Publications by authors named "Lucile Vignaud"

8 Publications

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Reproducing diabetic retinopathy features using newly developed human induced-pluripotent stem cell-derived retinal Müller glial cells.

Glia 2021 Mar 8. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Institut de la Vision, Sorbonne Université, INSERM, CNRS, Paris, France.

Muller glial cells (MGCs) are responsible for the homeostatic and metabolic support of the retina. Despite the importance of MGCs in retinal disorders, reliable and accessible human cell sources to be used to model MGC-associated diseases are lacking. Although primary human MGCs (pMGCs) can be purified from post-mortem retinal tissues, the donor scarcity limits their use. To overcome this problem, we developed a protocol to generate and bank human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived MGCs (hiMGCs). Using a transcriptome analysis, we showed that the three genetically independent hiMGCs generated were homogeneous and showed phenotypic characteristics and transcriptomic profile of pMGCs. These cells expressed key MGC markers, including Vimentin, CLU, DKK3, SOX9, SOX2, S100A16, ITGB1, and CD44 and could be cultured up to passage 8. Under our culture conditions, hiMGCs and pMGCs expressed low transcript levels of RLPB1, AQP4, KCNJ1, KCJN10, and SLC1A3. Using a disease modeling approach, we showed that hiMGCs could be used to model the features of diabetic retinopathy (DR)-associated dyslipidemia. Indeed, palmitate, a major free fatty acid with elevated plasma levels in diabetic patients, induced the expression of inflammatory cytokines found in the ocular fluid of DR patients such as CXCL8 (IL-8) and ANGPTL4. Moreover, the analysis of palmitate-treated hiMGC secretome showed an upregulation of proangiogenic factors strongly related to DR, including ANG2, Endoglin, IL-1β, CXCL8, MMP-9, PDGF-AA, and VEGF. Thus, hiMGCs could be an alternative to pMGCs and an extremely valuable tool to help to understand and model glial cell involvement in retinal disorders, including DR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/glia.23983DOI Listing
March 2021

Disruption of profilin1 function suppresses developmental and pathological retinal neovascularization.

J Biol Chem 2020 07 22;295(28):9618-9629. Epub 2020 May 22.

Department of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA

Angiogenesis-mediated neovascularization in the eye is usually associated with visual complications. Pathological angiogenesis is particularly prominent in the retina in the settings of proliferative diabetic retinopathy, in which it can lead to permanent loss of vision. In this study, by bioinformatics analyses, we provide evidence for elevated expression of actin-binding protein PFN1 (profilin1) in the retinal vascular endothelial cells (VECs) of individuals with proliferative diabetic retinopathy, findings further supported by gene expression analyses for PFN1 in experimentally induced abnormal retinal neovascularization in an oxygen-induced retinopathy murine model. We observed that in a conditional knockout mouse model, postnatal deletion of the gene in VECs leads to defects in tip cell activity (marked by impaired filopodial protrusions) and reduced vascular sprouting, resulting in hypovascularization during developmental angiogenesis in the retina. Consistent with these findings, an investigative small molecule compound targeting the PFN1-actin interaction reduced random motility, proliferation, and cord morphogenesis of retinal VECs and experimentally induced abnormal retinal neovascularization In summary, these findings provide the first direct evidence that PFN1 is required for formation of actin-based protrusive structures and developmental angiogenesis in the retina. The proof of concept of susceptibility of abnormal angiogenesis to small molecule intervention of PFN1-actin interaction reported here lays a conceptual foundation for targeting PFN1 as a possible strategy in angiogenesis-dependent retinal diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.RA120.012613DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7363146PMC
July 2020

Antagonist of nucleolin, N6L, inhibits neovascularization in mouse models of retinopathies.

FASEB J 2020 04 5;34(4):5851-5862. Epub 2020 Mar 5.

CRRET Laboratory, CNRS ERL 9215, University of Paris-Est Créteil, Créteil, France.

Retinal vascular diseases (RVD) have been identified as a major cause of blindness worldwide. These pathologies, including the wet form of age-related macular degeneration, retinopathy of prematurity, and diabetic retinopathy are currently treated by intravitreal delivery of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents. However, repeated intravitreal injections can lead to ocular complications and resistance to these treatments. Thus, there is a need to find new targeted therapies. Nucleolin regulates the endothelial cell (EC) activation and angiogenesis. In previous studies, we designed a pseudopeptide, N6L, that binds the nucleolin and blocks the tumor angiogenesis. In this study, the effect of N6L was investigated in two experimental models of retinopathies including oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) and choroidal neovascularization (CNV). We found that in mouse OIR, intraperitoneal injection of N6L is delivered to activated ECs and induced a 50% reduction of pathological neovascularization. The anti-angiogenic effect of N6L has been tested in CNV model in which the systemic injection of N6L induced a 33% reduction of angiogenesis. This effect is comparable to those obtained with VEGF-trap, a standard of care drug for RVD. Interestingly, with preventive and curative treatments, neoangiogenesis is inhibited by 59%. Our results have potential interest in the development of new therapies targeting other molecules than VEGF for RVD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.201901876RDOI Listing
April 2020

Rescue of Defective Electroretinographic Responses in Dp71-Null Mice With AAV-Mediated Reexpression of Dp71.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2020 02;61(2):11

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Purpose: To study the potential effect of a gene therapy, designed to rescue the expression of dystrophin Dp71 in the retinas of Dp71-null mice, on retinal physiology.

Methods: We recorded electroretinograms (ERGs) in Dp71-null and wild-type littermate mice. In dark-adapted eyes, responses to flashes of several strengths were measured. In addition, flash responses on a 25-candela/square meters background were measured. On- and Off-mediated responses to sawtooth stimuli and responses to photopic sine-wave modulation (3-30 Hz) were also recorded. After establishing the ERG phenotype, the ShH10-GFP adeno-associated virus (AAV), which has been previously shown to target specifically Müller glial cells (MGCs), was delivered intravitreously with or without (sham therapy) the Dp71 coding sequence under control of a CBA promoter. ERG recordings were repeated three months after treatment. Real-time quantitative PCR and Western blotting analyses were performed in order to quantify Dp71 expression in the retinas.

Results: Dp71-null mice displayed reduced b-waves in dark- and light-adapted flash ERGs and smaller response amplitudes to photopic rapid-on sawtooth modulation and to sine-wave stimuli. Three months after intravitreal injections of the ShH10-GFP-2A-Dp71 AAV vector, ERG responses were completely recovered in treated eyes of Dp71-null mice. The functional rescue was associated with an overexpression of Dp71 in treated retinas.

Conclusions: The present results show successful functional recovery accompanying the reexpression of Dp71. In addition, this experimental model sheds light on MGCs influencing ERG components, since previous reports showed that aquaporin 4 and Kir4.1 channels were mislocated in MGCs of Dp71-null mice, while their distribution could be normalized following intravitreal delivery of the same ShH10-GFP-2A-Dp71 vector.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/iovs.61.2.11DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7326481PMC
February 2020

Characterization of two rat models of cystic fibrosis-KO and F508del CFTR-Generated by Crispr-Cas9.

Animal Model Exp Med 2019 Dec 25;2(4):297-311. Epub 2019 Nov 25.

INSERM 1151 INEM Université de Paris Paris France.

Background: Genetically engineered animals are essential for gaining a proper understanding of the disease mechanisms of cystic fibrosis (CF). The rat is a relevant laboratory model for CF because of its zootechnical capacity, size, and airway characteristics, including the presence of submucosal glands.

Methods: We describe the generation of a CF rat model (F508del) homozygous for the p.Phe508del mutation in the transmembrane conductance regulator () gene. This model was compared to new rats (CFTR KO). Target organs in CF were examined by histological staining of tissue sections and tooth enamel was quantified by micro-computed tomography. The activity of CFTR was evaluated by nasal potential difference (NPD) and short-circuit current measurements. The effect of VX-809 and VX-770 was analyzed on nasal epithelial primary cell cultures from F508del rats.

Results: Both newborn F508del and Knock out (KO) animals developed intestinal obstruction that could be partly compensated by special diet combined with an osmotic laxative. The two rat models exhibited CF phenotypic anomalies such as agenesis and tooth enamel defects. Histology of the intestine, pancreas, liver, and lungs was normal. Absence of CFTR function in KO rats was confirmed ex vivo by short-circuit current measurements on colon mucosae and in vivo by NPD, whereas residual CFTR activity was observed in F508del rats. Exposure of F508del CFTR nasal primary cultures to a combination of VX-809 and VX-770 improved CFTR-mediated Cl transport.

Conclusions: The F508del rats reproduce the phenotypes observed in CFTR KO animals and represent a novel resource to advance the development of CF therapeutics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ame2.12091DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6930998PMC
December 2019

IL-1β induces rod degeneration through the disruption of retinal glutamate homeostasis.

J Neuroinflammation 2020 Jan 3;17(1). Epub 2020 Jan 3.

Sorbonne Université, INSERM, CNRS, Institut de la Vision, 17 rue Moreau, F-75012, Paris, France.

Background: Age-related macular degeneration is characterized by the accumulation of subretinal macrophages and the degeneration of cones, but mainly of rods. We have previously shown that Mononuclear Phagocytes-derived IL-1β induces rod photoreceptor cell death during experimental subretinal inflammation and in retinal explants exposed to IL-1β but the mechanism is unknown.

Methods: Retinal explants were culture in the presence of human monocytes or IL-1β and photoreceptor cell survival was analyzed by TUNEL labeling. Glutamate concentration and transcription levels of gene involved in the homeostasis of glutamate were analyzed in cell fractions of explant cultured or not in the presence of IL-1β. Glutamate receptor antagonists were evaluated for their ability to reduce photoreceptor cell death in the presence of IL1-β or monocytes.

Results: We here show that IL-1β does not induce death in isolated photoreceptors, suggesting an indirect effect. We demonstrate that IL-1β leads to glutamate-induced rod photoreceptor cell death as it increases the extracellular glutamate concentrations in the retina through the inhibition of its conversion to glutamine in Müller cells, increased release from Müller cells, and diminished reuptake. The inhibition of non-NMDA receptors completely and efficiently prevented rod apoptosis in retinal explants cultured in the presence of IL-1β or, more importantly, in vivo, in a model of subretinal inflammation.

Conclusions: Our study emphasizes the importance of inflammation in the deregulation of glutamate homeostasis and provides a comprehensive mechanism of action for IL-1β-induced rod degeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12974-019-1655-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6942287PMC
January 2020

Glucagon-like Peptide 1 Receptor Agonists, Diabetic Retinopathy and Angiogenesis: The AngioSafe Type 2 Diabetes Study.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2020 04;105(4)

Center for Interdisciplinary Research in Biology (CIRB), College de France - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM), Paris Sciences et Lettres (PSL) Research University, Paris, France.

Aims: Recent trials provide conflicting results on the association between glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RA) and diabetic retinopathy (DR). The aim of the AngioSafe type 2 diabetes (T2D) study was to determine the role of GLP-1RA in angiogenesis using clinical and preclinical models.

Methods: We performed two studies in humans. In study 1, we investigated the effect of GLP-1RA exposure from T2D diagnosis on the severity of DR, as diagnosed with retinal imaging (fundus photography). In study 2, a randomized 4-week trial, we assessed the effect of liraglutide on circulating hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs), and angio-miRNAs.We then studied the experimental effect of Exendin-4, on key steps of angiogenesis: in vitro on human endothelial cell proliferation, survival and three-dimensional vascular morphogenesis; and in vivo on ischemia-induced neovascularization of the retina in mice.

Results: In the cohort of 3154 T2D patients, 10% displayed severe DR. In multivariate analysis, sex, disease duration, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), micro- and macroangiopathy, insulin therapy and hypertension remained strongly associated with severe DR, while no association was found with GLP-1RA exposure (o 1.139 [0.800-1.622], P = .47). We further showed no effect of liraglutide on HPCs, and angio-miRNAs. In vitro, we demonstrated that exendin-4 had no effect on proliferation and survival of human endothelial cells, no effect on total length and number of capillaries. Finally, in vivo, we showed that exendin-4 did not exert any negative effect on retinal neovascularization.

Conclusions: The AngioSafe T2D studies provide experimental and clinical data confirming no effect of GLP-1RA on angiogenesis and no association between GLP-1 exposure and severe DR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/clinem/dgz069DOI Listing
April 2020

Chronic exposure to tumor necrosis factor alpha induces retinal pigment epithelium cell dedifferentiation.

J Neuroinflammation 2018 Mar 16;15(1):85. Epub 2018 Mar 16.

Sorbonne Université, INSERM, CNRS, Institut de la Vision, 17 rue Moreau, F-75012, Paris, France.

Background: The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a monolayer of pigmented cells with important barrier and immuno-suppressive functions in the eye. We have previously shown that acute stimulation of RPE cells by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) downregulates the expression of OTX2 (Orthodenticle homeobox 2) and dependent RPE genes. We here investigated the long-term effects of TNFα on RPE cell morphology and key functions in vitro.

Methods: Primary porcine RPE cells were exposed to TNFα (at 0.8, 4, or 20 ng/ml per day) for 10 days. RPE cell morphology, phagocytosis, barrier- and immunosuppressive-functions were assessed.

Results: Chronic (10 days) exposure of primary RPE cells to TNFα increases RPE cell size and polynucleation, decreases visual cycle gene expression, impedes RPE tight-junction organization and transepithelial resistance, and decreases the immunosuppressive capacities of the RPE. TNFα-induced morphological- and transepithelial-resistance changes were prevented by concomitant Transforming Growth Factor β inhibition.

Conclusions: Our results indicate that chronic TNFα-exposure is sufficient to alter RPE morphology and impede cardinal features that define the differentiated state of RPE cells with striking similarities to the alterations that are observed with age in neurodegenerative diseases such as age-related macular degeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12974-018-1106-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5857126PMC
March 2018