Publications by authors named "Lucia S D Jewbali"

17 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Targeted Temperature Management in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest With Shockable Rhythm: A Post Hoc Analysis of the Coronary Angiography After Cardiac Arrest Trial.

Crit Care Med 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Department of Cardiology, Amsterdam University Medical Center, location VUmc, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Amphia Hospital, Breda, The Netherlands. Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Amphia Hospital, Breda, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Rijnstate Hospital, Arnhem, The Netherlands. Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Rijnstate Hospital, Arnhem, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, HAGA Hospital, Den Haag, The Netherlands. Department of Intensive Care Medicine, HAGA Hospital, Den Haag, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Maasstad Hospital, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands. Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Maasstad Hospital, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Amsterdam University Medical Center, location VUmc, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands. Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Maastricht University Medical Center, University Maastricht, Maastricht, The Netherlands. Department of Intensive Care Medicine, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands. Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Amsterdam University Medical Center, location AMC, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Amsterdam University Medical Center, location AMC, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, OLVG, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Department of Intensive Care Medicine, OLVG, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Noord West Ziekenhuisgroep, Alkmaar, The Netherlands. Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Noord West Ziekenhuisgroep, Alkmaar, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Scheper Hospital, Emmen, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Haaglanden Medical Center, Den Haag, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Isala Hospital, Zwolle, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Tergooi Hospital, Blaricum, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Elisabeth-Tweesteden Hospital, Tilburg, The Netherlands. Department of Epidemiology and Data Science, Amsterdam University Medical Center, location VUmc, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Objectives: The optimal targeted temperature in patients with shockable rhythm is unclear, and current guidelines recommend targeted temperature management with a correspondingly wide range between 32°C and 36°C. Our aim was to study survival and neurologic outcome associated with targeted temperature management strategy in postarrest patients with initial shockable rhythm.

Design: Observational substudy of the Coronary Angiography after Cardiac Arrest without ST-segment Elevation trial.

Setting: Nineteen hospitals in The Netherlands.

Patients: The Coronary Angiography after Cardiac Arrest trial randomized successfully resuscitated patients with shockable rhythm and absence of ST-segment elevation to a strategy of immediate or delayed coronary angiography. In this substudy, 459 patients treated with mild therapeutic hypothermia (32.0-34.0°C) or targeted normothermia (36.0-37.0°C) were included. Allocation to targeted temperature management strategy was at the discretion of the physician.

Interventions: None.

Measurements And Main Results: After 90 days, 171 patients (63.6%) in the mild therapeutic hypothermia group and 129 (67.9%) in the targeted normothermia group were alive (hazard ratio, 0.86 [95% CI, 0.62-1.18]; log-rank p = 0.35; adjusted odds ratio, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.45-1.72). Patients in the mild therapeutic hypothermia group had longer ICU stay (4 d [3-7 d] vs 3 d [2-5 d]; ratio of geometric means, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.15-1.51), lower blood pressures, higher lactate levels, and increased need for inotropic support. Cerebral Performance Category scores at ICU discharge and 90-day follow-up and patient-reported Mental and Physical Health Scores at 1 year were similar in the two groups.

Conclusions: In the context of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with shockable rhythm and no ST-elevation, treatment with mild therapeutic hypothermia was not associated with improved 90-day survival compared with targeted normothermia. Neurologic outcomes at 90 days as well as patient-reported Mental and Physical Health Scores at 1 year did not differ between the groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CCM.0000000000005271DOI Listing
September 2021

The effect of immediate coronary angiography after cardiac arrest without ST-segment elevation on left ventricular function. A sub-study of the COACT randomised trial.

Resuscitation 2021 07 28;164:93-100. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Intensive care medicine, Noord West Ziekenhuisgroep, Alkmaar, The Netherlands.

Background: The effect of immediate coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients who are successfully resuscitated after cardiac arrest in the absence of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) on left ventricular function is currently unknown.

Methods: This prespecified sub-study of a multicentre trial evaluated 552 patients, successfully resuscitated from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest without signs of STEMI. Patients were randomized to either undergo immediate coronary angiography or delayed coronary angiography, after neurologic recovery. All patients underwent PCI if indicated. The main outcomes of this analysis were left ventricular ejection fraction and end-diastolic and systolic volumes assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging or echocardiography.

Results: Data on left ventricular function was available for 397 patients. The mean (± standard deviation) left ventricular ejection fraction was 45.2% (±12.8) in the immediate angiography group and 48.4% (±13.2) in the delayed angiography group (mean difference: -3.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], -6.75 to 0.37). Median left ventricular end-diastolic volume was 177 ml in the immediate angiography group compared to 169 ml in the delayed angiography group (ratio of geometric means: 1.06; 95% CI, 0.95-1.19). In addition, mean left ventricular end-systolic volume was 90 ml in the immediate angiography group compared to 78 ml in the delayed angiography group (ratio of geometric means: 1.13; 95% CI 0.97-1.32).

Conclusion: In patients successfully resuscitated after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and without signs of STEMI, immediate coronary angiography was not found to improve left ventricular dimensions or function compared with a delayed angiography strategy.

Clinical Trial Registration: Netherlands Trial Register number, NTR4973.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resuscitation.2021.04.020DOI Listing
July 2021

Data on sex differences in one-year outcomes of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients without ST-segment elevation.

Data Brief 2020 Dec 12;33:106521. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Department of Intensive care medicine, Maastricht University Medical Center, University Maastricht, Maastricht, the Netherlands.

Sex differences in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients are increasingly recognized. Although it has been found that post-resuscitated women are less likely to have significant coronary artery disease (CAD) than men, data on follow-up in these patients are limited. Data for this data in brief article was obtained as a part of the randomized controlled Coronary Angiography after Cardiac Arrest without ST-segment elevation (COACT) trial. The data supplements the manuscript "Sex differences in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients without ST-segment elevation: A COACT trial substudy" were it was found that women were less likely to have significant CAD including chronic total occlusions, and had worse survival when CAD was present. The dataset presented in this paper describes sex differences on interventions, implantable-cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) shocks and hospitalizations due to heart failure during one-year follow-up in patients successfully resuscitated after OHCA. Data was derived through a telephone interview at one year with the patient or general practitioner. Patients in this randomized dataset reflects a homogenous study population, which can be valuable to further build on research regarding long-term sex differences and to further improve cardiac care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2020.106521DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7691722PMC
December 2020

Sex differences in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest without ST-segment elevation: A COACT trial substudy.

Resuscitation 2021 01 12;158:14-22. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Department of Intensive care medicine, Maastricht University Medical Centre, University Maastricht, Maastricht, the Netherlands.

Background: Whether sex is associated with outcomes of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is unclear.

Objectives: This study examined sex differences in survival in patients with OHCA without ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).

Methods: Using data from the randomized controlled Coronary Angiography after Cardiac Arrest (COACT) trial, the primary point of interest was sex differences in OHCA-related one-year survival. Secondary points of interest included the benefit of immediate coronary angiography compared to delayed angiography until after neurologic recovery, angiographic and clinical outcomes.

Results: In total, 522 patients (79.1% men) were included. Overall one-year survival was 59.6% in women and 63.4% in men (HR 1.18; 95% CI: 0.76-1.81;p = 0.47). No cardiovascular risk factors were found that modified survival. Women less often had significant coronary artery disease (CAD) (37.0% vs. 71.3%;p < 0.001), but when present, they had a worse prognosis than women without CAD (HR 3.06; 95% CI 1.31-7.19;p = 0.01). This was not the case for men (HR 1.05; 95% CI 0.67-1.65;p = 0.83). In both sexes, immediate coronary angiography did not improve one-year survival compared to delayed angiography (women, odds ratio (OR) 0.87; 95% CI 0.58-1.30;p = 0.49; vs. men, OR 0.97; 95% CI 0.45-2.09;p = 0.93).

Conclusion: In OHCA patients without STEMI, we found no sex differences in overall one-year survival. Women less often had significant CAD, but when CAD was present they had worse survival than women without CAD. This was not the case for men. Both sexes did not benefit from a strategy of immediate coronary angiography as compared to delayed strategy with respect to one-year survival.

Clinical Trial Registration Number: Netherlands trial register (NTR) 4973.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resuscitation.2020.10.026DOI Listing
January 2021

Coronary Angiography After Cardiac Arrest Without ST Segment Elevation: One-Year Outcomes of the COACT Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Cardiol 2020 Dec;5(12):1358-1365

Department of Cardiology, Scheper Hospital, Emmen, the Netherlands.

Importance: Ischemic heart disease is a common cause of cardiac arrest. However, randomized data on long-term clinical outcomes of immediate coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients successfully resuscitated from cardiac arrest in the absence of ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) are lacking.

Objective: To determine whether immediate coronary angiography improves clinical outcomes at 1 year in patients after cardiac arrest without signs of STEMI, compared with a delayed coronary angiography strategy.

Design, Setting, And Participants: A prespecified analysis of a multicenter, open-label, randomized clinical trial evaluated 552 patients who were enrolled in 19 Dutch centers between January 8, 2015, and July 17, 2018. The study included patients who experienced out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with a shockable rhythm who were successfully resuscitated without signs of STEMI. Follow-up was performed at 1 year. Data were analyzed, using the intention-to-treat principle, between August 29 and October 10, 2019.

Interventions: Immediate coronary angiography and PCI if indicated or coronary angiography and PCI if indicated, delayed until after neurologic recovery.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Survival, myocardial infarction, revascularization, implantable cardiac defibrillator shock, quality of life, hospitalization for heart failure, and the composite of death or myocardial infarction or revascularization after 1 year.

Results: At 1 year, data on 522 of 552 patients (94.6%) were available for analysis. Of these patients, 413 were men (79.1%); mean (SD) age was 65.4 (12.3) years. A total of 162 of 264 patients (61.4%) in the immediate angiography group and 165 of 258 patients (64.0%) in the delayed angiography group were alive (odds ratio, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.63-1.28). The composite end point of death, myocardial infarction, or repeated revascularization since the index hospitalization was met in 112 patients (42.9%) in the immediate group and 104 patients (40.6%) in the delayed group (odds ratio, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.77-1.56). No significant differences between the groups were observed for the other outcomes at 1-year follow-up. For example, the rate of ICD shocks was 20.4% in the immediate group and 16.2% in the delayed group (odds ratio, 1.32; 95% CI, 0.66-2.64).

Conclusions And Relevance: In this trial of patients successfully resuscitated after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and without signs of STEMI, a strategy of immediate angiography was not found to be superior to a strategy of delayed angiography with respect to clinical outcomes at 1 year. Coronary angiography in this patient group can therefore be delayed until after neurologic recovery without affecting outcomes.

Trial Registration: trialregister.nl Identifier: NTR4973.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamacardio.2020.3670DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7489423PMC
December 2020

Emergency Department to ICU Time Is Associated With Hospital Mortality: A Registry Analysis of 14,788 Patients From Six University Hospitals in The Netherlands.

Crit Care Med 2019 11;47(11):1564-1571

Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Objectives: Prolonged emergency department to ICU waiting time may delay intensive care treatment, which could negatively affect patient outcomes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether emergency department to ICU time is associated with hospital mortality.

Design, Setting, And Patients: We conducted a retrospective observational cohort study using data from the Dutch quality registry National Intensive Care Evaluation. Adult patients admitted to the ICU directly from the emergency department in six university hospitals, between 2009 and 2016, were included. Using a logistic regression model, we investigated the crude and adjusted (for disease severity; Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation IV probability) odds ratios of emergency department to ICU time on mortality. In addition, we assessed whether the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation IV probability modified the effect of emergency department to ICU time on mortality. Secondary outcomes were ICU, 30-day, and 90-day mortality.

Interventions: None.

Measurements And Main Results: A total of 14,788 patients were included. The median emergency department to ICU time was 2.0 hours (interquartile range, 1.3-3.3 hr). Emergency department to ICU time was correlated to adjusted hospital mortality (p < 0.002), in particular in patients with the highest Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation IV probability and long emergency department to ICU time quintiles: odds ratio, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.02-1.64 (2.4-3.7 hr) and odds ratio, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.11-2.14 (> 3.7 hr), both compared with the reference category (< 1.2 hr). For 30-day and 90-day mortality, we found similar results. However, emergency department to ICU time was not correlated to adjusted ICU mortality (p = 0.20).

Conclusions: Prolonged emergency department to ICU time (> 2.4 hr) is associated with increased hospital mortality after ICU admission, mainly driven by patients who had a higher Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation IV probability. We hereby provide evidence that rapid admission of the most critically ill patients to the ICU might reduce hospital mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CCM.0000000000003957DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6798749PMC
November 2019

Coronary Angiography after Cardiac Arrest without ST-Segment Elevation.

N Engl J Med 2019 Apr 18;380(15):1397-1407. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

From the Departments of Cardiology (J.S.L., G.N.J., N.W.H., N.R.), Intensive Care Medicine (P.W.G.E., H.M.O.-S.), and Epidemiology and Biostatistics (P.M.V.), Amsterdam University Medical Center VUmc, the Departments of Cardiology (J.P.H.) and Intensive Care Medicine (A.P.J.V.), Amsterdam University Medical Center AMC, and the Departments of Cardiology (M.A.V.) and Intensive Care Medicine (B.B.), Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Amsterdam, the Thorax Center, Erasmus Medical Center (L.S.D.J., E.A.D.), and the Departments of Cardiology (G.J.V.) and Intensive Care Medicine (B.J.W.E.), Maasstad Hospital, Rotterdam, the Departments of Cardiology (M. Meuwissen) and Intensive Care Medicine (T.A.R.), Amphia Hospital, Breda, the Departments of Cardiology (H.A.B.) and Intensive Care Medicine (M.J.B.), Rijnstate Hospital, Arnhem, the Departments of Cardiology (G.B.B.) and Intensive Care Medicine (R.B.), Haga Hospital, and the Department of Cardiology, Haaglanden Medical Center (P.V.O.), The Hague, the Departments of Cardiology (P.H.) and Intensive Care Medicine (I.C.C.H.), University of Groningen, Groningen, the Departments of Cardiology (M.V.) and Intensive Care Medicine (J.J.H.), University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Departments of Intensive Care Medicine (A.B.) and Cardiology (M.S.), Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede, the Departments of Cardiology (C.C., N.R.) and Intensive Care Medicine (H.H.), Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Departments of Cardiology (T.A.C.M.H.) and Intensive Care Medicine (W.R.), Noordwest Ziekenhuisgroep, Alkmaar, the Departments of Intensive Care Medicine (T.S.R.D.) and Cardiology (H.J.G.M.C.), Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, the Department of Cardiology, Scheper Hospital, Emmen (G.A.J.J.), the Department of Cardiology, Isala Hospital, Zwolle (M.T.M.G.), the Department of Cardiology, Tergooi Hospital, Blaricum (K.P.), and the Department of Cardiology, Elisabeth-Tweesteden Hospital, Tilburg (M. Magro) - all in the Netherlands.

Background: Ischemic heart disease is a major cause of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. The role of immediate coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the treatment of patients who have been successfully resuscitated after cardiac arrest in the absence of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) remains uncertain.

Methods: In this multicenter trial, we randomly assigned 552 patients who had cardiac arrest without signs of STEMI to undergo immediate coronary angiography or coronary angiography that was delayed until after neurologic recovery. All patients underwent PCI if indicated. The primary end point was survival at 90 days. Secondary end points included survival at 90 days with good cerebral performance or mild or moderate disability, myocardial injury, duration of catecholamine support, markers of shock, recurrence of ventricular tachycardia, duration of mechanical ventilation, major bleeding, occurrence of acute kidney injury, need for renal-replacement therapy, time to target temperature, and neurologic status at discharge from the intensive care unit.

Results: At 90 days, 176 of 273 patients (64.5%) in the immediate angiography group and 178 of 265 patients (67.2%) in the delayed angiography group were alive (odds ratio, 0.89; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.62 to 1.27; P = 0.51). The median time to target temperature was 5.4 hours in the immediate angiography group and 4.7 hours in the delayed angiography group (ratio of geometric means, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.36). No significant differences between the groups were found in the remaining secondary end points.

Conclusions: Among patients who had been successfully resuscitated after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and had no signs of STEMI, a strategy of immediate angiography was not found to be better than a strategy of delayed angiography with respect to overall survival at 90 days. (Funded by the Netherlands Heart Institute and others; COACT Netherlands Trial Register number, NTR4973.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1816897DOI Listing
April 2019

Coronary angiography after cardiac arrest: Rationale and design of the COACT trial.

Am Heart J 2016 Oct 14;180:39-45. Epub 2016 Jul 14.

Department of Cardiology, VU University Medical Centre, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Background: Ischemic heart disease is a major cause of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. The role of immediate coronary angiography (CAG) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) after restoration of spontaneous circulation following cardiac arrest in the absence of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) remains debated.

Hypothesis: We hypothesize that immediate CAG and PCI, if indicated, will improve 90-day survival in post-cardiac arrest patients without signs of STEMI.

Design: In a prospective, multicenter, randomized controlled clinical trial, 552 post-cardiac arrest patients with restoration of spontaneous circulation and without signs of STEMI will be randomized in a 1:1 fashion to immediate CAG and PCI (within 2 hours) versus initial deferral with CAG and PCI after neurological recovery. The primary end point of the study is 90-day survival. The secondary end points will include 90-day survival with good cerebral performance or minor/moderate disability, myocardial injury, duration of inotropic support, occurrence of acute kidney injury, need for renal replacement therapy, time to targeted temperature control, neurological status at intensive care unit discharge, markers of shock, recurrence of ventricular tachycardia, duration of mechanical ventilation, and reasons for discontinuation of treatment.

Summary: The COACT trial is a multicenter, randomized, controlled clinical study that will evaluate the effect of an immediate invasive coronary strategy in post-cardiac arrest patients without STEMI on 90-day survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2016.06.025DOI Listing
October 2016

A simple risk chart for initial risk assessment of 30-day mortality in patients with cardiogenic shock from ST-elevation myocardial infarction.

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care 2016 Apr 14;5(2):101-7. Epub 2015 Jan 14.

Erasmus MC, Department of Cardiology, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Aims: Early risk stratification is important in patients with cardiogenic shock from ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). We aimed to develop a simple risk chart that includes clinical parameters that are readily available at time of hospital admission to assess risk of 30-day mortality.

Methods And Results: A series of 544 STEMI patients admitted to undergo primary percutaneous coronary intervention and presenting with cardiogenic shock were included between 2000 and 2012. Overall 30-day mortality was 38.4% and did not change over the years (p-trend=0.64). Baseline variables that were available at time of hospital admission were entered into a logistic regression model in a forward stepwise manner. Only age (odds ratio (OR) per year 1.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.07, p<0.001), initial serum lactate level (OR per mmol/l 1.17, 95% CI 1.11-1.24, p<0.001) and initial creatinine level above the upper limit of normal (OR 2.89, 95% CI 1.90-4.37, p<0.001) remained independent predictors, and were subsequently used to develop a risk chart that stratifies risk of 30-day mortality into categories ranging from 0-20% to 80-100%. The calibration plot showed a close relationship between expected and observed mortality. The risk chart had a higher discriminative accuracy than the GRACE score (c-index 0.75 vs. 0.66, p=0.009). Adding variables that were obtained from coronary angiography and during clinical course did not significantly improve discriminative accuracy of risk chart (c-index 0.77, p=0.48).

Conclusion: Mortality of patients with cardiogenic shock from STEMI undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention can be well predicted already at time of hospital admission by a risk chart that uses only three variables, namely, age, initial serum lactate and creatinine level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2048872615568966DOI Listing
April 2016

Conventional hemodynamic resuscitation may fail to optimize tissue perfusion: an observational study on the effects of dobutamine, enoximone, and norepinephrine in patients with acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock.

PLoS One 2014 1;9(8):e103978. Epub 2014 Aug 1.

Thoraxcenter, Erasmus Medical Center, Departments of Cardiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

Aim: To investigate the effects of inotropic agents on parameters of tissue perfusion in patients with cardiogenic shock.

Methods And Results: Thirty patients with cardiogenic shock were included. Patients received dobutamine, enoximone, or norepinephrine. We performed hemodynamic measurements at baseline and after titration of the inotropic agent until cardiac index (CI) ≥ 2.5 L.min-1.m(-2) or mixed-venous oxygen saturation (SvO2) ≥ 70% (dobutamine or enoximone), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) ≥ 70 mmHg (norepinephrine). As parameters of tissue perfusion, we measured central-peripheral temperature gradient (delta-T) and sublingual perfused capillary density (PCD). All patients reached predefined therapeutic targets. The inotropes did not significantly change delta-T. Dobutamine did not change PCD. Enoximone increased PCD (9.1 [8.9-10.2] vs. 11.4 [8.4-13.9] mm.mm(-2); p<0.05), and norepinephrine tended to decrease PCD (9.8 [8.5-11.9] vs. 8.8 [8.2-9.6] mm.mm-2, p = 0.08). Fifteen patients (50%) died within 30 days after admission. Patients who had low final PCD (≤ 10.3 mm.mm-2; 64%) were more likely to die than patients who had preserved PCD (>10.3 mm.mm(-2); mortality 72% vs. 17%, p = 0.003).

Conclusion: This study demonstrates the effects of commonly used inotropic agents on parameters of tissue perfusion in patients with cardiogenic shock. Despite hemodynamic optimization, tissue perfusion was not sufficiently restored in most patients. In these patients, mortality was high. Interventions directed at improving microcirculation may eventually help bridging the gap between improved hemodynamics and dismal patient outcome in cardiogenic shock.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0103978PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4118994PMC
November 2015

Impact of intra-aortic balloon pump support initiated before versus after primary percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with cardiogenic shock from acute myocardial infarction.

Int J Cardiol 2013 Oct 3;168(4):3758-63. Epub 2013 Jul 3.

Erasmus University Medical Center, Thoraxcenter, Department of Cardiology, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

Background: Little evidence is available on the optimal sequence of intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) support initiation and primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients who present with cardiogenic shock from ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). The aim of this study was to evaluate the order of IABP insertion and primary PCI and its association with infarct size and mortality.

Methods: A series of 173 consecutive patients admitted with cardiogenic shock from STEMI and treated with primary PCI and IABP between 2000 and 2009 were included. The order of IABP insertion and primary PCI was left at the discretion of the interventional cardiologist.

Results: All baseline characteristics were similar in patients who first received IABP (n=87) and patients who received IABP directly after PCI (n=86). In these two groups, cumulative 30-day mortality was 44% and 37% respectively (p=0.39). Median peak serum creatine kinase (CK) concentrations were 5692 U/l and 4034 U/l respectively (p=0.048). In multivariable analysis, IABP insertion before PCI was independently associated with higher CK levels (p=0.046). In patients who survived 30 days, IABP insertion before PCI was not associated with late mortality evaluated at five years of follow-up (HR1.5, 95% CI 0.7-3.3; p=0.34).

Conclusions: Early IABP insertion before primary PCI might be associated with higher peak CK levels, indicating a larger infarct size. A possible explanation may be the increased reperfusion delay. Our study suggests that early reperfusion could have priority over routine early IABP insertion in STEMI patients with cardiogenic shock. Randomized studies are needed to determine the optimal timing of IABP insertion relative to primary PCI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2013.06.009DOI Listing
October 2013

Impaired microcirculation predicts poor outcome of patients with acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock.

Eur Heart J 2010 Dec 9;31(24):3032-9. Epub 2010 Sep 9.

Department of Cardiology, Thoraxcenter, Erasmus Medical Center, Room V-017, s-Gravendijkwal 230, Rotterdam NL-3015 CE, The Netherlands.

Aims: we investigated the relationship between sublingual perfused capillary density (PCD) as a measure of tissue perfusion and outcome (i.e. occurrence of organ failure and mortality) in patients with cardiogenic shock from acute myocardial infarction.

Methods And Results: we performed a prospective study in 68 patients. Using Sidestream Dark Field imaging, PCD was measured after hospital admission (T0, baseline) and 24 h later (T1). We compared patients with baseline PCD ≤ median to patients with baseline PCD > median. Sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores were calculated at both time points. The Kaplan-Meier 30-day survival analyses were performed and predictors of 30-day mortality were identified. The baseline PCD was a predictor of the change in the SOFA score between T0 and T1 (ΔSOFA; ρ = -0.25, P = 0.04). Organ failure recovered more frequently in patients with PCD > median (>10.3 mm mm(-2); n = 33) than in patients with PCD ≤ median (n = 35; 52 vs. 29%, P < 0.05). Twenty-two patients (32%) died: 17 patients (49%) with PCD ≤ median vs. 5 patients (15%) with PCD > median (P = 0.004). After adjustment, the cardiac power index [odds ratio (OR): 0.48, 95% CI: 0.24-0.94) and PCD (OR: 0.65, 95% CI: 0.45-0.92) remained significant predictors of 30-day outcome. Patients with baseline sublingual PCD ≤ median that improved at T1 had a considerable better prognosis relative to patients who had a persistently low PCD.

Conclusion: diminished sublingual PCD, at baseline or following treatment, is associated with development of multi-organ failure and is a predictor of poor outcome in patients with acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehq324DOI Listing
December 2010

Mechanical circulatory support devices improve tissue perfusion in patients with end-stage heart failure or cardiogenic shock.

J Heart Lung Transplant 2009 Sep;28(9):906-11

Department of Cardiology, Thoraxcenter, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Objectives: This study evaluated the effects of mechanical circulatory support (MCS) on sub-lingual microcirculation as a surrogate for splanchnic microvascular perfusion.

Methods: Between May 2008 and April 2009, 10 consecutive patients received an MCS device or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for end-stage chronic heart failure (n = 6) or cardiogenic shock (n = 4). Microcirculation was investigated using a hand-held Sidestream Dark Field imaging device. Perfused capillary density (PCD) and capillary red blood cell velocity (cRBCv) were assessed before device implantation (T0), immediately after implantation (T1), and 1 day after implantation (T2).

Results: Median patient age was 45 years (interquartile range [IQR] 38-52 years) and 70% were men. MCS significantly decreased pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (p = 0.04). Median cardiac power index increased (0.29 [IQR, 0.21-0.34] W/m(2) at T0 vs 0.48 [IQR, 0.39-0.54] W/m(2) at T1, p = 0.005) as well as median central venous oxygen saturation (54% [IQR, 46%-61%] at T0 vs 78% [IQR, 67%-85%] at T1, p = 0.007). There was a 3-fold increase in tissue perfusion index (sub-lingual PCD x cRBCv) during mechanical circulatory support (573 [IQR, 407-693] at T0 vs 1909 [IQR, 1771-2835] at T1, p = 0.005). Microcirculatory parameters remained improved at T2.

Conclusion: Mechanical circulatory support for severe heart failure is associated with a consistent, significant, and sustained improvement in tissue perfusion, as measured at the bedside by a 2-dimensional microcirculation imaging technique.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.healun.2009.05.010DOI Listing
September 2009

Dose-dependent benefit of nitroglycerin on microcirculation of patients with severe heart failure.

Intensive Care Med 2009 Nov 29;35(11):1893-9. Epub 2009 Jul 29.

Department of Cardiology, Thoraxcenter, Erasmus Medical Center, s-Gravendijkwal 230, 3015 CE, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Introduction: Microcirculatory abnormalities are frequently observed in patients with severe heart failure and correlate to worse outcomes. We tested the hypothesis that nitroglycerin dose-dependently improves perfusion in severe heart failure and that this could be monitored by measuring central-peripheral temperature gradient and with Sidestream Dark Field imaging of the sublingual mucosa.

Methods: A dose-response study was performed in 17 patients with cardiogenic shock (n = 9) or end-stage chronic heart failure (n = 8) admitted to Erasmus University Medical Center. We did hemodynamic measurements at baseline and during increasing infusion rates of nitroglycerin (up to a maximum dose of 133 microg min(-1)). As parameters of tissue perfusion, we measured central-peripheral temperature gradient (delta-T) and sublingual perfused capillary density (PCD).

Results: Nitroglycerin dose-dependently decreased mean arterial pressure (p < 0.001) and cardiac filling pressures (both central venous pressure (CVP) and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure: p < 0.001). It increased cardiac index (p = 0.01). Nitroglycerin decreased delta-T (p < 0.001) and increased sublingual PCD (p < 0.001). Significant changes in delta-T and PCD occurred earlier, i.e., at a lower doses of NTG, than changes in global hemodynamics. Macrohemodynamic and microcirculatory responses to nitroglycerin infusion were consistent in patients with either cardiogenic shock or end-stage chronic heart failure. Changes in microcirculatory parameters occurred independently of changes in cardiac index.

Conclusions: Nitroglycerin dose-dependently increases tissue perfusion in patients with severe heart failure, as observed by a decrease in central-peripheral temperature gradient and an increase in sublingual perfused capillary density.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00134-009-1591-4DOI Listing
November 2009

Percutaneous left ventricular assist devices vs. intra-aortic balloon pump counterpulsation for treatment of cardiogenic shock: a meta-analysis of controlled trials.

Eur Heart J 2009 Sep 18;30(17):2102-8. Epub 2009 Jul 18.

Department of Cardiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Thoraxcenter, 3015 CE Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

Aims: Studies have compared safety and efficacy of percutaneous left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) with intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) counterpulsation in patients with cardiogenic shock. We performed a meta-analysis of controlled trials to evaluate potential benefits of percutaneous LVAD on haemodynamics and 30-day survival.

Methods And Results: Two independent investigators searched Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for all controlled trials using percutaneous LVAD in patients with cardiogenic shock, where after data were extracted using standardized forms. Weighted mean differences (MDs) were calculated for cardiac index (CI), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP). Relative risks (RRs) were calculated for 30-day mortality, leg ischaemia, bleeding, and sepsis. In main analysis, trials were combined using inverse-variance random effects approach. Two trials evaluated the TandemHeart and a recent trial used the Impella device. After device implantation, percutaneous LVAD patients had higher CI (MD 0.35 L/min/m(2), 95% CI 0.09-0.61), higher MAP (MD 12.8 mmHg, 95% CI 3.6-22.0), and lower PCWP (MD -5.3 mm Hg, 95% CI -9.4 to -1.2) compared with IABP patients. Similar 30-day mortality (RR 1.06, 95% CI 0.68-1.66) was observed using percutaneous LVAD compared with IABP. No significant difference was observed in incidence of leg ischaemia (RR 2.59, 95% CI 0.75-8.97) in percutaneous LVAD patients compared with IABP patients. Bleeding (RR 2.35, 95% CI 1.40-3.93) was significantly more observed in TandemHeart patients compared with patients treated with IABP.

Conclusion: Although percutaneous LVAD provides superior haemodynamic support in patients with cardiogenic shock compared with IABP, the use of these more powerful devices did not improve early survival. These results do not yet support percutaneous LVAD as first-choice approach in the mechanical management of cardiogenic shock.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehp292DOI Listing
September 2009

The effects of intra-aortic balloon pump support on macrocirculation and tissue microcirculation in patients with cardiogenic shock.

Cardiology 2009 9;114(1):42-6. Epub 2009 Apr 9.

Thoraxcenter, Departments of Cardiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Erasmus Medical Center, 's-Gravendijkwal 230, Rotterdam NL-3015 CE, The Netherlands.

Objectives: It was the aim of this study to evaluate the effects of intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) counterpulsation on sublingual microcirculation as a model for tissue perfusion.

Methods: In 13 patients with cardiogenic shock treated with IABP, the IABP assist ratio was reduced from 1:1 to 1:8 for 15 min. Using sidestream dark field imaging, 117 movie files of the sublingual microcirculation were obtained and quantified at different IABP assist ratios at 3 time points: 1:1 (T0), 1:8 (T1) and 1:1 (T2), respectively. Data are presented as the median and interquartile range.

Results: The median age of the patients was 59 years (range 56-73), and 62% were males. Discontinuation of IABP decreased the mean arterial pressure [75 mm Hg (71-84) at T0 vs. 69 mm Hg (64-79) at T1; p < 0.001], cardiac index [2.9 l/min/m2 (1.6-3.3) at T0 vs. 2.4 l/min/m2 (1.5-2.8) at T1; p = 0.005] and cardiac power index [0.46 W/m2 (0.29-0.59) at T0 vs. 0.36 W/m2 (0.24-0.50) at T1; p = 0.006]. However, these modest changes in macrohemodynamics did not significantly influence sublingual perfused capillary density and capillary red blood cell velocity (p = 0.28 and 0.73, respectively).

Conclusion: A temporary, modest decrease in microcirculatory driving force, induced by lowering the IABP assist ratio, does not impair sublingual microcirculatory perfusion as measured by a novel 2-dimensional imaging technique.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000212060DOI Listing
December 2009

Low-dose nitroglycerin improves microcirculation in hospitalized patients with acute heart failure.

Eur J Heart Fail 2009 Apr 10;11(4):386-90. Epub 2009 Feb 10.

Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Cardiology and Intensive Care, NL-3015 CE Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Aims: Impaired tissue perfusion is often observed in patients with acute heart failure. We tested whether low-dose nitroglycerin (NTG) improves microcirculatory perfusion in patients admitted for acute heart failure.

Methods And Results: In 20 acute heart failure patients, NTG was given as intravenous infusion at a fixed dose of 33 microg/min. Using Sidestream Dark Field (SDF) imaging, sublingual microvascular perfusion was evaluated before (T0, average of two baseline measurements) and 15 min after initiation of NTG (T1). In a subgroup of seven patients, SDF measurements were repeated after NTG had been stopped for 20 min. Capillaries were defined as microvessels with a diameter of <20 microm. Perfused capillary density (PCD) was determined as the parameter of tissue perfusion. Values are expressed as median and interquartile range (P25; P75). The median age of the subjects was 60 (52; 73) years, and 65% were male. Patients were stable before starting NTG. Nitroglycerin decreased central venous pressure [17 (13; 19) mmHg at T0 vs. 16 (13; 17) mmHg at T1, P = 0.03] and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure [23 (18; 31) mmHg at T0 vs. 19 (16; 25) mmHg at T1, P = 0.03]. It increased PCD [10.7 (9.9; 12.5) mm mm(-2) at T0 vs. 12.4 (11.4; 13.6) mm mm(-2) at T1, P = 0.01]. After cessation of NTG, PCD returned to baseline values (P = 0.04).

Conclusion: Low-dose NTG significantly reduces cardiac filling pressures and improves microvascular perfusion in patients admitted for acute heart failure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurjhf/hfp021DOI Listing
April 2009
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