Publications by authors named "Luca Maria Sconfienza"

253 Publications

Different timing in allograft and autograft maturation after primary anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction does not influence the clinical outcome at mid-long-term follow-up.

Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2021 Nov 16. Epub 2021 Nov 16.

IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi, Via R. Galeazzi 4, 20161, Milan, Italy.

Purpose: The use of allografts in primary anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) is increasing although they are still supposed to be associated to greater risk of re-rupture due to a slower and less efficient graft maturation. The aim of this prospective randomized controlled study was to compare the graft maturation after ACLR with allograft and autograft by MRI at 6- and 12-month follow-up and integrate these data with the functional and clinical results observed at 6-, 12- and 60-month follow-up.

Methods: Fifty patients with indication to primary ACLR were randomly and equally divided into hamstring autograft or allograft tendon groups. The graft maturation was measured at 6- and 12-month follow-up by the SNQ score and other radiological parameters on MRI scans. Clinical and functional recovery was evaluated by Lysholm score, Visual Analogues Scale, Tegner activity scale and modified Cincinnati knee rating system at 6, 12 and 60 months after surgery to estimate the predictive value of the radiological parameters for clinical outcomes. Return-to-sport (ACL-RSI) was measured 60 months after surgery.

Results: Three patients had retear of the neo-ligament (two from Auto group and one from Allo group). All the clinical/functional parameters significantly improved over time, with no statistically significant difference between the groups. At 6 months, the SNQ value was significantly higher in the Auto than in the Allo group (12.9 vs 7.9, p = 0.038), but at 12 months they were comparable (9.8 vs 10.4). The 6-month SNQ values did not correlate with the clinical scores, whereas the 12-month SNQ values significantly correlated with the Cincinnati score, Lysholm score and Tegner activity scale collected at 60-month follow-up.

Conclusion: No clinical or functional differences have been found between the two treatment groups, supporting the suitability of using allograft in primary ACLR, when available. The results at MRI scans showed a different graft maturation trend in the two groups, with allografts being more reactive in the first 6 months. MRI together with the subjective evaluation allows to evaluate objectively the status of the neo-ligamentization process and therefore helps the surgeon to dictate the individual time for return-to-sport.

Level Of Evidence: Level I.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00167-021-06785-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8592808PMC
November 2021

Image-guided thermal ablation in autonomously functioning thyroid nodules. A retrospective multicenter three-year follow-up study from the Italian Minimally Invasive Treatment of the Thyroid (MITT) Group.

Eur Radiol 2021 Nov 9. Epub 2021 Nov 9.

IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi, Milano, Italy.

Objectives: To report the results of a multicenter retrospective evaluation of the clinical outcomes of thermal ablation (TA) in a large series of autonomously functioning thyroid nodules (AFTN) with a follow-up protracted up to 3 years.

Methods: Patients treated with single TA for an AFTN in Italy were included. Changes in nodule volume, TSH values, and ongoing anti-thyroid therapy were assessed at the 2-, 6-, 12-, 24-, and 36-month follow-up controls. Complications and need of any additional therapy after TA were also registered.

Results: A total of 361 patients (244 females, 117 males, median age 58 years, IQR 46-70 years) were included. Nodule volume was significantly reduced at all time points (p < 0.001) (median volume reduction 58% at 6-month and 60% at 12-month). Serum TSH values increased significantly at all time points. After TA, anti-thyroid therapy was withdrawn in 32.5% of patients at 2 months, in 38.9% at 6 months, and in 41.3% at 12 months. A significant difference in the rate of patients who withdrawn medical therapy at 12 months was registered between small (< 10 mL) (74%), medium (49%), or large (> 30 mL) nodules (19%). A single major complication occurred (0.25%). Additional treatments were needed in 34/361 (9.4%) of cases including 4 (1.1%) surgical treatment.

Conclusions: Image-guided thermal ablation offers a further safe and effective therapeutic option in patients with AFTN. Clinical outcomes are significantly more favorable in small than in large size AFTN.

Key Points: • Thermal ablations (TA) can be safely and effectively used in patients with autonomously functioning thyroid nodules (AFTN). • TA results in a clinically significant nodule volume reduction that is paralleled by TSH level normalization and anti-thyroid drug therapy discontinuation (after TA anti-thyroid therapy was withdrawn in 41.3% at 12 months). • Clinical outcomes after TA are more favorable in small nodules, and when a large amount of thyroid nodule tissue is ablated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-021-08289-8DOI Listing
November 2021

The EFSUMB Guidelines and Recommendations for Musculoskeletal Ultrasound - Part II: Joint Pathologies, Pediatric Applications, and Guided Procedures.

Ultraschall Med 2021 Nov 3. Epub 2021 Nov 3.

Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Cork University Hospital and University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.

The second part of the Guidelines and Recommendations for Musculoskeletal Ultrasound (MSUS), produced under the auspices of EFSUMB, following the same methodology as for Part 1, provides information and recommendations on the use of this imaging modality for joint pathology, pediatric applications, and musculoskeletal ultrasound-guided procedures. Clinical application, practical points, limitations, and artifacts are described and discussed for every joint or procedure. The document is intended to guide clinical users in their daily practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1640-9183DOI Listing
November 2021

The problem of dating fractures: A retrospective observational study of radiologic features of fracture healing in adults.

Forensic Sci Int 2021 Dec 17;329:111058. Epub 2021 Oct 17.

Laboratorio di Antropologia e Odontologia Forense (LABANOF), Sezione di Medicina Legale, Department of Biomedical Sciences for Health, University of Milan, Milan, Italy.

Accurate dating of bone fractures can be crucial in the context of forensic trauma analysis since it may provide essential information for the corroboration or contradiction of statements by victims or suspects in cases of domestic abuse or torture. The different stages of bone healing have been well described in the existing literature, and some previous studies attempted to define related timelines particularly in the paediatric population. However, the bone healing process can be very variable and despite the importance of the topic in the forensic field, so far little is known about the radiological appearance of bone fractures at different healing stages, and how this correlates with time, especially in an adult population. The aim of this retrospective observational study was to describe the temporal aspect of pre-defined healing stages as they appear on radiographs of tubular bone fractures in adults, and explore the effect of potential cofounding variables. A dynamic nomogram was developed as a user-friendly tool to be eventually applied in clinical or medico-legal settings. This study showed that the posttraumatic time interval (PTTI) increased progressively with the pre-defined healing stages. However, confounding factors, such as patients' age, sex, and location of the fracture need to be accounted for in the final estimation model. Further studies are needed to explore more potentially confounding variables to refine the presented outcomes. Better knowledge of the effect of different confounding variables in the dating of fracture healing will contribute to greater accuracy of PTTI estimation of bone fractures in adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2021.111058DOI Listing
December 2021

Sarcopenia: imaging assessment and clinical application.

Abdom Radiol (NY) 2021 Oct 23. Epub 2021 Oct 23.

IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi, Milano, Italy.

Sarcopenia is a progressive, generalized skeletal muscle disorder characterized by reduction of muscle mass and strength. It is associated with increased adverse outcomes including falls, fractures, physical disability, and mortality, particularly, in elderly patients. Nowadays, sarcopenia has become a specific imaging biomarker able to predict clinical outcomes of patients. Muscle fibre reduction has shown to be an unfavourable pre-operative predictive factor in patients with cancer, and is associated with worse clinical outcomes in terms of postoperative complications, morbidity, mortality, and lower tolerance of chemoradiation therapy. Several imaging modalities, including dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, CT, MRI, and US can be used to estimate muscle mass and quality to reach the diagnosis of sarcopenia. This article reviews the clinical implications of sarcopenia, how this condition can be assessed through different imaging modalities, and future perspectives of imaging of sarcopenia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00261-021-03294-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8536908PMC
October 2021

Posterior Tibial Tendon Dislocation: A Case Report.

J Foot Ankle Surg 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi, Milano, Italy; Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche per la Salute, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milano, Italy.

Isolated posterior tibial tendon dislocation is a rare condition. Diagnosis can be challenging, especially in the acute clinical setting. Predisposing factors include shallow posterior tibial tendon groove and tear of the flexor retinaculum. We report the case of traumatic subluxation of the posterior tibial tendon, illustrating imaging findings and surgical technique. Posterior tibial tendon dislocation was detected using dynamic ultrasound, while magnetic resonance was essential for a comprehensive evaluation that included underlying predisposing anatomic abnormalities and associated pathologic conditions. Conservative treatment is often unsuccessful thus surgical approach was needed. Under ampliscopic guidance, a bone tunnel was created behind the retromalleolar groove. The posterior tibial tendon was located into the new groove and the retinaculum was re-attached and tightened by anchors and absorbable sutures at the anterior margin of the sulcus. At 12-month follow-up, the patient did not complain any residual pain and he was able to perform normal daily activities without any limitations and with no further tendon dislocations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.jfas.2021.09.009DOI Listing
September 2021

Bone Strain Index predicts fragility fracture in osteoporotic women: an artificial intelligence-based study.

Eur Radiol Exp 2021 Oct 19;5(1):47. Epub 2021 Oct 19.

Villa Santa Maria Foundation, Via IV Novembre, 15, 22038, Tavernerio, Como, Italy.

Background: We applied an artificial intelligence-based model to predict fragility fractures in postmenopausal women, using different dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) parameters.

Methods: One hundred seventy-four postmenopausal women without vertebral fractures (VFs) at baseline (mean age 66.3 ± 9.8) were retrospectively evaluated. Data has been collected from September 2010 to August 2018. All subjects performed a spine x-ray to assess VFs, together with lumbar and femoral DXA for bone mineral density (BMD) and the bone strain index (BSI) evaluation. Follow-up exams were performed after 3.34 ± 1.91 years. Considering the occurrence of new VFs at follow-up, two groups were created: fractured versus not-fractured. We applied an artificial neural network (ANN) analysis with a predictive tool (TWIST system) to select relevant input data from a list of 13 variables including BMD and BSI. A semantic connectivity map was built to analyse the connections among variables within the groups. For group comparisons, an independent-samples t-test was used; variables were expressed as mean ± standard deviation.

Results: For each patient, we evaluated a total of n = 6 exams. At follow-up, n = 69 (39.6%) women developed a VF. ANNs reached a predictive accuracy of 79.56% within the training testing procedure, with a sensitivity of 80.93% and a specificity of 78.18%. The semantic connectivity map showed that a low BSI at the total femur is connected to the absence of VFs.

Conclusion: We found a high performance of ANN analysis in predicting the occurrence of VFs. Femoral BSI appears as a useful DXA index to identify patients at lower risk for lumbar VFs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s41747-021-00242-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8523735PMC
October 2021

Clinical indications for image-guided interventional procedures in the musculoskeletal system: a Delphi-based consensus paper from the European Society of Musculoskeletal Radiology (ESSR)-part VII, nerves of the lower limb.

Eur Radiol 2021 Sep 28. Epub 2021 Sep 28.

Oxford Musculoskeletal Radiology, Oxford, UK.

Objectives: To perform a Delphi-based consensus on published evidence on image-guided interventional procedures for peripheral nerves of the lower limb (excluding Morton's neuroma) and provide clinical indications.

Methods: We report the results of a Delphi-based consensus of 53 experts from the European Society of Musculoskeletal Radiology who reviewed the published literature for evidence on image-guided interventional procedures offered around peripheral nerves in the lower limb (excluding Morton's neuroma) to derive their clinical indications. Experts drafted a list of statements and graded them according to the Oxford Centre for evidence-based medicine levels of evidence. Consensus was considered strong when > 95% of experts agreed with the statement or broad when > 80% but < 95% agreed. The results of the Delphi-based consensus were used to write the paper.

Results: Nine statements on image-guided interventional procedures for peripheral nerves of the lower limb have been drafted. All of them received strong consensus. Image-guided pudendal nerve block is safe, effective, and well tolerated with few complications. US-guided perisciatic injection of anesthetic provides good symptom relief in patients with piriformis syndrome; however, the addition of corticosteroids to local anesthetics still has an unclear role. US-guided lateral femoral cutaneous nerve block can be used to provide effective post-operative regional analgesia.

Conclusion: Despite the promising results reported by published papers on image-guided interventional procedures for peripheral nerves of the lower limb, there is still a lack of evidence on the efficacy of most procedures.

Key Points: • Image-guided pudendal nerve block is safe, effective, and well tolerated with few complications. • US-guided perisciatic injection of anesthetic provides good symptom relief in patients with piriformis syndrome; however, the addition of corticosteroids to local anesthetics still has an unclear role. • US-guided lateral femoral cutaneous nerve block can be used to provide effective post-operative regional analgesia. The volume of local anesthetic affects the size of the blocked sensory area.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-021-08283-0DOI Listing
September 2021

Stiffness of the Masseter Muscle in Children-Establishing the Reference Values in the Pediatric Population Using Shear-Wave Elastography.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 09 13;18(18). Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Unità Operativa di Radiologia Diagnostica e Interventistica, IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi, 20161 Milano, Italy.

In children, the quality and muscle function are altered in many pathologic conditions, including temporomandibular disorders. Although several methods have been used to evaluate muscle tonus, none became a golden standard. Moreover, the masseter muscle characteristics in children have not been investigated to date. This study aimed to measure the stiffness of the masseter muscle using shear-wave elastography in healthy children. We enrolled 30 healthy children (mean age 10.87 ± 3.38 years). The stiffness of masseter muscles was measured with shear wave elastography. Stiffness for the total sample was 6.37 ± 0.77 kPa. A comparison of the measurements did not show significant differences between the right and the left masseter muscles (left-6.47 ± 0.78 kPa; right-6.24 ± 0.76 kPa; = 0.3546). A significant difference was seen between boys and girls (boys-5.94 ± 0.50 kPa; girls-6.63 ± 0.80; = 0.0006). Shear-wave elastography is a promising diagnostic tool. It may help to detect changes in the stiffness of the masseter muscle and draw attention to pathological processes within the jaw muscles. Directions for further research shall include determining stiffness values in pathological conditions and the impact of biological and functional factors on the stiffness of the masseter muscle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18189619DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8469581PMC
September 2021

Clinical indications for image-guided interventional procedures in the musculoskeletal system: a Delphi-based consensus paper from the European Society of Musculoskeletal Radiology (ESSR)-part V, knee.

Eur Radiol 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Division of Interventional Radiology, Istituto Europeo Di Oncologia IRCCS, Milan, Italy.

Objectives: Interventional procedures around the knee are widely adopted for treating different musculoskeletal conditions. A panel of experts from the Ultrasound and Interventional Subcommittees of the European Society of Musculoskeletal Radiology (ESSR) reviewed the existing literature to assess the evidence on image-guided musculoskeletal interventional procedures around the knee, with the goal of highlighting some controversies associated with these procedures, specifically the role of imaging guidance, as well as the efficacy of the medications routinely injected.

Methods: We report the results of a Delphi-based consensus of 53 experts in musculoskeletal radiology, who reviewed the published literature for evidence on image-guided interventional procedures around the knee to derive a list of pertinent clinical indications.

Results: A list of 10 statements about clinical indications of image-guided procedures around the knee was created by a Delphi-based consensus. Only two of them had the highest level of evidence; all of them received 100% consensus.

Conclusions: Ultrasonography guidance is strongly recommended for intra-articular and patellar tendinopathy procedures to ensure the precision and efficacy of these treatments. Prospective randomized studies remain warranted to better understand the role of imaging guidance and assess some of the medications used for interventional procedures around the knee.

Key Points: • A list of 10 evidence-based statements on clinical indications of image-guided interventional procedures around the knee was produced by an expert panel of the ESSR. • Strong consensus with 100% agreement was obtained for all statements. • Two statements reached the highest level of evidence, allowing us to strongly recommend the use of ultrasonography to guide intra-articular and patellar tendon procedures to ensure higher accuracy and efficacy of these treatments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-021-08258-1DOI Listing
September 2021

The EFSUMB Guidelines and Recommendations for Musculoskeletal Ultrasound - Part I: Extraarticular Pathologies.

Ultraschall Med 2021 Sep 3. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Paediatric Imaging Department, "Reine Fabiola" Children's University Hospital, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium.

The first part of the guidelines and recommendations for musculoskeletal ultrasound, produced under the auspices of the European Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology (EFSUMB), provides information about the use of musculoskeletal ultrasound for assessing extraarticular structures (muscles, tendons, entheses, ligaments, bones, bursae, fasciae, nerves, skin, subcutaneous tissues, and nails) and their pathologies. Clinical applications, practical points, limitations, and artifacts are described and discussed for every structure. After an extensive literature review, the recommendations have been developed according to the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine and GRADE criteria and the consensus level was established through a Delphi process. The document is intended to guide clinical users in their daily practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1562-1455DOI Listing
September 2021

Clinical indications for image-guided interventional procedures in the musculoskeletal system: a Delphi-based consensus paper from the European Society of Musculoskeletal Radiology (ESSR)-part VI, foot and ankle.

Eur Radiol 2021 Aug 25. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Division of Interventional Radiology, Istituto Europeo di Oncologia, Milan, Italy.

Objectives: Clarity regarding accuracy and effectiveness for interventional procedures around the foot and ankle is lacking. Consequently, a board of 53 members of the Ultrasound and Interventional Subcommittees of the European Society of Musculoskeletal Radiology (ESSR) reviewed the published literature to evaluate the evidence on image-guided musculoskeletal interventional procedures around this anatomical region.

Methods: We report the results of a Delphi-based consensus of 53 experts from the European Society of Musculoskeletal Radiology who reviewed the published literature for evidence on image-guided interventional procedures offered around foot and ankle in order to derive their clinical indications. Experts drafted a list of statements and graded them according to the Oxford Centre for evidence-based medicine levels of evidence. Consensus was considered strong when > 95% of experts agreed with the statement or broad when > 80% but < 95% agreed. The results of the Delphi-based consensus were used to write the paper that was shared with all panel members for final approval.

Results: A list of 16 evidence-based statements on clinical indications for image-guided musculoskeletal interventional procedures in the foot and ankle were drafted after a literature review. The highest level of evidence was reported for four statements, all receiving 100% agreement.

Conclusion: According to this consensus, image-guided interventions should not be considered a first-level approach for treating Achilles tendinopathy, while ultrasonography guidance is strongly recommended to improve the efficacy of interventional procedures for plantar fasciitis and Morton's neuroma, particularly using platelet-rich plasma and corticosteroids, respectively.

Key Points: • The expert panel of the ESSR listed 16 evidence-based statements on clinical indications of image-guided musculoskeletal interventional procedures in the foot and ankle. • Strong consensus was obtained for all statements. • The highest level of evidence was reached by four statements concerning the effectiveness of US-guided injections of corticosteroid for Morton's neuroma and PRP for plantar fasciitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-021-08125-zDOI Listing
August 2021

Effects of Interobserver Variability on 2D and 3D CT- and MRI-Based Texture Feature Reproducibility of Cartilaginous Bone Tumors.

J Digit Imaging 2021 08 17;34(4):820-832. Epub 2021 Aug 17.

Dipartimento Di Scienze Biomediche Per La Salute, Università Degli Studi Di Milano, Via Luigi Mangiagalli 31, 20133, Milan, Italy.

This study aims to investigate the influence of interobserver manual segmentation variability on the reproducibility of 2D and 3D unenhanced computed tomography (CT)- and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based texture analysis. Thirty patients with cartilaginous bone tumors (10 enchondromas, 10 atypical cartilaginous tumors, 10 chondrosarcomas) were retrospectively included. Three radiologists independently performed manual contour-focused segmentation on unenhanced CT and T1-weighted and T2-weighted MRI by drawing both a 2D region of interest (ROI) on the slice showing the largest tumor area and a 3D ROI including the whole tumor volume. Additionally, a marginal erosion was applied to both 2D and 3D segmentations to evaluate the influence of segmentation margins. A total of 783 and 1132 features were extracted from original and filtered 2D and 3D images, respectively. Intraclass correlation coefficient ≥ 0.75 defined feature stability. In 2D vs. 3D contour-focused segmentation, the rates of stable features were 74.71% vs. 86.57% (p < 0.001), 77.14% vs. 80.04% (p = 0.142), and 95.66% vs. 94.97% (p = 0.554) for CT and T1-weighted and T2-weighted images, respectively. Margin shrinkage did not improve 2D (p = 0.343) and performed worse than 3D (p < 0.001) contour-focused segmentation in terms of feature stability. In 2D vs. 3D contour-focused segmentation, matching stable features derived from CT and MRI were 65.8% vs. 68.7% (p = 0.191), and those derived from T1-weighted and T2-weighted images were 76.0% vs. 78.2% (p = 0.285). 2D and 3D radiomic features of cartilaginous bone tumors extracted from unenhanced CT and MRI are reproducible, although some degree of interobserver segmentation variability highlights the need for reliability analysis in future studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10278-021-00498-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8455795PMC
August 2021

Bone tissue preservation in seawater environment: a preliminary comparative analysis of bones with different post-mortem histories through anthropological and radiological perspectives.

Int J Legal Med 2021 Nov 16;135(6):2581-2594. Epub 2021 Aug 16.

LABANOF, Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche per la Salute, Sezione di Medicina Legale, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy.

Bone taphonomy is a widely investigated topic; however, few data are available concerning marine bone taphonomy, especially on remains recovered from great depths and with short post-mortem intervals. To date, few studies have evaluated the bony changes which occur in seawater compared to samples with different post-mortem histories, and none through a comparative analysis of different approaches. To this purpose, this pilot study aims to examine the influence of seawater on bone preservation compared to other depositional contexts by multiple perspectives. Forty-nine human bone samples (femurs or tibiae) recovered from different environments (sea water, fresh water, outdoor, burial in coffin) were compared by macroscopic, microscopic and bone densitometric approaches. In order to investigate organic and inorganic components, undecalcified and decalcified histology of thin sections was performed. The analyses revealed a well-preserved bone tissue both macroscopically (92%) and microscopically (97% and 95% for undecalcified and decalcified sections). No significant differences were detected from radiological densitometric investigations (BMD = 1.6 g/cm ± 0.1), except between old and young individuals (p value < 0.001). Differences were observed for body decomposition and few scavenged samples (3/15). However, even if slight variations were observed, no relation was recorded with the depositional contexts. We found a similar bone preservation in the four environments at the time of recovery, both macroscopically and microscopically, but also with radiological densitometric investigations. Our observations enriched the literature on bone taphonomy, providing data on bone tissue preservation in the early post-mortem period from a multidisciplinary perspective, paving the way for further studies on the topic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00414-021-02636-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8523468PMC
November 2021

Ultrasound-guided musculoskeletal interventional procedures around the elbow, hand and wrist excluding carpal tunnel procedures.

J Ultrason 2021 Jun 18;21(85):e169-e176. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche per la Salute, Università degli Studi di Milano, Italy.

Ultrasound is a fast, reliable and radiation-free method for the assessment of a wide range of pathological conditions, as well as for the guidance of percutaneous interventional procedures around the elbow, hand and wrist. Intraarticular and periarticular interventional procedures can be easily performed under continuous ultrasound monitoring to ensure correct needle positioning and medication delivery to a specific target. The most common ultrasound-guided procedures performed around the elbow, wrist, and hand are described in this review, excluding carpal tunnel procedures. Specifically, elbow steroid injections are performed in patients with inflammatory disorders, while hyaluronic acid can be administered in case of osteoarthritis. Septic olecranon bursitis requires percutaneous drainage for diagnosis and appropriate treatment. Dry needling and injection of regenerative medications, such as blood derivatives, are among the treatment options for lateral epicondylosis. Steroid injections are performed to give symptom relief in patients with ulnar neuropathy at the elbow. Hand and wrist steroid injections are performed in case of osteoarthritis, subsequently followed by hyaluronic acid injections, and in inflammatory disorders. Wrist ganglia can be safely aspirated and injected with steroids under ultrasound guidance. De Quervain's tenosynovitis and trigger finger are chronic tenosynovitides of the wrist and digits, respectively, which can be treated with steroid injections, subsequently followed by hyaluronic acid injections. In conclusion, proper knowledge of the musculoskeletal disorders around the elbow, hand and wrist, as well as US-guided treatment options and operator training, are prerequisites to achieve good outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15557/JoU.2021.0027DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8264808PMC
June 2021

Ultrasound-guided musculoskeletal interventional procedures around the shoulder.

J Ultrason 2021 Jun 18;21(85):e162-e168. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi, Milano, Italy.

Ultrasound is a fast, accessible, reliable, and radiation-free imaging modality routinely used to assess the soft tissues around the shoulder. It enables to identify a wide range of pathological conditions. Furthermore, most ultrasound-guided musculoskeletal interventional procedures around the shoulder produce better results in terms of accuracy and clinical efficacy than those performed in a blinded fashion. Indeed, intra-articular and peri-articular interventional procedures can be easily performed under continuous ultrasound monitoring to ensure the correct position of the needle and to deliver the medication to a specific target. Several technical approaches and medications can be used to treat different causes of painful shoulder. Intra-articular injections are applied to treat acromioclavicular osteoarthritis as well as glenohumeral joint osteoarthritis and adhesive capsulitis. Subacromial-subdeltoid bursitis, either presenting as a primary inflammatory condition or secondary to rotator cuff disorders, can be easily approached using ultrasound guidance to aspirate synovial effusion and to inject medications. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous irrigation is a well-established technique increasingly applied to treat patients with rotator cuff calcific tendinopathy. Also, degenerative rotator cuff tendinopathy can be conservatively treated by image-guided interventions, specifically with needling under ultrasound guidance that can be associated with injections of platelet-rich plasma. Lastly, periarticular peripheral nerve block can be quickly and safely performed under ultrasound guidance, particularly in conditions involving the suprascapular nerve in the setting of pre-operative analgesia or pain treatment in glenohumeral osteoarthritis and adhesive capsulitis. In this article, the most common ultrasound-guided procedures around the shoulder have been reviewed to discuss indications and techniques.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15557/JoU.2021.0026DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8264815PMC
June 2021

Shoulder ultrasound: current concepts and future perspectives.

J Ultrason 2021 Jun 18;21(85):e154-e161. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi, Milan, Italy.

Ultrasonography is an established and effective imaging technique that can be used to evaluate articular and periarticular structures around the shoulder. It has been shown to be useful in a wide range of rotator cuff diseases (e.g. tendon tears, rotator cuff calcific tendinopathy and bursitis) as well as non-rotator cuff abnormalities (instability, synovial joint diseases and nerve entrapment syndrome). A scanning protocol is highly recommended to reduce the rate of operators' errors by following a standardized scheme including a list of main structures. Shoulder ultrasound has several advantages: it is a relatively cheap and widely available technique, free from ionizing radiation, that can reach excellent diagnostic accuracy even compared to magnetic resonance imaging. Moreover, it is the only imaging technique that allows dynamic evaluation of musculoskeletal structures, which is important for the evaluation of impingement. Also, due to the shoulder's superficial anatomical position, ultrasound can also be helpful in guiding interventional percutaneous procedures, both for diagnostic (e.g. magnetic resonance arthrography) and therapeutic purposes (e.g. percutaneous treatment of calcific tendonitis). Contrast-enhanced ultrasound and speckle tracking offer complimentary evaluations of shoulder anatomy and biomechanics. Moreover, the advent of ultra-high-frequency US, with probes up to 70 MHz allowing for a resolution as low as 30 μm, is a promising tool for further evaluation of the shoulder anatomy, and diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15557/JoU.2021.0025DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8264812PMC
June 2021

Automatic Diagnosis of Spinal Disorders on Radiographic Images: Leveraging Existing Unstructured Datasets With Natural Language Processing.

Global Spine J 2021 Jul 5:21925682211026910. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi, Milan, Italy.

Study Design: Retrospective study.

Objectives: Huge amounts of images and medical reports are being generated in radiology departments. While these datasets can potentially be employed to train artificial intelligence tools to detect findings on radiological images, the unstructured nature of the reports limits the accessibility of information. In this study, we tested if natural language processing (NLP) can be useful to generate training data for deep learning models analyzing planar radiographs of the lumbar spine.

Methods: NLP classifiers based on the Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers (BERT) model able to extract structured information from radiological reports were developed and used to generate annotations for a large set of radiographic images of the lumbar spine (N = 10 287). Deep learning (ResNet-18) models aimed at detecting radiological findings directly from the images were then trained and tested on a set of 204 human-annotated images.

Results: The NLP models had accuracies between 0.88 and 0.98 and specificities between 0.84 and 0.99; 7 out of 12 radiological findings had sensitivity >0.90. The ResNet-18 models showed performances dependent on the specific radiological findings with sensitivities and specificities between 0.53 and 0.93.

Conclusions: NLP generates valuable data to train deep learning models able to detect radiological findings in spine images. Despite the noisy nature of reports and NLP predictions, this approach effectively mitigates the difficulties associated with the manual annotation of large quantities of data and opens the way to the era of for artificial intelligence in musculoskeletal radiology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/21925682211026910DOI Listing
July 2021

Clinical indications for image-guided interventional procedures in the musculoskeletal system: a Delphi-based consensus paper from the European Society of Musculoskeletal Radiology (ESSR)-part IV, hip.

Eur Radiol 2021 Jun 19. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Oxford Musculoskeletal Radiology, Oxford University Hospitals, Oxford, UK.

Objectives: Image-guided musculoskeletal interventional procedures around the hip are widely used in daily clinical practice. The need for clarity concerning the actual added value of imaging guidance and types of medications to be offered led the Ultrasound and the Interventional Subcommittees of the European Society of Musculoskeletal Radiology (ESSR) to promote, with the support of its Research Committee, a collaborative project to review the published literature on image-guided musculoskeletal interventional procedures in the lower limb in order to derive a list of clinical indications.

Methods: In this article, we report the results of a Delphi-based consensus of 53 experts who reviewed the published literature for evidence on image-guided interventional procedures offered in the joint and soft tissues around the hip in order of their clinical indications.

Results: Ten statements concerning image-guided treatment procedures around the hip have been collected by the panel of ESSR experts.

Conclusions: This work highlighted that there is still low evidence in the existing literature on some of these interventional procedures. Further large prospective randomized trials are essential to better confirm the benefits and objectively clarify the role of imaging to guide musculoskeletal interventional procedures around the hip.

Key Points: • Expert consensus produced a list of 10 evidence-based statements on clinical indications of image-guided interventional procedures around the hip. • The highest level of evidence was only reached for one statement. • Strong consensus was obtained for all statements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-021-07997-5DOI Listing
June 2021

Meniscal ramp lesions: diagnostic performance of MRI with arthroscopy as reference standard.

Radiol Med 2021 Aug 3;126(8):1106-1116. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Villa Stuart Sport Clinic, FIFA Medical Centre of Excellence, Rome, Italy.

Background: The posteromedial meniscal region is gaining interest among orthopedic surgeons, as lesions of this area has been reported to be significantly associated with anterior cruciate ligament tears. The current imaging literature is unclear.

Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of MR in the detection of meniscal ramp lesions having arthroscopy as reference standard.

Materials And Methods: We retrospectively included 56 patients (mean age of 25 ± 7 years; 14 females) from January to November 2017 with a arthroscopically proved ACL tear and posterior meniscocapsular separation. On preoperative MRI, two radiologists with 13 and 2 years' experience in musculoskeletal imaging assessed the presence/absence of ramp lesion, meniscotibial ligament lesion, peripheral meniscal lesion, or their combination, bone bruise. Having arthroscopy as reference standard, diagnostic performance of MRI in the evaluation of ramp area lesions was calculated. Cohen's kappa (k) and Fisher's Exact Test statistics were used.

Results: Agreement between radiologists ranged from κ = 0.784 (meniscotibial ligament lesions) to κ = 0.918 red-red meniscal lesion. Sensitivities were 97.4% for ramp lesions, 95.8% for meniscotibial ligament lesion, 94.4% for peripheral meniscal lesions; specificities were 88.9%, 81.3%, and 97.4%, respectively; accuracies were 94.6%, 87.5%, and 96.4%, respectively. Agreement between MR and arthroscopy was almost perfect in identification of ramp lesions (κ = 0.871) and red-red zone meniscal lesions (κ = 0.908). The agreement between the two methods was substantial (κ = 0.751) for meniscotibial lesion. No significant association between tibial plateau bone bruise and the different type of lesions was found (κ ≥ 0.004 and p ≥ 0.08).

Conclusion: MR has high diagnostic performance in meniscal ramp area lesion assessment, with substantial to almost perfect inter-reader agreement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11547-021-01375-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8292249PMC
August 2021

CT and MRI radiomics of bone and soft-tissue sarcomas: a systematic review of reproducibility and validation strategies.

Insights Imaging 2021 Jun 2;12(1):68. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche per la Salute, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Riccardo Galeazzi 4, 20161, Milan, Italy.

Background: Feature reproducibility and model validation are two main challenges of radiomics. This study aims to systematically review radiomic feature reproducibility and predictive model validation strategies in studies dealing with CT and MRI radiomics of bone and soft-tissue sarcomas. The ultimate goal is to promote achieving a consensus on these aspects in radiomic workflows and facilitate clinical transferability.

Results: Out of 278 identified papers, forty-nine papers published between 2008 and 2020 were included. They dealt with radiomics of bone (n = 12) or soft-tissue (n = 37) tumors. Eighteen (37%) studies included a feature reproducibility analysis. Inter-/intra-reader segmentation variability was the theme of reproducibility analysis in 16 (33%) investigations, outnumbering the analyses focused on image acquisition or post-processing (n = 2, 4%). The intraclass correlation coefficient was the most commonly used statistical method to assess reproducibility, which ranged from 0.6 and 0.9. At least one machine learning validation technique was used for model development in 25 (51%) papers, and K-fold cross-validation was the most commonly employed. A clinical validation of the model was reported in 19 (39%) papers. It was performed using a separate dataset from the primary institution (i.e., internal validation) in 14 (29%) studies and an independent dataset related to different scanners or from another institution (i.e., independent validation) in 5 (10%) studies.

Conclusions: The issues of radiomic feature reproducibility and model validation varied largely among the studies dealing with musculoskeletal sarcomas and should be addressed in future investigations to bring the field of radiomics from a preclinical research area to the clinical stage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13244-021-01008-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8172744PMC
June 2021

Shear Wave Elastography of the Plantar Fascia: Comparison between Patients with Plantar Fasciitis and Healthy Control Subjects.

J Clin Med 2021 May 27;10(11). Epub 2021 May 27.

Radiology Department, Medical University Innsbruck, Anichstrasse 35, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria.

Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate plantar fasciae of healthy subjects and patients with plantar fasciitis by shear wave velocity (SWV) and stiffness with correlation to B-Mode and color Doppler ultrasonography (CDUS) and to establish cut-off values.

Methods: This observational study was conducted with the approval of the Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) of our institution. 108 unilateral plantar fasciae were evaluated by including 87 consecutive patients (mean age 51.7; range: 29-82) (66 women and 21 men) with plantar fasciitis and 21 asymptomatic age matched healthy volunteers (mean age 47.3; range: 32-58) (15 women and 6 men). All patients were prospectively imaged between July 2018 and March 2019. B-mode US was used to measure thickness and CDUS to grade vascularity. SWE measurements were repeated 3 times and mean was used for statistical analysis.

Results: Mean SWV value in healthy subjects was 6.94 m/s and in patients 4.98 m/s with a mean stiffness value of 152.88 kPa and 93.54 kPa respectively ( < 0.001). For SWV a cut-off value of 6.16 m/s had a specificity of 80.95% and sensitivity of 79.31%. For stiffness a cut-off value of 125.57 kPa had a specificity of 80.95% and sensitivity of 80.46%. No correlation to CDUS was found. The mean thickness of healthy fascias was 3.3 mm (range 2.4-3.9) compared to 6.1 mm (range 2.0-22.0) in plantar fasciitis ( < 0.001) with no correlation to SWV or to stiffness (r² = 0.02, = 0.06).

Conclusion: SWE allows quantitative assessment of plantar fascia stiffness, which decreases in patients with plantar fasciitis. No correlation to the thickness of the plantar fascia was found, therefore it represents an independent factor for the diagnosis of plantar fasciitis and could be helpful in addition to thickness measurement in unclear cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10112351DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8199455PMC
May 2021

CT radiomics-based machine learning classification of atypical cartilaginous tumours and appendicular chondrosarcomas.

EBioMedicine 2021 Jun 26;68:103407. Epub 2021 May 26.

Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche per la Salute, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy; IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi, Milan, Italy.

Background: Clinical management ranges from surveillance or curettage to wide resection for atypical to higher-grade cartilaginous tumours, respectively. Our aim was to investigate the performance of computed tomography (CT) radiomics-based machine learning for classification of atypical cartilaginous tumours and higher-grade chondrosarcomas of long bones.

Methods: One-hundred-twenty patients with histology-proven lesions were retrospectively included. The training cohort consisted of 84 CT scans from centre 1 (n=55 G1 or atypical cartilaginous tumours; n=29 G2-G4 chondrosarcomas). The external test cohort consisted of the CT component of 36 positron emission tomography-CT scans from centre 2 (n=16 G1 or atypical cartilaginous tumours; n=20 G2-G4 chondrosarcomas). Bidimensional segmentation was performed on preoperative CT. Radiomic features were extracted. After dimensionality reduction and class balancing in centre 1, the performance of a machine-learning classifier (LogitBoost) was assessed on the training cohort using 10-fold cross-validation and on the external test cohort. In centre 2, its performance was compared with preoperative biopsy and an experienced radiologist using McNemar's test.

Findings: The classifier had 81% (AUC=0.89) and 75% (AUC=0.78) accuracy in identifying the lesions in the training and external test cohorts, respectively. Specifically, its accuracy in classifying atypical cartilaginous tumours and higher-grade chondrosarcomas was 84% and 78% in the training cohort, and 81% and 70% in the external test cohort, respectively. Preoperative biopsy had 64% (AUC=0.66) accuracy (p=0.29). The radiologist had 81% accuracy (p=0.75).

Interpretation: Machine learning showed good accuracy in classifying atypical and higher-grade cartilaginous tumours of long bones based on preoperative CT radiomic features.

Funding: ESSR Young Researchers Grant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ebiom.2021.103407DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8170113PMC
June 2021

How to Perform Intra-Operative Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound of the Brain-A WFUMB Position Paper.

Ultrasound Med Biol 2021 08 24;47(8):2006-2016. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Internal Medicine, Caritas Krankenhaus Bad Mergentheim, Bern, Switzerland.

Intra-operative ultrasound has become a relevant imaging modality in neurosurgical procedures. While B-mode, with its intrinsic limitations, is still considered the primary ultrasound modality, intra-operative contrast-enhanced ultrasound (ioCEUS) has more recently emerged as a powerful tool in neurosurgery. Though still not used on a large scale, ioCEUS has proven its utility in defining tumor boundaries, identifying lesion vascular supply and mapping neurovascular architecture. Here we propose a step-by-step procedure for performing ioCEUS analysis of the brain, highlighting its neurosurgical applications. Moreover, we provide practical advice on the use of ultrasound contrast agents and review technical ultrasound parameters influencing ioCEUS imaging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2021.04.016DOI Listing
August 2021

An update in musculoskeletal tumors: from quantitative imaging to radiomics.

Radiol Med 2021 Aug 19;126(8):1095-1105. Epub 2021 May 19.

IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi, Milano, Italy.

In the last two decades, relevant progress has been made in the diagnosis of musculoskeletal tumors due to the development of new imaging tools, such as diffusion-weighted imaging, diffusion kurtosis imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and diffusion tensor imaging. Another important role has been played by the development of artificial intelligence software based on complex algorithms, which employ computing power in the detection of specific tumor types. The aim of this article is to report the most advanced imaging techniques focusing on their advantages in clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11547-021-01368-2DOI Listing
August 2021

Effect of curve location on the severity index for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a longitudinal cohort study.

Eur Radiol 2021 Nov 21;31(11):8488-8497. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Arts et Métiers Institute of Technology, Université Sorbonne Paris Nord, IBHGC - Institut de Biomécanique Humaine Georges Charpak, HESAM Université, 151 bd de l'Hôpital, F-75013, Paris, France.

Objectives: Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is the most common spinal disorder in children. A severity index was recently proposed to identify the stable from the progressive scoliosis at the first standardized biplanar radiographic exam. The aim of this work was to extend the validation of the severity index and to determine if curve location influences its predictive capabilities.

Methods: AIS patients with Cobb angle between 10° and 25°, Risser 0-2, and no previous treatment were included. They underwent standing biplanar radiography and 3D reconstruction of the spine and pelvis, which allowed to calculate their severity index. Patients were grouped by curve location (thoracic, thoracolumbar, lumbar). Patients were followed up until skeletal maturity (Risser ≥ 3) or brace prescription. Their outcome was compared to the prediction made by the severity index.

Results: In total, 205 AIS patients were included; 82% of them (155/189, 95% confidence interval [74-90%]) were correctly classified by the index, while 16 patients were unclassified. Positive predictive ratio was 78% and negative predictive ratio was 86%. Specificity (78%) was not significantly affected by curve location, while patients with thoracic and lumbar curves showed higher sensitivity (≥ 89%) than those with thoracolumbar curves (74%).

Conclusions: In this multicentric cohort of 205 patients, the severity index was used to predict the risk of progression from mild to moderate scoliosis, with similar results of typical major curve types. This index represents a novel tool to aid the clinician and the patient in the modulation of the follow-up and, for progressive patients, their decision for brace treatment.

Key Points: • The severity index of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis has the potential to detect patients with progressive scoliosis as early as the first exam. • Out of 205 patients, 82% were correctly classified as either stable or progressive by the severity index. • The location of the main curve had small effect on the predictive capability of the index.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-021-07944-4DOI Listing
November 2021

Plantar forefoot pain: ultrasound findings before and after treatment with custom-made foot orthoses.

Radiol Med 2021 Jul 21;126(7):963-970. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi, Milano, Italy.

Purpose: No prior studies investigated the role of ultrasound in the assessment of response of patients undergoing treatment of metatarsalgia with custom-made orthoses. Our aim was to describe ultrasound findings of patients with plantar forefoot pain treated with custom-made foot orthoses.

Methods: Twenty patients (15 females; mean age: 62.6 ± 11 years) affected by metatarsalgia in 27/40 feet underwent clinical evaluation before, three months and six months after treatment with custom-made full foot insole with a support proximal and an excavation below the painful metatarsals. Ultrasound was performed before and three months after the use of orthoses to examine the presence of intermetatarsal/submetatarsal bursitis, metatarsophalangeal joints effusion, anterior plantar fat pad oedema, flexor tendinitis/tenosynovitis, and Morton's neuroma. Outcome measures were clinical response with Foot Function Index (FFI)/Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and ultrasound features changes.

Results: Median VAS and FFI before treatment were 8[5-8.5] and 45.85[32.4-59.4], respectively. After 3 and 6 months of insoles use, both median VAS (2.5 [0-5] and 0 [0-2.75], respectively) and median FFI (7.9 [3.95-20] and 0 [0-3.95], respectively) showed a significant reduction in pain and disability (p < .001). Before treatment, ultrasound revealed 22 intermetatarsal bursitis, 16 submetatarsal bursitis, 10 joint effusions, 20 fat pad oedema, 3 flexor tendinitis/tenosynovitis and 3 Morton's neuromas. After 3 months of treatment, a significant decrease of intermetatarsal bursitis (7, p < .001) was observed. No significant changes were observed in any other ultrasound parameters.

Conclusion: Ultrasound might be able to detect some imaging features associated with the response of forefoot pain to custom-made foot orthoses, especially intermetatarsal bursitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11547-021-01354-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8205886PMC
July 2021

MRI to Diagnose Total Hip Arthroplasty Infection: Steps toward an Accurate Diagnosis.

Radiology 2021 06 13;299(3):E283. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi, Milan, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/radiol.2021204146DOI Listing
June 2021
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