Publications by authors named "Luciana Catanese"

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Aspirin Use and Risk of Subdural Hematoma: Updated Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2021 Aug 13;30(8):105911. Epub 2021 Jun 13.

Department of Medicine (Neurology), McMaster University, Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton Health Sciences, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

Background And Purpose: Subdural hematomas are an uncommon, but a serious, bleeding complication of antithrombotic therapies. We update our previous inconclusive meta-analysis to better estimate the risk of subdural hematoma associated with aspirin use.

Methods: For the initial meta-analysis, nine randomized trials published between1980 and 2012 comparing aspirin with placebo/control were considered. Additional data from four large primary prevention trials were added. Two reviewers independently extracted data on subdural hematomas, with differences resolved by joint review and consensus.

Results: Numbers of subdural hematoma were available from thirteen randomized trials involving 155,554 participants comparing aspirin (dosage range 25 mg twice daily to 325 mg daily) to placebo (ten double-blind trials) or no aspirin (three trials). Participants included healthy healthcare providers, older people with vascular risk factors without manifest vascular disease, and those with atrial fibrillation or chronic angina. Pooling all trials, subdural hematomas were identified in 93 of 77,698 participants assigned to aspirin versus 62 of 77,856 participants assigned to placebo/no aspirin. By meta-analysis, the relative risk ratio of subdural hematoma associated with assignment to aspirin was 1.5 (95%CI 1.1, 2.0, p = 0.01; p = 0.9 for heterogeneity, I index = 0%). Based on recent primary prevention trials, subdural hematoma diagnosis averaged 1 per 3,125 people per year without aspirin use; the absolute increase associated with aspirin use was estimated as one additional subdural hematoma per 6,500 patients annually.

Conclusions: This meta-analysis confirms that aspirin use increases the relative risk of subdural hematoma, but the absolute increased rate associated with aspirin therapy is very low for most people.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2021.105911DOI Listing
August 2021

Global Impact of COVID-19 on Stroke Care and IV Thrombolysis.

Neurology 2021 06 25;96(23):e2824-e2838. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Neurology (R.G.N., M.H.M., M.Frankel, D.C.H.), Marcus Stroke and Neuroscience Center, Grady Memorial Hospital, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta; Department of Radiology (M.M.Q., M.A., T.N.N., A.K.) and Radiation Oncology (M.M.Q.), Boston Medical Center, Boston University School of Medicine, Massachusetts; Department of Neurology (S.O.M.), Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre; Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre (S.O.M.), Brazil; Department of Stroke Neurology (H. Yamagami), National Hospital Organization, Osaka National Hospital, Japan; Department of Neurology (Z.Q.), Xinqiao Hospital of the Army Medical University, Chongqing, China; Department of Neurology (O.Y.M.), Stroke and Neurointervention Division, Alexandria University Hospital, Alexandria University, Egypt; Boston University School of Medicine (A.S.), Massachusetts; 2nd Department of Neurology (A.C.), Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, Warsaw, Poland; Department of Neurology (G.T., L.P.), National & Kapodistrian University of Athens, School of Medicine, Attikon University Hospital, Athens, Greece; Faculdade de Medicina (D.A.d.S.), Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal; Department of Neurology (J.D., R.L.), Leuven University Hospital, Belgium; International Clinical Research Center and Department of Neurology (R.M.), St. Anne´s University Hospital in Brno and Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic; Department of Neurology (P.V.), Groeninge Hospital, Kortrijk; Department of Neurology (P.V.), University Hospitals Antwerp; Department of Translational Neuroscience (P.V.), University of Antwerp, Belgium; Department of Neurology (J.E.S., T.G.J.), Cooper Neurological Institute, Cooper University Hospital, Camden, New Jersey; Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery (J. Kõrv), University of Tartu, Estonia; Department of Neurology (J.B., R.V.,S.R.), Loyola University Chicago Stritch School of Medicine, Illinois; Department of Neurosurgery (C.W.L.), Kaiser Permanente Fontana Medical Center; Department of Neurology (N.S.S.), Kaiser Permanente Los Angeles Medical Center; Department of Neurology (A.M.Z., S.A.S.), UT Health McGovern Medical School, Houston, Texas; Department of Neurology (A.L.Z.), Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston; Department of Internal Medicine (G.N.), School of Health Sciences, University of Thessaly, Larissa, Greece; Department of Neurology (K.M., A.T.), Allegheny Health Network, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Department of Neurology (A.L.), Ohio Health Riverside Methodist Hospital Columbus; Department of Medicine and Neurology (A.R.), University of Otago and Wellington Hospital, New Zealand; Department of Neurology (E.A.M.), Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee; Department of Neurology (A.W.A., D. Alsbrook), University of Tennessee Health Center, Memphis; Department of Neurology (D.Y.H.), University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; Departments of Neurology (S.Y.) and Radiology (E.R.), New York University Grossman School of Medicine; Douala Gynaeco-Obstetric and Pediatric Hospital (E.G.B.L.), University of Douala, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Science, Cameroon; Ain Shams University Specialized Hospital (H.M.A., H.M.S., A.E., T.R.); Cairo University Affiliated MOH Network (F.H.); Department of Neurology (TM.), Nasser Institute for Research and Treatment, Cairo; Mansoura University Affiliated Private Hospitals Network (W.M.), Egypt; Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (F.S.S.), Kumasi, Ghana; Stroke Unit (T.O.A., K.W.), University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital; Neurology Unit (B.A.), Department of Medicine, Lagos State University Teaching Hospital; Department of Medicine (E.O.N.), Federal Medical Centre Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria; Neurology Unit (T.A.S.), Department of Medicine, Federal Medical Centre, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria; University College Hospital (J.Y.), Ibadan, Nigeria; The National Ribat University Affiliated Hospitals (H.H.M.), Khartoum, Sudan; Neurology Section (P.B.A.), Department of Internal Medicine, Aga-Khan University, Medical College East Africa, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; Tunis El Manar University (A.D.R.), Military Hospital of Tunis; Department of Neurology (S.B.S.), Mongi Ben Hmida National Institute of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine of Tunis, University Tunis El Manar, Tunisia; Department of Physiology (L.G.), Parirenyatwa Hospital, and Departments of Physiology and Medicine (G.W.N.), University of Zimbabwe, Harare; Department of Cerebrovascular/Endovascular Neurosurgery Division (D.S.), Erebouni Medical Center, Yerevan, Armenia; Department of Neurology (A.R.), Sir Salimulah College, Dhaka, Bangladesh; Department of Neurology (Z.A.), Taihe Hospital of Shiyan City, Hubei; Department of Neurology (F.B.), Nanyang Central Hospital, Henan; Department of Neurology (Z.D.), Wuhan No. 1 Hospital, Hubei, China; Department of Neurology (Y. Hao.), Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine; Department of Neurology (W.H.), Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital of Maoming, Guangdong; Department of Neurology (G.Li.), Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Shandong; Department of Neurology (W.L), The First Affiliated Hospital of Hainan Medical College; Department of Neurology (G.Liu.), Wuhan Central Hospital, Hubei; Department of Neurology (J.L.), Mianyang 404th Hospital, Sichuan; Department of Neurology (X.S.), Yijishan Hospital of Wannan Medical College, Anhui; Department of Neurology and Neuroscience (Y.S.), Shenyang Brain Institute, Shenyang First People's Hospital, Shenyang Medical College Affiliated Brain Hospital; Department of Neurology (L.T.), Affiliated Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital of Qingdao University, Shandong; Department of Neurology (H.W.), Xiangyang Central Hospital, Hubei; Department of Neurology (B.W., Y.Yan), West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu; Department of Neurology (Z.Y.), Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University, Sichuan; Department of Neurology (H.Z.), Affiliated Hangzhou First People's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine; Department of Neurology (J.Z.), The First Affiliated Hospital of Shandong First Medical University; Department of Neurology (W.Z.), First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, China; Acute Stroke Unit (T.W.L.), The Prince of Wales Hospital, Kwok Tak Seng Centre for Stroke Research and Intervention, The Chinese University of Hong Kong; Interventional Neurology (C.C.), MAX Superspecialty Hospital, Saket, New Delhi; NH Institute of Neurosciences (V.H.), NH Mazumdar Shaw Medical Center, Bangalore; Department of Neurology (B.M.), Apollo Speciality Hospitals Nellore; Department of Neurology (J.D.P.), Christian Medical College, Ludhiana, Punjab; Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology (P.N.S.), Kerala, India; Stroke Unit (F.S.U.), Pelni Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia; Neurosciences Research Center (M. Farhoudi, E.S.H.), Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; Beer Sheva Hospital (A.H.); Department of Interventional Neuroradiology, Rambam Healthcare Campus, Haifa, Israel (A.R., R.S.H.); Departments of Neurology (N.O.) and Neurosurgery (N.S.), Kobe City Medical Center General Hospital, Kobe; Department of Stroke and Neurovascular Surgery (D.W.), IMS Tokyo-Katsushika General Hospital; Yokohama Brain and Spine Center (R.Y.); Iwate Prefectural Central (R.D.); Department of Neurology and Stroke Treatment (N.T.), Japanese Red Cross Kyoto Daiichi Hospital; Department of Neurology (T.Y.), Kyoto Second Red Cross Hospital; Department of Neurology (T.T.), Japanese Red Cross Kumamoto Hospital; Department of Stroke Neurology (Y. Yazawa), Kohnan Hospital, Sendai; Department of Cerebrovascular Medicine (T.U.), Saga-Ken Medical Centre; Department of Neurology (T.D.), Saitama Medical Center, Kawagoe; Department of Neurology (H.S.), Nara City Hospital; Department of Neurology (Y.S.), Toyonaka Municipal Hospital, Osaka; Department of Neurology (F. Miyashita), Kagoshima City Hospital; Department of Neurology (H.F.), Japanese Red Cross Matsue Hospital, Shimane; Department of Neurology (K.M.), Shiroyama Hospital, Osaka; Department of Cerebrovascular Medicine (J.E.S.), Niigata City General Hospital; Department of Neurology (Y.S.), Sugimura Hospital, Kumamoto; Stroke Medicine (Y. Yagita), Kawasaki Medical School, Okayama; Department of Neurology (Y.T.), Osaka Red Cross Hospital; Department of Stroke Prevention and Treatment (Y.M.), Department of Neurosurgery, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki; Department of Neurology (S.Y.), Stroke Center and Neuroendovascular Therapy, Saiseikai Central Hospital, Tokyo; Department of Neurology (R.K.), Kin-ikyo Chuo Hospital, Hokkaido; Department of Cerebrovascular Medicine (T.K.), NTT Medical Center Tokyo; Department of Neurology and Neuroendovascular Treatment (H. Yamazaki), Yokohama Shintoshi Neurosurgical Hospital; Department of Neurology (M.S.), Osaka General Medical Center; Department of Neurology (K.T.), Osaka University Hospital; Department of Advanced Brain Research (N.Y.), Tokushima University Hospital Tokushima; Department of Neurology (K.S.), Saiseikai Fukuoka General Hospital, Fukuoka; Department of Neurology (T.Y.), Tane General Hospital, Osaka; Division of Stroke (H.H.), Department of Internal Medicine, Osaka Rosai Hospital; Department of Comprehensive Stroke (I.N.), Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Toyoake, Japan; Department of Neurology (A.K.), Asfendiyarov Kazakh National Medical University; Republican Center for eHealth (K.F.), Ministry of Health of the Republic of Kazakhstan; Department of Medicine (S.K.), Al-Farabi Kazakh National University; Kazakh-Russian Medical University (M.Z.), Kazakhstan; Department of Neurology (J.-H.B.), Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul; Department of Neurology (Y. Hwang), Kyungpook National University Hospital, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University; Ajou University Hospital (J.S.L.); Department of Neurology (S.B.L.), Uijeongbu St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea; Department of Neurology (J.M.), National Medical Center, Seoul; Department of Neurology (H.P., S.I.S.), Keimyung University School of Medicine, Dongsan Medical Center, Daegu; Department of Neurology (J.H.S.), Busan Paik Hospital, School of Medicine, Inje University, Busan; Department of Neurology (K.-D.S.), National Health Insurance Service Ilsan Hospital, Goyang; Asan Medical Center (C.J.Y.), Seoul, South Korea; Department of Neurology (R.A.), LAU Medical Center-Rizk Hospital, Beirut, Lebanon; Department of Medicine (W.A.W.Z., N.W.Y.), Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur; Sultanah Nur Zahirah (Z.A.A., K.A.I.), Kuala Terengganu; University Putra Malaysia (H.b.B.); Sarawak General Hospital, Kuching (L.W.C.); Hospital Sultan Abdul Halim (A.B.I.), Sungai Petani Kedah; Hospital Seberang Jaya (I.L.), Pulau Pinang; Thomson Hospital Kota Damansara (W.Y.T.), Malaysia; "Nicolae Testemitanu" State University of Medicine and Pharmacy (S.G., P.L.), and Department of Neurology, Emergency Medicine Institute, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova; Department of Stroke Unit (A.M.A.H.), Royal Hospital Muscat, Oman; Neuroscience Institute (Y.Z.I., N.A.), Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar; St. Luke's Medical Center-Institute of Neurosciences (M.C.P.-F., C.O.C.), Quezon City, Philippines; Endovascular Neurosurgery (D.K.), Saint-Petersburg Dzhanelidze Research Institute of Emergency Medicine, St. Petersburg, Russia; Department of Neurology (A.A.), Stroke Unit, King Saud University, College of Medicine, Riyadh; Department of Neurosurgery (H.A.-J.), Interventional Radiology, and Critical Care Medicine, King Fahad Hospital of the University, Imam Abdulrahman bin Faisal University, Saudi Arabia; Singapore National Neuroscience Institute (C.H.T.); Changi General Hospital (M.J.M.), Singapore; Neuroscience Center, Raffles Hospital (N.V.), Singapore; Department of Neurology (C.-H.C., S.-C.T.), National Taiwan University Hospital; Department of Radiology (A.C.), Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand; Dicle University Medical School and Hospital (E.A.), Diyarbakir; Stroke and Neurointervention Unit (O.A., A.O.O.), Eskisehir Osmangazi University; Gaziantep University Faculty of Medicine (S.G.), Turkey; Department of Neurology (S.I.H., S.J.), Neurological Institute at Cleveland Clinic Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates; Stroke Center (H.L.V., A.D.C.), Hue Central Hospital, Hue, Vietnam; Stroke Department (H.H.N., T.N.P.), Da Nang Hospital, Da Nang City; 115 People's Hospital (T.H.N., T.Q.N.), Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam; Department of Neurology (T.G., C.E.), Medical University of Graz; Department of Neurology (M. K.-O.), Research Institute of Neurointervention, University Hospital Salzburg/Paracelsus Medical University, Austria; Department of Neurology (F.B., A.D.), Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Charleroi, Belgium; Department of Neurology (S.D.B., G.V.), Sint Jan Hospital, Bruges; Department of Neurology (S.D.R.), Brussels University Hospital (UZ Brussel); Department of Neurology (N.L.), ULB Erasme Hospitals Brussels; Department of Neurology (M.P.R.), Europe Hospitals Brussels; Department of Neurology (L.Y.), Antwerp University Hospital, Belgium; Neurology Clinic (F.A., T.S.), St. Anna University Hospital, Sofia, Bulgaria; Department of Neurology (M.R.B.), Sestre Milosrdnice University Hospital, Zagreb; Department of Neurology (H.B.), Sveti Duh University Hospital, Zagreb; Department of Neurology (I.C.), General Hospital Virovitica; Department of Neurology (Z.H.), General Hospital Zabok; Department of Radiology (F. Pfeifer), University Hospital Centre Zagreb, Croatia; Regional Hospital Karlovy Vary (I.K.); Masaryk Hospital Usti nad Labem (D.C.); Military University Hospital Praha (M. Sramek); Oblastní Nemocnice Náchod (M. Skoda); Regional Hospital Pribram (H.H.); Municipal Hospital Ostrava (L.K.); Hospital Mlada Boleslav (M. Koutny); Hospital Vitkovice (D.V.); Hospital Jihlava (O.S.); General University Hospital Praha (J.F.); Hospital Litomysl (K.H.); Hospital České Budejovice (M.N.); Hospital Pisek (R.R.); Hospital Uherske Hradiste (P.P.); Hospital Prostejov (G.K.); Regional Hospital Chomutov (J.N.); Hospital Teplice (M.V.); Mining Hospital Karvina (H.B.); Thomayer Hospital Praha (D.H.); Hospital Blansko (D.T.); University Hospital Brno (R.J.); Regional Hospital Liberec (L.J.); Hospital Ceska Lipa (J.N.); Hospital Sokolov (A.N.); Regional Hospital Kolin (Z.T.); Hospital Trutnov (P. Fibrich); Hospital Trinec (H.S.); Department of Neurology (O.V.), University Hospital Ostrava, Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic; Bispebjerg Hospital (H.K.C.), University of Copenhagen; Stroke Center (H.K.I., T.C.T.), Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen; Aarhus University Hospital (C.Z.S.), Aarhus; Neurovascular Center, Zealand University Hospital, University of Copenhagen (T.W.), Roskilde, Denmark; Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery (R.V.), University of Tartu, Estonia; Neurology Clinic (K.G.-P.), West Tallinn Central Hospital; Center of Neurology (T.T.), East Tallinn Central Hospital, School of Natural Sciences and Health, Tallinn University; Internal Medicine Clinic (K.A.), Pärnu Hospital, Estonia; Université Lille, Inserm, CHU Lille, Lille Neuroscience & Cognition (C.C., F.C.); Centre Hospitalier d'Arcachon (M.D.), Gujan-Mestras; Centre Hospitalier d'Agen (J.-M.F.); Neurologie Vasculaire (L.M.) and Neuroradiologie (O.E.), Hospices Civils de Lyon, Hôpital Pierre Wertheimer, Bron; Centre Hospitalier et Universitaire de Bordeaux (E.L., F.R.); Centre Hospitalier de Mont de Marsan (B.O.); Neurologie (R.P.), Fondation Ophtalmologique Adolphe de Rothschild; Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines University (F. Pico); Neuroradiologie Interventionelle (M.P.), Fondation Ophtalmologique Adolphe de Rothschild; Neuroradiologie Interventionelle (R.P.), Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, France; K. Eristavi National Center of Experimental and Clinical Surgery (T.G.), Tbilisi; Department of Neurosurgery (M. Khinikadze), New Vision University Hospital, Tbilisi; Vivamedi Medical Center (M. Khinikadze), Tbilisi; Pineo Medical Ecosystem (N.L.), Tbilisi; Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University (A.T.), Tbilisi, Georgia; Department of Neurology (S.N., P.A.R.), University Hospital Heidelberg; Department of Neurology (M. Rosenkranz), Albertinen Krankenhaus, Hamburg; Department of Neurology (H.S.), Elbe Klinken Stade, University Medical Center Göttingen; Department of Neurology (T.S.), University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden; Kristina Szabo (K.S.), Department of Neurology, Medical Faculty Mannheim, University Heidelberg, Mannheim; Klinik und Poliklinik für Neurologie (G.T.), Kopf- und Neurozentrum, Universitätsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Germany; Department of Internal Medicine (D.S.), School of Health Sciences, University of Thessaly, Larissa; Second Department of Neurology (O.K.), Stroke Unit, Metropolitan Hospital, Piraeus, Greece; University of Szeged (P.K.), Szeged; University of Pecs (L.S., G.T.), Hungary; Stroke Center (A.A.), IRCCS Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico, Negrar, Verona; Department of Neurology (F.B.), Ospedale San Paolo, Savona,; Institute of Neurology (P.C., G.F.), Fondazione Policlinico Universitario Agostino Gemelli, Rome; Interventional Neurovascular Unit (L.R.), Careggi University Hospital, Florence; Stroke Unit (D.S.), Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale (ASST) di Lecco, Italy; Maastricht University Medical Center; Department of Neurology (M.U.), Radiology, University Medical Center Groningen; Department of Neurology (I.v.d.W.), Haaglanden Medical Center, the Hague, the Netherlands; Department of Neurology (E.S.K.), Akershus University Hospital, Lørenskog, General Practice, HELSAM, University of Oslo, Norway; Neurological Ward with Stroke Unit (W.B.), Specialist Hospital in Konskie, Gimnazjalna, Poland and Collegium Medicum, Jan Kochanowski University, Kielce, Poland; Neurological Ward with Stroke Unit (M.F.), District Hospital in Skarzysko-Kamienna; Department of Neurology (E.H.L.), Szpitala im T. Marciniaka in Wroclaw; 2nd Department of Neurology (M. Karlinski), Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, Warsaw; Department of Neurology and Cerebrovascular Disorders (R.K., P.K.), Poznan University of Medical Sciences; 107th Military Hospital with Polyclinic (M.R.), Walcz; Department of Neurology (R.K.), St. Queen Jadwiga, Clinical Regional Hospital No. 2, Rzeszow; Department of Neurology (P.L.), Medical University of Lublin; 1st Department of Neurology (H.S.-J.), Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, Warsaw; Department of Neurology and Stroke Unit (P.S.), Holy Spirit Specialist Hospital in Sandomierz, Collegium Medicum Jan Kochanowski University in Kielce; Copernicus PL (W.F.), Neurology and Stroke Department, Hospital M. Kopernik, Gdansk; Stroke Unit (M.W.), Neurological Department, Stanislaw Staszic University of Applied Sciences, Pila, Poland; Hospital São José (Patricia Ferreira), Centro Hospitalar Universitário de Lisboa Central, Lisbon; Stroke Unit (Paulo Ferreira, V.T.C.), Hospital Pedro Hispano, Matosinhos; Stroke Unit, Internal Medicine Department (L.F.), Neuroradiology Department, Centro Hospitalar Universitário de São João, Porto; Department of Neurology (J.P.M.), Hospital de Egas Moniz, Centro Hospitalar Lisboa Ocidental, Lisbon, Portugal; Department of Neurosciences (T.P.e.M.), Hospital de Santa Maria-CHLN, North Lisbon University Hospital; Hospital São José (A.P.N.), Centro Hospitalar Universitário de Lisboa Central, Lisbon; Department of Neurology (M. Rodrigues), Hospital Garcia de Orta, Portugal; Department of Neurology (C.F.-P.), Transilvania University, Brasov, Romania; Department of Neurology (G.K., M. Mako), Faculty Hospital Trnava, Slovakia; Department of Neurology and Stroke Center (M.A.d.L., E.D.T.), Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid; Department of Neurology (J.F.A.), Hospital Clínico Universitario, Universidad de Valladolid; Department of Neurology (O.A.-M.), Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Albacete; Department of Neurology (A.C.C.), Unidad de Ictus, Hospital Universitario Ramon y Cajal, Madrid; Department of Neurology (S.P.-S), Hospital Universitario Virgen Macarena & Neurovascular Research Laboratory (J.M.), Instituto de Biomedicina de Sevilla-IbiS; Rio Hortega University Hospital (M.A.T.A.), University of Valladolid; Cerebrovascular Diseases (A.R.V.), Hospital Clinic of Barcelona, Spain; Department of Neurology (M. Mazya), Karolinska University Hospital and Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Interventional Neuroradiology (G.B.), University Hospitals of Geneva; Department of Interventional and Diagnostic Neuroradiology (A.B., M.-N.P.), Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Basel; Department of Neurology (U.F.), University of Bern; Department of Neuroradiology (J.G.), University of Bern; Department of Neuroscience (P.L.M., D.S.), Lausanne University Hospital, Switzerland; Department of Stroke Medicine (S.B., J. Kwan), Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Charing Cross Hospital, London; Department of Neurology (K.K.), Queen's Medical Centre, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, United Kingdom; Department of Neurology (A.B., A. Shuaib), University of Alberta, Edmonton; Department of Neurology (L.C., A. Shoamanesh), McMaster University, Hamilton; Department of Clinical Neurosciences and Hotchkiss Brain Institute (A.M.D., M.D.H.), University of Calgary; Department of Neurology (T.F., S.Y.), University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Mackenzie Health (J.H., C.A.S.) Richmond Hill, Ontario; Department of Neurology (H.K.), Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto; Department of Neurology (A. Mackey), Hopital Enfant Jesus, Centre Hospitalier de l'Universite Laval, Quebec City; Department of Neurology (A.P.), University of Toronto; Medicine (G.S.), St. Michael's Hospital, University of Toronto, Canada; Department of Neurosciences (M.A.B.), Hospital Dr. Rafael A. Calderon Guardia, CCSS. San Jose, Costa Rica; Neurovascular Service (J.D.B.), Hospital General San Juan de Dios, Guatemala City; Department of Neurología (L.I.P.R.), Hospital General de Enfermedades, Instituto Guatemalteco de Seguridad Social, Guatemala City, Guatemala; Department of Neurology (F.G.-R.), University Hospital Jose Eleuterio Gonzalez, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Mexico; Pacífica Salud-Hospital Punta Pacífica (N.N.-E., A.B., R.K.), Panama; Department of Neurology, Radiology (M.A.), University of Kansas Medical Center; Department of Neurointerventional Neurosurgery (D. Altschul), The Valley Baptist Hospital, Ridgewood, New Jersey; Palmetto General Hospital (A.J.A.-O.), Tenet, Florida; Neurology (I.B., P.K.), University Hospital Newark, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers, Newark, New Jersey; Community Healthcare System (A.B.), Munster, Indiana; Department of Neurology (N.B., C.B.N.), California Pacific Medical Center, San Francisco; Department of Neurology (C.B.), Mount Sinai South Nassau, New York; University of Toledo (A.C.), Ohio; Department of Neurology (S.C.), University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland; Neuroscience (S.A.C.), Inova Fairfax Hospital, Virginia; Department of Neurology (H.C.), Abington Jefferson Hospital, Pennsylvania; Department of Neurology (J.H.C.), Mount Sinai South Nassau, New York; Baptist Health Medical Center (S.D.), Little Rock, Arkansas; Department of Neurology (K.D.), HCA Houston Healthcare Clearlake, Texas; Department of Neurology (T.G.D., R.S.), Erlanger, Tennessee; Wilmington North Carolina (V.T.D.); Department of Vascular and Neurointerventional Services (R.E.), St. Louis University, Missouri; Department of Neurology (M.E.), Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston; Department of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Radiology (M.F., S.O.-G., N.R.), University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City; Department of Radiology (D.F.), Swedish Medical Center, Englewood, Colorado; Department of Radiology (D.G.), Neurosurgery, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland; Adventist Health Glendale Comprehensive Stroke Center (M.G.), Los Angeles, California; Wellstar Neuroscience Institute (R.G.), Marietta, Georgia; Department of Neurology (A.E.H.), University of Texas Rio Grande Valley-Valley Baptist Medical Center, Texas; Department of Neurology (J.H., B.V.), Lahey Hospital & Medical Center, Beth Israel Lahey Health, Burlington, Massachusetts; Department of Neurology (A.M.K.), Wayne State, Detroit, Michigan; HSHS St. John's Hospital (N.N.K.), Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, Springfield; Virginia Hospital Center (B.S.K.), Arlington; Department of Neurology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor; Weill-Cornell Medical College (D.O.K.), New York-Presbyterian Queens; Department of Neurology (V.H.L.), Ohio State University, Columbus; Department of Neurology (L.Y.L.), Tufts Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts; Vascular and Neurointerventional Services (G.L.), St. Louis University, Missouri; Miami Cardiac & Vascular Institute (I.L., A.K.S.), Florida; Department of Neurology (H.L.L.), Oregon Health & Science University, Portland; Department of Emergency Medicine (L.M., M.S.), Steward Holy Family Hospital, Methuen, MA; Vidant Medical Center (S.M.), Greenville, North Carolina; Department of Neurology (A.M.M., D.R.Y.) and Neurosurgery (D.R.Y.), University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Florida; Department of Neurology (H.M.), SUNY Upstate New York, Syracuse; Memorial Neuroscience Institute (B.P.M.), Pembroke Pines, Florida; Neurosciences (J.M., J.P.T.), Spectrum Health, Michigan State University College of Medicine, Grand Rapids, Michigan; Sutter Health (M.M.), Sacramento, California; Department of Neurology (J.G.M.), Maine Medical Center, Portland; Department of Neurology (S.S.M.), Bayhealth, Dover, Delaware; Department of Neurology and Pediatrics (F.N.), Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia; Department of Neurology (K.N.), University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock; Department of Radiology and Neurology (R.N.-W.), UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas; Ascension St. John Medical Center (R.H.R.), Tulsa, Oklahoma; Riverside Regional Medical Center (P.R.), Newport, Virginia; Department of Neurology (J.R.R., T.N.N.), Boston University School of Medicine, MA; Department of Neurology (A.R.), Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia; Department of Neurology (M.S.), University of Washington School Medicine, Seattle; Department of Neurology (B.S.), University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester; Department of Neurology (A.S.), CHI-Immanuel Neurological Institute, Creighton University, Omaha, Nebraska; Holy Cross Hospital (S.L.S.), Fort Lauderdale, Florida; Department of Neurology (V.S.), Interventional Neuroradiology, University of California in Los Angeles; Banner Desert Medical Center (M.T.), Mesa, Arizona; Hospital de Agudos Dr. Ignacio Privano (O.B., A.L.), Argentina; Institute for Neurological Research, FLENI (V.A.P.L.), Buenos Aires, Argentina; Hospital das Clinicas/São Paulo University (M.S.A., A.C.); Sumare State Hospital (F.B.C., L.V.), São Paulo; Hospital Vera Cruz (L.D.D.S.), Deus Campinas; Irmanandade Santa Casa de Porto Alegre (L.V.G.); Stroke Unit (F.O.L., F. Mont'alverne), Hospital Geral de Fortaleza; Stroke Unit (A.L.L., P.S.C.M.), Hospital Sao Jose, Joinville, Santa Catarina; Stroke Unit (R.T.M.), Neurology, Nossa Senhora da Conceição Hospital, Porto Alegre; Department of Neurology (D.L.M.C.), Hospital Moinhos de Vento, Porto Alegre; Department of Neurology (L.C.R.), Hospital de Base do Distrito Federal; Hospital Ana (V.F.C.), Hospital Juliane, Federal University of Parana, Curitiba, Brazil; Vascular Neurology Unit (P.M.L., V.V.O.), Neurology Service, Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Clínica Alemana, Universidad del Desarrollo, Santiago; Hospital Padre Hurtado (V.N., J.M.A.T.) Santiago, Chile; Fundación Valle del Lili (P.F.R.A.), Cali; Stroke Center (H.B.), Fundación Santa Fe de Bogotá; Department of Neurology (A.B.C.-Q.), Hospital Departamental Universitario del Quindio San Juan de Dios, Armenia; Clinica Universitaria Colombia (C.E.R.O.), Bogotá; University Hospital of San Vicente Foundation (D.K.M.B.), Medellin; Barranquilla, Colombia (O.L.); Hospital Infantil Universitario de San Jose (M.R.P.), Bogota; Stroke Unit (L.F.D.-E.), Hospital de Clínicas, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional de Asunción; Neurology Service (D.E.D.M.F., A.C.V.), Hospital Central del Instituto de Prevision Social, Paraguay; Internal Medicine Service (A.J.Z.Z.), Hospital Central de Policia "Rigoberto Caballero", Paraguay; National Institute of Neurological Sciences of Lima Peru (D.M.B.I.); Hospital Edgardo Rebagliati Martins Lima-Peru (L.R.K.); Department of Neurology (B.C.), Royal Melbourne Hospital; Department of Neurology (G.J.H.), Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital and Medical School, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, The University of Western Australia, Perth; University of Melbourne (C.H., R.S.), Ballarat Health Service, Australia University of Melbourne; Department of Neurology (T.K.), Royal Adelaide Hospital; Department of Neurosurgery (A. Ma), Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney; Department of Neurology (R.T.M.), Mater Hospital, Brisbane; Department of Neurology (R.S.), Austin Health, Victoria; Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health (R.S.), Parkville, Melbourne, Australia; Greymouth Base Hospital (D.S.), New Zealand; Department of Neurology (T.Y.-H.W.), Christchurch Hospital, New Zealand; Department of Neurology (D.L.), University of California in Los Angeles; and Department of Neurology (O.O.Z.), Mercy Health Neurosciences, Toledo, Ohio.

Objective: To measure the global impact of COVID-19 pandemic on volumes of IV thrombolysis (IVT), IVT transfers, and stroke hospitalizations over 4 months at the height of the pandemic (March 1 to June 30, 2020) compared with 2 control 4-month periods.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional, observational, retrospective study across 6 continents, 70 countries, and 457 stroke centers. Diagnoses were identified by their ICD-10 codes or classifications in stroke databases.

Results: There were 91,373 stroke admissions in the 4 months immediately before compared to 80,894 admissions during the pandemic months, representing an 11.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] -11.7 to -11.3, < 0.0001) decline. There were 13,334 IVT therapies in the 4 months preceding compared to 11,570 procedures during the pandemic, representing a 13.2% (95% CI -13.8 to -12.7, < 0.0001) drop. Interfacility IVT transfers decreased from 1,337 to 1,178, or an 11.9% decrease (95% CI -13.7 to -10.3, = 0.001). Recovery of stroke hospitalization volume (9.5%, 95% CI 9.2-9.8, < 0.0001) was noted over the 2 later (May, June) vs the 2 earlier (March, April) pandemic months. There was a 1.48% stroke rate across 119,967 COVID-19 hospitalizations. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection was noted in 3.3% (1,722/52,026) of all stroke admissions.

Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic was associated with a global decline in the volume of stroke hospitalizations, IVT, and interfacility IVT transfers. Primary stroke centers and centers with higher COVID-19 inpatient volumes experienced steeper declines. Recovery of stroke hospitalization was noted in the later pandemic months.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000011885DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8205458PMC
June 2021

Peripheral Nervous System Manifestations Associated with COVID-19.

Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2021 02 14;21(3). Epub 2021 Feb 14.

Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, University of New Mexico, NM, Albuquerque, NM, 87131, USA.

Purpose Of Review: The present review discusses the peripheral nervous system (PNS) manifestations associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

Recent Findings: Nerve pain and skeletal muscle injury, Guillain-Barré syndrome, cranial polyneuritis, neuromuscular junction disorders, neuro-ophthalmological disorders, neurosensory hearing loss, and dysautonomia have been reported as PNS manifestations in patients with COVID-19. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes COVID-19. COVID-19 has shown syndromic complexity. Not only does SARS-CoV-2 affect the central nervous system but also it involves the PNS. The PNS involvement may be due to dysregulation of the immune system attributable to COVID-19. Here we review the broad spectrum of PNS involvement of COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11910-021-01102-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7882462PMC
February 2021

Endovascular treatment for basilar artery occlusion: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Eur J Neurol 2021 Jun 12;28(6):2106-2110. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Second Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, Attikon University Hospital, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.

Background And Purpose: Independent randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) have provided robust evidence for endovascular treatment (EVT) as the standard of care treatment for acute large vessel occlusions in the anterior circulation. We examined available studies specific to posterior cerebral circulation ischemic strokes to see if any conclusions can be drawn regarding EVT options.

Methods: We performed a systematic literature search to identify studies evaluating the safety and efficacy of EVT versus standard medical treatment for patients with acute basilar artery occlusion (BAO). We extracted data for outcomes of interest and presented associations between the two groups with the use of risk ratios (RRs) or odds ratios (ORs), with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We used a random-effects model to pool the effect estimates.

Results: We identified five studies (two RCTs, three observational cohorts) including a total of 1098 patients. Patients receiving EVT had a higher risk of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH) compared to those receiving non-interventional medical management (RR 5.42, 95% CI 2.74-10.71). Nonsignificant trends towards modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores 0-2 (RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.74-1.41), mRS scores 0-3 (RR = 0.97, 95% CI 0.64-1.47), overall functional improvement (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.57-1.51), and all-cause mortality (RR 1.03, 95% CI 0.78-1.35) at 3 months were seen.

Conclusion: Although EVT increases the probability of sICH, the available data do not exclude the possibility of improved functional outcomes over standard therapy. As larger studies are challenged by the perceived lack of equipoise in this vulnerable patient population, results of ongoing RCTs are expected to provide substantial input for future meta-analyses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ene.14751DOI Listing
June 2021

Global impact of COVID-19 on stroke care.

Int J Stroke 2021 07 29;16(5):573-584. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Neurology, Grady Memorial Hospital, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic led to profound changes in the organization of health care systems worldwide.

Aims: We sought to measure the global impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the volumes for mechanical thrombectomy, stroke, and intracranial hemorrhage hospitalizations over a three-month period at the height of the pandemic (1 March-31 May 2020) compared with two control three-month periods (immediately preceding and one year prior).

Methods: Retrospective, observational, international study, across 6 continents, 40 countries, and 187 comprehensive stroke centers. The diagnoses were identified by their ICD-10 codes and/or classifications in stroke databases at participating centers.

Results: The hospitalization volumes for any stroke, intracranial hemorrhage, and mechanical thrombectomy were 26,699, 4002, and 5191 in the three months immediately before versus 21,576, 3540, and 4533 during the first three pandemic months, representing declines of 19.2% (95%CI, -19.7 to -18.7), 11.5% (95%CI, -12.6 to -10.6), and 12.7% (95%CI, -13.6 to -11.8), respectively. The decreases were noted across centers with high, mid, and low COVID-19 hospitalization burden, and also across high, mid, and low volume stroke/mechanical thrombectomy centers. High-volume COVID-19 centers (-20.5%) had greater declines in mechanical thrombectomy volumes than mid- (-10.1%) and low-volume (-8.7%) centers (p < 0.0001). There was a 1.5% stroke rate across 54,366 COVID-19 hospitalizations. SARS-CoV-2 infection was noted in 3.9% (784/20,250) of all stroke admissions.

Conclusion: The COVID-19 pandemic was associated with a global decline in the volume of overall stroke hospitalizations, mechanical thrombectomy procedures, and intracranial hemorrhage admission volumes. Despite geographic variations, these volume reductions were observed regardless of COVID-19 hospitalization burden and pre-pandemic stroke/mechanical thrombectomy volumes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1747493021991652DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8010375PMC
July 2021

The Impact of SARS-CoV-2 on Stroke Epidemiology and Care: A Meta-Analysis.

Ann Neurol 2021 02 9;89(2):380-388. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

Second Department of Neurology, Attikon Hospital, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.

Objective: Emerging data indicate an increased risk of cerebrovascular events with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and highlight the potential impact of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) on the management and outcomes of acute stroke. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the aforementioned considerations.

Methods: We performed a meta-analysis of observational cohort studies reporting on the occurrence and/or outcomes of patients with cerebrovascular events in association with their SARS-CoV-2 infection status. We used a random-effects model. Summary estimates were reported as odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs).

Results: We identified 18 cohort studies including 67,845 patients. Among patients with SARS-CoV-2, 1.3% (95% CI = 0.9-1.6%, I = 87%) were hospitalized for cerebrovascular events, 1.1% (95% CI = 0.8-1.3%, I = 85%) for ischemic stroke, and 0.2% (95% CI = 0.1-0.3%, I = 64%) for hemorrhagic stroke. Compared to noninfected contemporary or historical controls, patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection had increased odds of ischemic stroke (OR = 3.58, 95% CI = 1.43-8.92, I = 43%) and cryptogenic stroke (OR = 3.98, 95% CI = 1.62-9.77, I = 0%). Diabetes mellitus was found to be more prevalent among SARS-CoV-2 stroke patients compared to noninfected historical controls (OR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.00-1.94, I = 0%). SARS-CoV-2 infection status was not associated with the likelihood of receiving intravenous thrombolysis (OR = 1.42, 95% CI = 0.65-3.10, I = 0%) or endovascular thrombectomy (OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.35-1.74, I = 0%) among hospitalized ischemic stroke patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. Odds of in-hospital mortality were higher among SARS-CoV-2 stroke patients compared to noninfected contemporary or historical stroke patients (OR = 5.60, 95% CI = 3.19-9.80, I = 45%).

Interpretation: SARS-CoV-2 appears to be associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke, and potentially cryptogenic stroke in particular. It may also be related to an increased mortality risk. ANN NEUROL 2021;89:380-388.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ana.25967DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7753413PMC
February 2021

Statin treatment and cerebral microbleeds: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Neurol Sci 2021 01 8;420:117224. Epub 2020 Nov 8.

Division of Neurology, McMaster University / Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton, ON, Canada.

Although statins have been associated with increased risk of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage, their relationship with cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) formation is poorly understood. We systematically reviewed previously published studies reporting on the association between CMBs presence and current statin use. We performed a systematic search in MEDLINE and SCOPUS databases on October 24, 2019 to identify all cohorts from randomized-controlled clinical trials or observational studies reporting on CMB prevalence and statin use. We extracted cross-sectional data on CMBs presence, as provided by each study, in association to the history of current statin use. Random effects model was used to calculate the pooled estimates. We included 7 studies (n = 3734 participants): unselected general population [n = 1965], ischemic stroke [n = 849], hemorrhagic stroke [n = 252] and patients with hypertension over the age of 60 [n = 668]. Statin use was not associated with CMBs presence in either unadjusted (OR = 1.15, 95%CI: 0.76-1.74) or adjusted analyses (OR = 1.09, 95%CI: 0.64-1.86). Statin use was more strongly related to lobar CMB presence (OR = 2.01, 95%CI: 1.48-2.72) in unadjusted analysis. The effect size of this association was consistent, but no longer statistically significant in adjusted analysis that was confined to two eligible studies (OR = 2.26, 95%CI: 0.86-5.91). Except for the analysis on the unadjusted probability of lobar CMBs presence, considerable heterogeneity was present in all other analyses (I > 60%). Our findings suggest that statin treatment seems not to be associated with CMBs overall, but may increase the risk of lobar CMB formation. This hypothesis deserves further investigation within magnetic resonance imaging ancillary studies of randomized trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2020.117224DOI Listing
January 2021

How to Be Savvy About Gender Disparities in Academic Stroke Medicine: Five Practical Strategies.

Stroke 2020 Sep 19;51(9):e261-e265. Epub 2020 Aug 19.

Department of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, Harvard Medical School (J.K.S.).

In the past decade, stroke medicine has evolved from discovery of innovative diagnostic tools to implementation of new treatments. These advances are projected to increase the demand for stroke neurologists in academic and clinical practices, but hopefully with equitable opportunities for everyone across the gender spectrum. Academic medicine provides opportunities to participate in clinical care, teaching, research, and administration. The early career stage is short-focused on finding an academic niche and developing new skills that will help you navigate the academic environment. A recent InterSECT article emphasized the critical role of women's leadership in stroke medicine. In this article, we reflect on workforce gender disparities and provide 5 practical strategies that may help women overcome barriers and advance their work mission.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.120.029546DOI Listing
September 2020

In-Hospital Delays for Acute Stroke Treatment Delivery During the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Can J Neurol Sci 2021 Jan 3;48(1):59-65. Epub 2020 Aug 3.

Division of Neurology, Hamilton General Hospital-Hamilton Health Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

Background: We investigated the impact of regionally imposed social and healthcare restrictions due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) to the time metrics in the management of acute ischemic stroke patients admitted at the regional stroke referral site for Central South Ontario, Canada.

Methods: We compared relevant time metrics between patients with acute ischemic stroke receiving intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and/or endovascular thrombectomy (EVT) before and after the declared restrictions and state of emergency imposed in our region (March 17, 2020).

Results: We identified a significant increase in the median door-to-CT times for patients receiving intravenous tPA (19 min, interquartile range (IQR): 14-27 min vs. 13 min, IQR: 9-17 min, p = 0.008) and/or EVT (20 min, IQR: 15-33 min vs. 11 min, IQR: 5-20 min, p = 0.035) after the start of social and healthcare restrictions in our region compared to the previous 12 months. For patients receiving intravenous tPA treatment, we also found a significant increase (p = 0.005) in the median door-to-needle time (61 min, IQR: 46-72 min vs. 37 min, IQR: 30-50 min). No delays in the time from symptom onset to hospital presentation were uncovered for patients receiving tPA and/or endovascular reperfusion treatments in the first 1.5 months after the establishment of regional and institutional restrictions due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

Conclusion: We detected an increase in our institutional time to treatment metrics for acute ischemic stroke patients receiving tPA and/or endovascular reperfusion therapies, related to delays from hospital presentation to the acquisition of cranial CT imaging for both tPA- and EVT-treated patients, and an added delay to treatment with tPA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/cjn.2020.170DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7533482PMC
January 2021

Oral factor Xa inhibitors and risk of subdural hematoma: COMPASS trial results and meta-analysis.

Neurology 2020 08 10;95(5):e480-e487. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

From the Department of Medicine (Neurology) (L.C., K.N., S.N., K.S.P., A.S., M.S., R.G.H.), Department of Medicine (Division of Hematology & Thromboembolism) (J.W.E.), and School of Rehabilitation Science (J.B.), McMaster University/Hamilton Health Sciences/Population Health Research Institute (O.S.), Hamilton, Canada.

Objective: Subdural hematomas (SDHs) are an uncommon, but important, complication of anticoagulation therapy. We hypothesized that the risks of SDH would be similar during treatment with oral factor Xa inhibitors compared with aspirin.

Methods: We assessed the frequency and the effects of antithrombotic treatments on SDHs in the recent international Cardiovascular Outcomes for People Using Anticoagulation Strategies (COMPASS) randomized trial comparing aspirin 100 mg daily, rivaroxaban 5 mg twice daily, and rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily plus aspirin. A systematic review/meta-analysis of randomized trials comparing oral factor Xa inhibitors vs aspirin on SDH risk was undertaken.

Results: Among 27,395 COMPASS participants, 28 patients with SDHs were identified (mean age 72 years). SDH-associated mortality was 7%. Incidence was 0.06 per 100 patient-years (11 SDH/17,492 years observation) during the mean 23-month follow-up among aspirin-assigned patients and did not differ significantly between treatments. Three additional randomized controlled trials including 16,177 participants reported a total of 14 SDHs with an incidence ranging from 0.06 to 0.1 per 100 patient-years. Factor Xa inhibitor use was not associated with an increased risk of SDH compared to aspirin (odds ratio, 0.97; 95% confidence interval, 0.52-1.81; I = 0%).

Conclusion: The frequency of SDH was similar in all 3 treatment arms of the COMPASS trial. The COMPASS trial results markedly increase the available evidence from randomized comparisons of oral factor Xa inhibitors with aspirin regarding SDH. From available, albeit limited, evidence from 4 randomized trials, therapeutic dosages of factor Xa inhibitors do not appear to increase the risk of SDH compared with aspirin.

Clinical Trial Identifier Number: NCT01776424.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000009826DOI Listing
August 2020

Association Between Low-Dose Rivaroxaban With or Without Aspirin and Ischemic Stroke Subtypes: A Secondary Analysis of the COMPASS Trial.

JAMA Neurol 2020 01;77(1):43-48

Population Health Research Institute, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

Importance: The COMPASS (Cardiovascular Outcomes for People Using Anticoagulation Strategies) randomized clinical trial was stopped early owing to the efficacy of low-dose rivaroxaban plus aspirin in preventing major cardiovascular events. The main reason for early trial termination was the effect of combination therapy on reducing ischemic strokes.

Objective: To analyze the association between low-dose rivaroxaban with or without aspirin and different ischemic stroke subtypes.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This is a secondary analysis of a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study that was performed in 33 countries from March 12, 2013, to May 10, 2016. Patients with stable atherosclerotic vascular disease were eligible, and a total of 27 395 participants were randomized and followed up to February 6, 2017. All first ischemic strokes and uncertain strokes that occurred by this date were adjudicated using TOAST (Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment) criteria. The analysis of ischemic stroke subtypes was evaluated using an intention-to-treat principle. Statistical analysis was performed from March 12, 2013, to February 6, 2017.

Interventions: Participants received rivaroxaban (2.5 mg twice a day) plus aspirin (100 mg once a day), rivaroxaban (5 mg twice a day), or aspirin (100 mg once a day).

Main Outcomes And Measures: Risk of ischemic stroke subtypes during follow-up.

Results: A total of 291 patients (66 women; mean [SD] age, 69.4 [8.5] years; 43 [14.8%] had a previous nonlacunar stroke) experienced an ischemic stroke. During the study, 49 patients (16.8%) received a diagnosis of atrial fibrillation. Applying TOAST criteria, 59 strokes (20.3%) were cardioembolic, 54 strokes (18.6%) were secondary to greater than 50% stenosis of the ipsilateral internal carotid artery, 42 strokes (14.4%) had a negative evaluation that met criteria for embolic stroke of undetermined source, and 21 strokes (7.2%) were secondary to small vessel disease. There were significantly fewer cardioembolic strokes (hazard ratio [HR], 0.40 [95% CI, 0.20-0.78]; P = .005) and embolic strokes of undetermined source (HR, 0.30 [95% CI, 0.12-0.74]; P = .006) in the combination therapy group compared with the aspirin-only group. A trend for reduction in strokes secondary to small vessel disease (HR, 0.36 [95% CI, 0.12-1.14]; P = .07) was not statistically significant. No significant difference was observed between the 2 groups in strokes secondary to greater than 50% carotid artery stenosis (HR, 0.85 [95% CI, 0.45-1.60]; P = .61). Rivaroxaban, 5 mg, twice daily showed a trend for reducing cardioembolic strokes compared with aspirin (HR, 0.57 [95% CI, 0.31-1.03]; P = .06) but was not associated with reducing other stroke subtypes.

Conclusions And Relevance: For patients with systemic atherosclerosis, low-dose rivaroxaban plus aspirin was associated with large, significant reductions in cardioembolic strokes and embolic strokes of undetermined source. However, these results of exploratory analysis need to be independently confirmed before influencing clinical practice.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01776424.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaneurol.2019.2984DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6749537PMC
January 2020

Cerebral White Matter Hyperintensities, Kidney Function Decline, and Recurrent Stroke After Intensive Blood Pressure Lowering: Results From the Secondary Prevention of Small Subcortical Strokes ( SPS 3) Trial.

J Am Heart Assoc 2019 02;8(3):e010091

1 Kidney Health Research Collaborative University of California, San Francisco San Francisco CA.

Background We aimed to determine whether cerebral white matter hyperintensities ( WMHs ) can distinguish stroke survivors susceptible to rapid kidney function decline from intensive blood pressure ( BP ) lowering. Methods and Results The SPS3 (Secondary Prevention of Small Subcortical Strokes) trial randomized participants with recent lacunar stroke to systolic BP targets of 130 to 149 and <130 mm Hg. We included 2454 participants with WMH measured by clinical magnetic resonance imaging at baseline and serum creatinine measured during follow-up. We tested interactions between BP target and WMH burden on the incidence of rapid kidney function decline (≥30% decrease from baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate at 1-year follow-up) and recurrent stroke. Rapid kidney function decline incidence was 11.0% in the lower- BP -target arm and 8.1% in the higher-target arm (odds ratio=1.40; 95% CI=1.07-1.84). Odds ratio for rapid kidney function decline between lower- and higher-target groups ranged from 1.26 in the lowest WMH tertile (95% CI , 0.80-1.98) to 1.71 in the highest tertile (95% CI , 1.05-2.80; P for interaction=0.65). Overall incidence of recurrent stroke was 7.9% in the lower-target arm and 9.6% in the higher-target arm (hazard ratio=0.80; 95% CI , 0.63-1.03). Hazard ratio for recurrent stroke in the lower-target group was 1.13 (95% CI , 0.73-1.75) within the lowest WMH tertile compared with 0.73 (95% CI , 0.49-1.09) within the highest WMH tertile ( P for interaction=0.04). Conclusions Participants with higher WMH burden appeared to experience greater benefit from intensive BP lowering in prevention of recurrent stroke. By contrast, intensive BP lowering increased the odds of kidney function decline, but WMH burden did not significantly distinguish this risk. Clinical Trial Registration URL : http://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT 00059306.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.118.010091DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6405594PMC
February 2019

Stroke Outcomes in the COMPASS Trial.

Circulation 2019 02;139(9):1134-1145

McMaster University/Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton, Canada (M.S., R.G.H., S.J.C., J.B., O.S., K.K.H.N., L.C., S.Y., J.W.E.).

Background: Strokes were significantly reduced by the combination of rivaroxaban plus aspirin in comparison with aspirin in the COMPASS trial (Cardiovascular Outcomes for People Using Anticoagulation Strategies). We present detailed analyses of stroke by type, predictors, and antithrombotic effects in key subgroups.

Methods: Participants had stable coronary artery or peripheral artery disease and were randomly assigned to receive aspirin 100 mg once daily (n=9126), rivaroxaban 5 mg twice daily (n=9117), or rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily plus aspirin (n=9152). Patients who required anticoagulation or had a stroke within 1 month, previous lacunar stroke, or intracerebral hemorrhage were excluded.

Results: During a mean follow-up of 23 months, fewer patients had strokes in the rivaroxaban plus aspirin group than in the aspirin group (83 [0.9% per year] versus 142 [1.6% per year]; hazard ratio [HR], 0.58; 95% CI, 0.44-0.76; P<0.0001). Ischemic/uncertain strokes were reduced by nearly half (68 [0.7% per year] versus 132 [1.4% per year]; HR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.38-0.68; P<0.0001) by the combination in comparison with aspirin. No significant difference was noted in the occurrence of stroke in the rivaroxaban alone group in comparison with aspirin: annualized rate of 0.7% (HR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.65-1.05). The occurrence of fatal and disabling stroke (modified Rankin Scale, 3-6) was decreased by the combination (32 [0.3% per year] versus 55 [0.6% per year]; HR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.37-0.89; P=0.01). Independent predictors of stroke were prior stroke, hypertension, systolic blood pressure at baseline, age, diabetes mellitus, and Asian ethnicity. Prior stroke was the strongest predictor of incident stroke (HR, 3.63; 95% CI, 2.65-4.97; P<0.0001) and was associated with a 3.4% per year rate of stroke recurrence on aspirin. The effect of the combination in comparison with aspirin was consistent across subgroups with high stroke risk, including those with prior stroke.

Conclusions: Low-dose rivaroxaban plus aspirin is an important new antithrombotic option for primary and secondary stroke prevention in patients with clinical atherosclerosis.

Clinical Trial Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT01776424.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.118.035864DOI Listing
February 2019

Patterns of Stroke Transfers and Identification of Predictors for Thrombectomy.

World Neurosurg 2019 Jan 5;121:e675-e683. Epub 2018 Oct 5.

Department of Neurosurgical Service, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Interhospital transfers for endovascular thrombectomy (EVT) evaluation have increased since the publication of landmark neuroendovascular stroke trials in 2015. The lack of guidelines to select potential EVT candidates prior to transfer can lead to instances where, despite considerable costs and transport risks, transferred patients do not ultimately undergo EVT. Our aim was to characterize the patterns and identify predictors for EVT on transfer.

Methods: In this observational cohort study, we retrospectively analyzed patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) transferred to our institution for EVT evaluation from January 2015 to March 2016. Clinical and radiographic predictors for EVT on transfer were determined with multivariable logistic regression analysis.

Results: A total of 103 transfer patients with AIS were included in the study, and 52% were women. A higher collateral score (P < 0.01), a higher National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score (P < 0.01), computed tomography angiography (CTA) at referring hospital (P < 0.01), and large vessel occlusion on arrival CTA (P < 0.01) were significant in patients who underwent EVT on univariable analysis. More than half (61.1%) of transfers were futile and primarily related to absence of large vessel occlusion on arrival. A higher collateral score (P = 0.02), a higher NIHSS score (P = 0.006), and having undergone a CTA at the referring center (P = 0.002) remained the independent predictors of EVT. The C statistic for the model was 0.94.

Conclusions: A higher collateral score, the acquisition of CTA imaging at the referring centers, and a higher NIHSS score independently predicted EVT on transfer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2018.09.189DOI Listing
January 2019

Experience, the Name We Give Our Mistakes.

Stroke 2018 08;49(8):e273-e275

Department of Medicine (Neurology), McMaster University/Hamilton Health Sciences, ON, Canada (L.C.).

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.118.021529DOI Listing
August 2018

Endotracheal Intubation and In-Hospital Mortality after Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

Cerebrovasc Dis 2018 13;45(5-6):270-278. Epub 2018 Jun 13.

Department of Neurology, Stroke Division, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Background: Many patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhages (ICHs) undergo endotracheal intubation with subsequent mechanical ventilation (MV) for "airway protection" with the intent to prevent aspiration, pneumonias, and its related mortality. Conversely, these procedures may independently promote pneumonia, laryngeal trauma, dysphagia, and adversely affect patient outcomes. The net benefit of intubation and MV in this patient cohort has not been systematically investigated.

Methods: We conducted a large single-center observational cohort study to examine the independent association between endotracheal intubation and MV, hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP), and in-hospital mortality (HM) in patients with ICH. All consecutive patients admitted with a primary diagnosis of a spontaneous ICH to a tertiary care hospital in Boston, Massachusetts, from June 2000 through January 2014, who were ≥18 years of age and hospitalized for ≥2 days were eligible for inclusion. Patients with pneumonia on admission, or those having brain or lung neoplasms were excluded. Our exposure of interest was endotracheal intubation and MV during hospitalization; our primary outcomes were incidence of HAP and HM, ascertained using International Classification of Diseases-9 and administrative discharge disposition codes, respectively, in patients who underwent endotracheal intubation and MV versus those who did not. Multivariable logistic regression was used to control for confounders.

Results: Of the 2,386 hospital admissions screened, 1,384 patients fulfilled study criteria and were included in the final analysis. A total of 507 (36.6%) patients were intubated. Overall 133 (26.23%) patients in the intubated group developed HAP versus 41 (4.67%) patients in the non-intubated group (p < 0.0001); 195 (38.5%) intubated patients died during hospitalization compared to 48 (5.5%) non-intubated patients (p < 0.0001). After confounder adjustments, OR for HAP and HM, were 4.23 (95% CI 2.48-7.22; p < 0.0001) and 4.32 (95% CI 2.5-7.49; p < 0.0001) with c-statistics of 0.79 and 0.89, in the intubated versus non-intubated patients, respectively.

Conclusion: In this large hospital-based cohort of patients presenting with an acute spontaneous ICH, endotracheal intubation and MV were associated with increased odds of HAP and HM. These findings urge further examination of the practice of intubation in prospective studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000489273DOI Listing
April 2019

Identifying the Right Mentor.

Stroke 2017 09 9;48(9):e248-e251. Epub 2017 Aug 9.

From the Department of Medicine (Neurology), McMaster University/Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.117.018545DOI Listing
September 2017

Microbleeds in the Secondary Prevention of Small Subcortical Strokes Trial: Stroke, mortality, and treatment interactions.

Ann Neurol 2017 Aug 19;82(2):196-207. Epub 2017 Jul 19.

Brain Research Center, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Objective: To characterize cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) in lacunar stroke patients in the Secondary Prevention of Small Subcortical Strokes (SPS3) trial and to assess their relationship with recurrent stroke and death, and response to assigned treatment.

Methods: SPS3 is a randomized, clinical trial conducted between 2003 and 2011. Patients with recent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-documented lacunar infarcts were randomly assigned in a factorial design to target levels of systolic blood pressure (130-149mmHg vs <130mmHg; open label) and to antiplatelet treatment (aspirin/clopidogrel vs aspirin/placebo; double-blinded). The current analysis involves 1,278 trial participants who had a baseline axial T2*-weighted gradient echo MRI sequence allowing for CMB detection.

Results: CMBs were present in 30% of 1,278 patients (mean age = 63 years). Male gender (odds ratio [OR] = 1.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.3-2.3), history of hypertension (OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.2-2.3), increased systolic blood pressure (1.2 per 20mmHg, 95% CI = 1.1-1.4), nondiabetic status (OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.1-1.9), multiple old lacunar infarcts (OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.5-2.5), and moderate (OR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.2-2.3) or severe (OR = 4.2, 95% CI = 3.0-5.9) white matter hyperintensities on MRI were independently associated with CMBs. During a mean follow-up of 3.3 years, overall stroke recurrence was 2.5% per patient-year. Patients with CMBs had an adjusted 2-fold increased risk of recurrent stroke (hazard ratio = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.4-3.1). CMBs were not a risk factor for death. There were no statistically significant interactions between CMBs and treatment assignments.

Interpretation: Patients with lacunar stroke and CMBs likely harbor a more advanced form of cerebral small vessel disease in need of efficacious therapeutic strategies. Ann Neurol 2017;82:196-207.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ana.24988DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5568949PMC
August 2017

Embolic Stroke of Undetermined Source: A Systematic Review and Clinical Update.

Stroke 2017 04 6;48(4):867-872. Epub 2017 Mar 6.

From the Department of Medicine (Neurology) (R.G.H., L.C., K.S.P.), Population Health Research Institute and Department of Medicine (Cardiology) (S.J.C.), McMaster University, Hamilton Health Sciences, Ontario, Canada; Department of Medicine, Larissa University Hospital, University of Thessaly, Larissa, Greece (G.N.).

Background And Purpose: Embolic stroke of undetermined source (ESUS) designates patients with nonlacunar cryptogenic ischemic strokes in whom embolism is the likely stroke mechanism. It has been hypothesized that anticoagulation is more efficacious than antiplatelet therapy for secondary stroke prevention in ESUS patients. We review available information about ESUS.

Methods: Systematic literature review to assess the frequency of ESUS, patient features, and prognosis using PubMed from 2014 to present, unrestricted by language.

Results: On the basis of 9 studies, the reported frequency of ESUS ranged from 9% to 25% of ischemic strokes, averaging 17%. From 8 studies involving 2045 ESUS patients, the mean age was 65 years and 42% were women; the mean NIH stroke score was 5 at stroke onset (4 studies, 1772 ESUS patients). Most (86%) ESUS patients were treated with antiplatelet therapy during follow-up, with the annualized recurrent stroke rate averaging 4.5% per year during a mean follow-up of 2.7 years (5 studies, 1605 ESUS patients).

Conclusions: ESUS comprises about 1 ischemic stroke in 6. Patients with ischemic stroke meeting criteria for ESUS were relatively young compared with other ischemic stroke subtypes and had, on average, minor strokes, consistent with small emboli. Retrospective methods of available studies limit confidence in stroke recurrence rates but support a substantial (>4% per year) rate of stroke recurrence during (mostly) antiplatelet therapy. There is an important need to define better antithrombotic prophylaxis for this frequently occurring subtype of ischemic stroke.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.116.016414DOI Listing
April 2017

Acute Ischemic Stroke Therapy Overview.

Circ Res 2017 Feb;120(3):541-558

From the Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.

The treatment of acute ischemic stroke has undergone dramatic changes recently subsequent to the demonstrated efficacy of intra-arterial (IA) device-based therapy in multiple trials. The selection of patients for both intravenous and IA therapy is based on timely imaging with either computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, and if IA therapy is considered noninvasive, angiography with one of these modalities is necessary to document a large-vessel occlusion amenable for intervention. More advanced computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging studies are available that can be used to identify a small ischemic core and ischemic penumbra, and this information will contribute increasingly in treatment decisions as the therapeutic time window is lengthened. Intravenous thrombolysis with tissue-type plasminogen activator remains the mainstay of acute stroke therapy within the initial 4.5 hours after stroke onset, despite the lack of Food and Drug Administration approval in the 3- to 4.5-hour time window. In patients with proximal, large-vessel occlusions, IA device-based treatment should be initiated in patients with small/moderate-sized ischemic cores who can be treated within 6 hours of stroke onset. The organization and implementation of regional stroke care systems will be needed to treat as many eligible patients as expeditiously as possible. Novel treatment paradigms can be envisioned combining neuroprotection with IA device treatment to potentially increase the number of patients who can be treated despite long transport times and to ameliorate the consequences of reperfusion injury. Acute stroke treatment has entered a golden age, and many additional advances can be anticipated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.116.309278DOI Listing
February 2017

High Prevalence of Cerebral Microbleeds in Inner City Young Stroke Patients.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2016 Apr 13;25(4):733-8. Epub 2016 Jan 13.

Department of Medicine (Neurology), University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Background: Data on cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) in younger populations are lacking, particularly in young stroke patients. We sought to characterize CMBs in an inner city cohort of young adults with stroke.

Methods: CMB presence, count, and topography were assessed on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of 104 young stroke patients (≤49 years) presenting to Boston Medical Center between January 2006 and February 2010. Subsequent MRIs were assessed for the occurrence of new microbleeds in 29 patients. We performed cross-sectional analysis comparing baseline characteristics between patients with and without microbleeds, and between predefined microbleed burden and topography categories. We performed additional analysis to assess the determinants of new microbleeds on repeat MRI.

Results: Microbleeds were present in 17% of the sample. Male sex (odds ratio [OR] 5.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0-32.6, P = .049), hypertension (OR 6.2, 95% CI 1.2-32, P = .03), moderate-severe white matter hyperintensities on MRI (OR 5.8, 95% CI 1.6-29.0, P = .01), and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH; OR 5.0, 95% CI 1.2-20, P = .03) were over-represented in patients with microbleeds. Patients who developed new microbleeds on repeat MRI (14%) had higher microbleed counts on baseline MRI (50% versus 0% ≥ 3 CMBs, P = .02), history of illicit drug use (75% versus 24%, P = .08), positive serum toxicology for cocaine (67% versus 13%, P = .11), ICH as their presenting stroke subtype (50% versus 8%, P = .08), and over-representation of moderate-severe white matter hyperintensities (75% versus 20%, P = .05).

Conclusions: Results from this inner city cohort suggest that microbleeds are prevalent in young stroke patients and are largely associated with modifiable risk factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2015.11.022DOI Listing
April 2016

Clinical-MRI correlations in a multiethnic cohort with recent lacunar stroke: the SPS3 trial.

Int J Stroke 2014 Dec 27;9(8):1057-64. Epub 2014 May 27.

Department of Medicine, Division of Neurology, Brain Research Center, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.

Background: Neuroimaging manifestations of small vessel disease are heterogeneous, and correlation with patient features has not been adequately characterized.

Aim: Our goal was to correlate magnetic resonance imaging findings with clinical features in a large multiethnic cohort with recent lacunar stroke.

Methods: Patient characteristics were correlated with neuroimaging results in the Secondary Prevention of Small Subcortical Stroke study participants.

Results: Among 3005 patients, mean age was 63 years; 62% were men; and 51%, 30%, and 16% were non-Hispanic White, Hispanic, and Black, respectively. Recent lacunar infarcts were distributed between the subcortical hemisphere (31%), thalamus (26%), brainstem/cerebellum (26%), and basal ganglia/internal capsule (16%). Multiple lacunar infarcts (i.e., acute and remote) were present in 40% and associated with increased age (OR 1·3 per 20 years, 95% CI 1·1, 1·5), male gender (OR 1·5, CI 1·3, 1·7), hypertension (OR 1·5, CI 1·2, 1·8), increased systolic blood pressure (OR 1·2 per 20 mmHg, CI 1·1, 1·3), and prior stroke (OR 3·8, CI 2·9, 5·0). Moderate-severe white matter hyperintensities were present in 50% and associated with increased age (OR 4·3 per 20 years, CI 3·4, 5·4), hypertension (OR 1·8, CI 1·4, 2·3), increased systolic blood pressure (OR 1·3 per 20 mmHg, CI 1·1, 1·5), increased diastolic blood pressure (OR 1·2 per 10 mm, CI 1·0, 1·3), and prior stroke (OR 3·3, CI 2·3, 4·5). Infarct location varied significantly by race-ethnicity (P < 0·001), with Blacks and Hispanics having more infarcts in the brainstem/cerebellum than non-Hispanic Whites, and by gender with women more often having thalamic lacunes than men (P ≤ 0·001).

Conclusions: In patients with recent lacunar stroke, infarct location and number have distinctie associations with gender, vascular risk factors, and race-ethnicity, demonstrating the complex pathogenesis of lacunar stroke and cerebral small artery disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijs.12282DOI Listing
December 2014