not significantly correlated with the cross-sectional Birmingham vasculitis activity score (BVAS) (r = 0.125, P = 0.062). When the SIRI cut-off value at diagnosis was set at 2847.9 mm using the receiver operator characteristic curve, the sensitivity was 56.0% and the specificity was 68.3% for all-cause mortality [area 0.618, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.502, 0.734]. AAV patients with SIRI ≥ 2847.9 mm had a significantly higher risk for all-cause mortality than those with SIRI < 2847.9 mm [relative risk (RR) 2.747, 95% CI 1.181, 6.392]. During follow-up, AAV patients with SIRI ≥ 2847.9 mm exhibited a significantly lower patients' survival rate than those with SIRI < 2847.9 mm (P = 0.003).

Conclusions: SIRI at diagnosis could predict all-cause mortality during follow-up but it could not estimate the cross-sectional BVAS in AAV patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11255-020-02777-4DOI Listing
January 2021

The significance of cytoplasmic antinuclear antibody patterns in autoimmune liver disease.

PLoS One 2021 7;16(1):e0244950. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.

We aimed to determine the significance of cytoplasmic antinuclear antibody (ANA) patterns using computer-aided immunofluorescence microscopy in patients with autoimmune liver diseases (AILD). ANA staining pattern was identified by treating cultured human epithelial type 2 (HEp-2) cells with the sera of the patients. Medical records of patients with suspected AILD who had positive cytoplasmic ANA patterns between February 2017 and November 2019 were retrospectively reviewed for clinical, laboratory, and immunological data. Cytoplasmic ANA patterns of AILD and non-AILD groups were compared. Further subgroup analysis of patients with AILD who had reticular or speckled cytoplasmic ANA patterns was conducted. We found that among the 196 patients with positive cytoplasmic ANA patterns, 113 (57.6%) were diagnosed with AILD. The percentage of reticular cytoplasmic pattern was higher in the AILD group than that in the non-AILD group (64.0% vs. 21.9%, p < 0.001). Furthermore, patients with AILD who exhibited a reticular ANA pattern demonstrated a higher positive rate for anti-mitochondrial antibodies (66.7% vs. 2.6%, p < 0.001) than those who exhibited the speckled ANA pattern. Moreover, AILD patients with the reticular ANA pattern displayed a lower positive rate for anti-smooth muscle antibodies (0% vs. 45%, p < 0.001) and nuclear ANA pattern (73.2% vs. 97.5%, p = 0.003) than those with the speckled ANA pattern. Therefore, cytoplasmic ANA patterns could be used to guide AILD characterization in suspected AILD cases, especially as the reticular ANA pattern is strongly associated with AILD. Thus, it is important to check cytoplasmic ANA patterns for AILD evaluation, even when nuclear ANA patterns are negative.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0244950PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7790257PMC
May 2021

Efficacy of the fibrosis index for predicting end-stage renal disease in patients with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis.

Int J Clin Pract 2021 Apr 20;75(4):e13929. Epub 2020 Dec 20.

Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Objective: Kidney involvement is a major manifestation of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis (AAV) and may progress to end-stage renal disease (ESRD), requiring renal replacement therapy. Unfortunately, there is no reliable kidney-specific index for predicting the progression of renal disease to ESRD. The fibrosis index (FI) reflects the degree of fibrosis in chronic liver disease. This study aimed to investigate whether the FI at the time of diagnosis could predict the development of ESRD in AAV patients.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 211 immunosuppressive drug-naïve AAV patients and extrapolated the cut-off FI value for predicting the development of ESRD using receiver operating characteristic curves. The associations between the FI and clinical outcomes, including mortality, relapse, and ESRD development, were determined.

Results: Overall, 39 (18.5%) patients developed ESRD owing to the progression of AAV-associated renal disease. The median FI was higher in AAV patients with ESRD than in those without (1.61 vs 1.04; P = .001). The FI cut-off was 1.72. The incidence of ESRD was higher in patients with FI ≥ 1.72 at the time of diagnosis than in those with an FI < 1.72 at the time of diagnosis (relative risk: 4.655; 95% confidence interval: 2.242-9.662; P < .001). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed that patients with an FI ≥ 1.72 at the time of diagnosis exhibited significantly lower ESRD-free survival rates than those with an FI < 1.72 at the time of diagnosis (P < .001).

Conclusion: FI ≥ 1.72 at the time of diagnosis may be an independent predictive marker for ESRD in AAV patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijcp.13929DOI Listing
April 2021

Pan-immune-inflammation value at diagnosis independently predicts all-cause mortality in patients with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis.

Clin Exp Rheumatol 2021 Mar-Apr;39 Suppl 129(2):88-93. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine and Institute for Immunology and Immunological Diseases, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Objectives: The pan-immune-inflammation value (PIIV), a novel, validated predictor of the prognosis of several diseases, has been recently introduced. We investigated whether PIIV at diagnosis could predict all-cause mortality during follow-up in patients with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV).

Methods: Medical records of 219 immunosuppressive drug-naïve patients with AAV were reviewed. PIIV was calculated as follows: neutrophil count (x 1000/m3) x monocyte count (x 1000/m3) x platelet count (x 1000/mm3) / lymphocyte count (x 1000/m3). Additionally, conventional risk factors of mortality, AAV-specific indices, and acute-phase reactants at diagnosis were evaluated.

Results: The median age at diagnosis was 59.0 years and 32.9% of the patients were male. During follow-up, 24 patients (11.0%) died due to all causes. When the cut-off of PIIV at diagnosis for all-cause mortality was set at 1011.3, sensitivity and specificity of 52.0% and 71.2%, were attained (p=0.041). When AAV patients were divided into two groups according to the calculated cut-off, those with PIIV ≥1011.3 at diagnosis had a significantly lower cumulative survival rate than those without (p=0.009). In the multivariable Cox hazards model analysis, male gender (HR 2.307), FFS (HR 1.728) and PIIV ≥1011.3 (HR 2.689) were identified as significant and independent risk factors of all-cause mortality.

Conclusions: PIIV at diagnosis exceeding the optimal cut-off for death could predict all-cause mortality during follow-up in AAV patients comparable to male gender and FFS at diagnosis.
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May 2021

Atherogenic index of plasma predicts cerebrovascular accident occurrence in antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis.

Lipids Health Dis 2020 Aug 14;19(1):184. Epub 2020 Aug 14.

Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50-1 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, Republic of Korea, 03722.

Background: To investigate whether atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) at diagnosis is associated with the occurrence of cerebrovascular accident (CVA) or coronary artery disease (CAD) in antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis (AAV).

Methods: The medical records of 167 AAV patients on initial diagnosis was reviewed, and 300 healthy controls were included. AIP was calculated using the following equation: AIP = Log (triglyceride [mg/dL] / high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [mg/dL]). AAV patients were divided into two groups according to the AIP cut-off of 0.11. The event of stroke, transient ischemic attack, and cerebral hemorrhage was recorded as CVA, and CAD events consisted of either myocardial infarction and angina pectoris. CVA- and CAD- free survival rate between those with AIP ≥ 0.11 and < 0.11 were compared by the Kaplan-Meier analysis, and Cox hazard analysis was conducted to identify predictors of CVA.

Results: The median age of AAV patients were 59.0 years, and 54 (32.3%) patients were male. One-hundred and fifteen (68.9%) patients had AIP < 0.11 and 52 (31.1%) had AIP ≥ 0.11. The mean Birmingham vasculitis activity score in AAV patients with AIP < 0.11 was lower than that seen in patients with AIP ≥ 0.11 (12.0 vs. 14.0, P = 0.041). AAV patients had a significantly higher AIP compared to controls (mean - 0.01 vs. -0.10, P < 0.001). During follow-up, the occurrence of CVA and CAD was observed in 16 (9.6%) and 14 (8.4%) patients, respectively. In Kaplan-Meier analysis, AAV patients with AIP ≥ 0.11 had significantly lower CVA-free survival rates than in those with AIP < 0.11 (P = 0.027), whereas there was no difference in CAD according to AIP (P = 0.390). Multivariable Cox analysis indicated that AIP ≥ 0.11 at diagnosis was the sole predictor of CVA (Hazard ratio 3.392, 95% confidence interval 1.076, 10.696, P = 0.037).

Conclusions: AIP is significantly higher in AAV patients than in healthy controls, and AIP ≥ 0.11 at diagnosis is a significant predictor of CVA during follow-up. Stringent surveillance should be provided in AAV patients with AIP ≥ 0.11 regarding the occurrence of CVA.

Trial Registration: Retrospectively registered (4-2017-0673).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12944-020-01360-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7429760PMC
August 2020