Publications by authors named "Lucia Shumaker"

2 Publications

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High molecular weight FGF2 isoforms demonstrate canonical receptor-mediated activity and support human embryonic stem cell self-renewal.

Stem Cell Res 2017 05 18;21:106-116. Epub 2017 Apr 18.

Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Department of Biology and Biotechnology, 100 Institute Road, Worcester, MA 01609, United States; University of Nova Gorica, Center for Biomedical Sciences and Engineering, Glavni trg 8, Vipava, Slovenia. Electronic address:

Basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) is a highly pleiotropic member of a large family of growth factors with a broad range of activities, including mitogenesis and angiogenesis (Ornitz et al., 1996; Zhang et al., 2006), and it is known to be essential for maintenance of balance between survival, proliferation, and self-renewal in human pluripotent stem cells (Eiselleova et al., 2009; Zoumaro-Djayoon et al., 2011). A single FGF2 transcript can be translated into five FGF2 protein isoforms, an 18kDa low molecular weight (LMW) isoform and four larger high molecular weight (HMW) isoforms (Arese et al., 1999; Arnaud et al., 1999). As they are not generally secreted, high molecular weight (HMW) FGF2 isoforms have predominantly been investigated intracellularly; only a very limited number of studies have investigated their activity as extracellular factors. Here we report over-expression, isolation, and biological activity of all recombinant human FGF2 isoforms. We show that HMW FGF2 isoforms can support self-renewal of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) in vitro. Exogenous supplementation with HMW FGF2 isoforms also activates the canonical FGFR/MAPK pathway and induces mitogenic activity in a manner similar to that of the 18kDa FGF2 isoform. Though all HMW isoforms, when supplemented exogenously, are able to recapitulate LMW FGF2 activity to some degree, it appears that certain isoforms tend to do so more poorly, demonstrating a lesser functional response by several measures. A better understanding of isoform-specific FGF2 effects will lead to a better understanding of developmental and pathological FGF2 signaling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scr.2017.04.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5504699PMC
May 2017

A tetO Toolkit To Alter Expression of Genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

ACS Synth Biol 2015 Jul 17;4(7):842-52. Epub 2015 Mar 17.

†Howard Hughes Medical Institute, ‡Department of Genome Sciences, §Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, United States.

Strategies to optimize a metabolic pathway often involve building a large collection of strains, each containing different versions of sequences that regulate the expression of pathway genes. Here, we develop reagents and methods to carry out this process at high efficiency in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We identify variants of the Escherichia coli tet operator (tetO) sequence that bind a TetR-VP16 activator with differential affinity and therefore result in different TetR-VP16 activator-driven expression. By recombining these variants upstream of the genes of a pathway, we generate unique combinations of expression levels. Here, we built a tetO toolkit, which includes the I-OnuI homing endonuclease to create double-strand breaks, which increases homologous recombination by 10(5); a plasmid carrying six variant tetO sequences flanked by I-OnuI sites, uncoupling transformation and recombination steps; an S. cerevisiae-optimized TetR-VP16 activator; and a vector to integrate constructs into the yeast genome. We introduce into the S. cerevisiae genome the three crt genes from Erwinia herbicola required for yeast to synthesize lycopene and carry out the recombination process to produce a population of cells with permutations of tetO variants regulating the three genes. We identify 0.7% of this population as making detectable lycopene, of which the vast majority have undergone recombination at all three crt genes. We estimate a rate of ∼20% recombination per targeted site, much higher than that obtained in other studies. Application of this toolkit to medically or industrially important end products could reduce the time and labor required to optimize the expression of a set of metabolic genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/sb500363yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4506738PMC
July 2015