Publications by authors named "Lu Yin"

621 Publications

Early Intensified Rehabilitation Training with Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy Improves Functional Disorders and Prognosis of Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury.

Adv Wound Care (New Rochelle) 2021 Dec 15;10(12):663-670. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

College of Biology and Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang Shuren University, Hangzhou, China.

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a global public health problem. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy may be beneficial for TBI because it improves cerebral blood flow into tissues exhibiting low blood flow. This was done to observe the clinical therapeutic effect of different intensities of rehabilitation training and HBO therapy in early stages of TBI. In this multicenter, randomized, stratified case-controlled prospective clinical trial, we selected 158 patients with moderate-severe TBI and assigned them into (1) a control group receiving routine once-daily (1/d) rehabilitation training without HBO, (2) study group A receiving routine 1/d rehabilitation training with HBO, (3) study group B receiving twice-daily (2/d) intensified rehabilitation training with HBO, and (4) study group C receiving 2/d intensified rehabilitation training without HBO, all for 3 months. The cognitive ability, activities of daily life (ADL), and movement ability were assessed before and after training with the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA), Functional Independence Measure (FIM), Modified Barthel Index (MBI), and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). FIM, FMA, MBI, and MMSE scores were improved significantly after 1-, 2-, and 3-month rehabilitation training in all TBI patients ( < 0.01), and this improvement was especially remarkable in patients who received 2/d intensified rehabilitation training with HBO ( < 0.01). With extensive and intensive research on TBI rehabilitation, it was proved that TBI rehabilitation intervention should be initiated as early as possible. Early intensified rehabilitation training in combination with HBO is more beneficial to the recovery of cognitive, ADL, and movement abilities of TBI patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/wound.2018.0876DOI Listing
December 2021

Spatiotemporal occurrence, sources and risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a typical mariculture ecosystem.

Water Res 2021 Sep 4;204:117632. Epub 2021 Sep 4.

State Key Laboratory for Managing Biotic and Chemical Threats to the Quality and Safety of Agro-products, School of Marine Sciences, Ningbo University, 818 Fenghua Road, Ningbo 315211, PR China; School of Marine Sciences, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211, PR China. Electronic address:

The spatiotemporal variations, influencing factors and potential sources, as well as the ecological/health risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were systematically investigated in seawater, sediment, and fish from Xiangshan Bay, China, one of the most important and oldest domestic marine aquaculture bases. The average concentrations of Σ in seawater, sediment and fish were 150 ± 70.0 ng/L, 276 ± 271 μg/kg (dry weight, dw), and 434 ± 151 μg/kg (dw), respectively. Naphthalene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, benzo(b)fluoranthene and pyrene were the dominant contaminants in all samples. The highest PAH concentrations in the seawater and sediment samples occurred in the inner bay where the mariculture and industry are clustered. Seasonal differences were observed in the seawater samples but not in the sediment samples. Among all 15 fish species, large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea) (775 μg/kg (dw)), red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) (749 μg/kg (dw)), and flathead grey mullet (Mugil cephalus) (637 μg/kg (dw)) had relatively high PAH accumulation concentrations in muscle tissue. According to the molecular diagnostic ratio method, the PAHs in seawater mainly originated from a mixed source of petroleum and combustion, whereas biomass/coal combustion sources were identified for sediment. The results obtained from the risk quotient (for seawater), sediment quality guidelines and toxic equivalence quotients (for seawater and sediment) methods showed that the ecological risks posed by PAHs were generally at a low to moderate level. Potentially toxic effects existed from PAH-contaminated fish consumption, and the resulting potential carcinogenic risk was also slightly higher than the recommended guidelines (10).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2021.117632DOI Listing
September 2021

Synthetic lethality theory approaches to effective substance discovery and functional mechanisms elucidation of anti-cancer phytomedicine.

Phytomedicine 2021 Oct 20;91:153718. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

School of Pharmacy, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210023, Jiangsu Province, China. Electronic address:

Background: Longstanding, successful use of combinations of phytopharmaceuticals in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has caught the attention of several pharmacologists to natural medicines. However, the development and popularisation of TCM is mainly limited because of the unavailability of reports clarifying the mechanisms of action and pharmacologically active ingredients in such formulations. Previous studies on natural medicines have mostly focused on their dominant components using forward pharmacology which often neglects trace components. It is necessary to assess the pharmacological and therapeutic superiority of many such trace components in comparison with single constituents.

Purpose: In this study, we aimed to propose a new pharmacological research strategy for TCM. In particular, we presented the possibility that the effective mechanism of action of trace components of TCM is based on synthetic lethality. We sincerely hope to explore this theory further.

Method: We obtained retrieve published research information related to synthetic lethality, phytochemicals and Chinese medicine from PubMed and Google scholar. Based on the inclusion criteria, 71 studies were selected and discussed in this review.

Results: As an interaction among genes, synthetic lethality can amplify co-regulatory biological effects exponentially. Synthetic strategies have been successfully applied for research and development of anti-tumour agents, including poly ADP-ribose polymerase inhibitors and clinical combination of chemotherapeutic agents for efficacy enhancement and toxicity reduction. TCM drugs contain several secondary metabolites to combat environmental stresses, providing a multi-component basis for corresponding synergistic targets. Therefore, we aimed to study whether this method could be used to identify active components present in trace amounts in TCM drugs. Based on a reverse concept of target-component-effect and identified synergistic targets, we explored the mechanisms of action of weakly active components present in trace amounts in TCM drugs to assess combinations of potential synergistic components.

Conclusion: This pattern of synthetic lethality not only elucidated the mechanisms of action of TCM drugs from a new perspective but also inspired future studies on discovering naturally occurring active components.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2021.153718DOI Listing
October 2021

NRXN1α is associated with increased excitability in ASD iPSC-derived neurons.

BMC Neurosci 2021 Sep 15;22(1):56. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Trinity Institute of Neuroscience, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.

Background: NRXN1 deletions are identified as one of major rare risk factors for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and other neurodevelopmental disorders. ASD has 30% co-morbidity with epilepsy, and the latter is associated with excessive neuronal firing. NRXN1 encodes hundreds of presynaptic neuro-adhesion proteins categorized as NRXN1α/β/γ. Previous studies on cultured cells show that the short NRXN1β primarily exerts excitation effect, whereas the long NRXN1α which is more commonly deleted in patients involves in both excitation and inhibition. However, patient-derived models are essential for understanding functional consequences of NRXN1α deletions in human neurons. We recently derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from five controls and three ASD patients carrying NRXN1α and showed increased calcium transients in patient neurons.

Methods: In this study we investigated the electrophysiological properties of iPSC-derived cortical neurons in control and ASD patients carrying NRXN1α using patch clamping. Whole genome RNA sequencing was carried out to further understand the potential underlying molecular mechanism.

Results: NRXN1α cortical neurons were shown to display larger sodium currents, higher AP amplitude and accelerated depolarization time. RNASeq analyses revealed transcriptomic changes with significant upregulation glutamatergic synapse and ion channels/transporter activity including voltage-gated potassium channels (GRIN1, GRIN3B, SLC17A6, CACNG3, CACNA1A, SHANK1), which are likely to couple with the increased excitability in NRXN1α cortical neurons.

Conclusions: Together with recent evidence of increased calcium transients, our results showed that human NRXN1α isoform deletions altered neuronal excitability and non-synaptic function, and NRXN1α patient iPSCs may be used as an ASD model for therapeutic development with calcium transients and excitability as readouts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12868-021-00661-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8442436PMC
September 2021

Retraction notice to "Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity evaluation of polystyrene microplastics on Vicia faba roots" [Volume 288, 1 November 2021, 117821].

Environ Pollut 2021 Sep 10;288:118109. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Hangzhou Yunzhi Education & Technology Company, Hangzhou, 310052, China. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.118109DOI Listing
September 2021

Propelling the practical application of the intimate coupling of photocatalysis and biodegradation system: System amelioration, environmental influences and analytical strategies.

Chemosphere 2021 Sep 8;287(Pt 2):132196. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Key Laboratory of Integrated Regulation and Resource Development of Shallow Lakes, Ministry of Education, College of Environment, Hohai University, Xikang Road #1, Nanjing, 210098, PR China.

The intimate coupling of photocatalysis and biodegradation (ICPB) possesses an enhanced ability of recalcitrant contaminant removal and energy generation, owing to the compact communication between biotic components and photocatalysts during the system operation. The photocatalysts in the ICPB system could dispose of noxious contaminants to relieve the external pressure on microorganisms which could realize the mineralization of the photocatalytic degradation products. However, due to the complex components in the composite system, the mechanism of the ICPB system has not been completely understood. Moreover, the variable environmental conditions would play a significant role in the ICPB system performance. The further development of the ICPB scheme requires clarification on how to reach an accurate understanding of the system condition during the practical application. This review starts by offering detailed information on the system construction and recent progress in the system components' amelioration. We then describe the potential influences of relevant environmental factors on the system performance, and the analytical strategies applicable for comprehending the critical processes during the system operation are further summarized. Finally, we put forward the research gaps in the current system and envision the system's prospective application. This review provides a valuable reference for future researches that are devoted to assessing the environmental disturbance and exploring the reaction mechanisms during the practical application of the ICPB system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.132196DOI Listing
September 2021

Efficacy and safety of acupuncture combined with Chinese Herbal Medicine for diabetic nephropathy: A protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Sep;100(35):e27087

Internal Medicine of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital of Jilin Province, Changchun, China.

Background: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the most serious complications in the development of diabetes mellitus, which has become the main cause of end-stage renal disease and one of the main causes of death in diabetic patients. With the prevalence of diabetes, the number of patients at risk for developing DN is increasing, with 20-40 percent of all patients with diabetes at risk for developing DN. Acupuncture and Chinese herbal medicine treatments are often combined to treat DN; however, there has been no meta-analysis on their synergistic effects. Therefore, we aimed to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the effectiveness of acupuncture combined with Chinese herbal medicine for DN treatment.

Methods: Nine electronic databases were retrieved for this study. The English databases mainly retrieved PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, AMED, and the Cochrane Library, while the CNKI, VIP, CBM, and Wanfang databases were used to retrieve the Chinese literature. There is no definite time limit for the retrieval literature, and the languages are limited to Chinese and English. We will consider articles published between database initiation and August 2021. We used Review Manager 5.4, provided by the Cochrane Collaborative Network for statistical analysis. Clinical randomized controlled trials related to acupuncture combined with Chinese herbal medicine for DN were included in this study. Research selection, data extraction, and research quality assessments were independently completed by two researchers. We then assessed the quality and risk of the included studies and observed the outcome measures.

Results: This study provides a high-quality synthesis to assess the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture combined with Chinese herbal medicine for treating DN.

Conclusion: This systematic review will provide evidence to determine whether acupuncture combined with Chinese herbal medicine is an effective and safe intervention for patients with DN.

Ethics And Dissemination: The protocol of the systematic review does not require ethical approval because it does not involve humans. This article will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at relevant conferences.

Registration Number: INPLASY202180018.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000027087DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8416003PMC
September 2021

Genetic dissection of a pericentromeric region of barley chromosome 6H associated with Fusarium head blight resistance, grain protein content and agronomic traits.

Theor Appl Genet 2021 Aug 28. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

Department of Agronomy and Plant Genetics, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN, 55108, USA.

Key Message: Fine mapping of barley 6H pericentromeric region identified FHB QTL with opposite effects, and high grain protein content was associated with increased FHB severity. Resistance to Fusarium head blight (FHB), kernel discoloration (KD), deoxynivalenol (DON) accumulation and grain protein content (GPC) are important traits for breeding malting barley varieties. Previous work mapped a Chevron-derived FHB QTL to the pericentromeric region of 6H, coinciding with QTL for KD resistance and GPC. The Chevron allele reduced FHB and KD, but unfavorably increased GPC. To determine whether the correlations are caused by linkage or pleiotropy, a fine mapping approach was used to dissect the QTL underlying these quality and disease traits. Two populations, referred to as Gen10 and Gen10/Lacey, derived from a recombinant near-isogenic line (rNIL) were developed. Recombinants were phenotyped for FHB, KD, DON, GPC and other agronomic traits. Three FHB, two DON and two KD QTLs were identified. One of the three FHB QTLs, one DON QTL and one KD QTL were coincident with the GPC QTL, which contains the Hv-NAM1 locus affecting grain protein accumulation. The Chevron allele at the GPC QTL increased GPC and FHB and decreased DON and KD. The other two FHB QTL and the other DON and KD QTL were identified in the regions flanking the Hv-NAM1 locus, and the Chevron alleles decreased FHB, DON and KD. Our results suggested that the QTL associated with FHB, KD, DON and GPC in the pericentromeric region of 6H was controlled by both pleiotropy and tightly linked loci. The rNILs identified in this study with low FHB severity and moderate GPC may be used for breeding malting barley cultivars.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00122-021-03941-9DOI Listing
August 2021

Quantitative Evaluation of Gastrocnemius Medialis Stiffness During Passive Stretching Using Shear Wave Elastography in Patients with Parkinson's Disease: A Prospective Preliminary Study.

Korean J Radiol 2021 Aug 19. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

Department of Ultrasound, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Objective: To prospectively investigate the feasibility of shear wave elastography (SWE) as a new quantitative and objective method for evaluating the stiffness of the gastrocnemius medialis (GM) muscle during passive stretching in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD).

Materials And Methods: SWE of the GM muscle was performed in 28 patients with PD [13 female and 15 male; mean age ± standard deviation (SD): 63.0 ± 8.5 years] and 12 healthy controls (5 female and 7 male; mean age ± SD: 59.3 ± 6.4 years) during passive ankle rotation. A Young's modulus-ankle angle curve was constructed. The GM slack angle and baseline Young's modulus () were compared between the markedly symptomatic and mildly symptomatic sides of patients with PD, and healthy controls. Additionally, the correlation between the GM slack angle and the severity of rigidity, and the observer reproducibility of SWE in determining the GM slack angle were evaluated.

Results: The GM slack angle was smaller on both the markedly and mildly symptomatic sides in patients with PD than in healthy controls (mean ± SD of -29.13° ± 3.79° and -25.65° ± 3.39°, respectively, vs. -21.22° ± 3.52°; < 0.001 and = 0.006, respectively). Additionally, in patients with PD, the GM slack angle on the markedly symptomatic side was smaller than that on the mildly symptomatic side ( = 0.003). The value was lower on both the markedly and mildly symptomatic sides in patients with PD than in healthy controls (mean ± SD of 10.11 ± 2.85 kPa and 10.08 ± 1.88 kPa, respectively, vs. 12.23 ± 1.02 kPa; = 0.012 and < 0.001, respectively). However, no significant difference was found between the markedly and mildly symptomatic sides in patients with PD ( = 0.634). A negative linear relationship was observed between the GM slack angle and lower limb rigidity score on the markedly symptomatic side in patients with PD ( = -0.719; < 0.001). The intraclass correlation coefficients for observer reproducibility of SWE ranged from 0.880 to 0.951.

Conclusion: The slack angle determined by SWE may be a useful quantitative and reproducible method for evaluating muscle stiffness in patients with PD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3348/kjr.2020.1338DOI Listing
August 2021

The application of the "omental wrapping" technique with autologous onlay flap/graft ureteroplasty for the management of long ureteral strictures.

Transl Androl Urol 2021 Jul;10(7):2871-2878

Department of Urology, Peking University First Hospital, Institute of Urology, Peking University, National Urological Cancer Center, Beijing, China.

Background: To present our experience with the "omental wrapping" technique in laparoscopic and robotic ureteroplasty using onlay flaps or grafts for the management of long proximal or middle ureteral strictures.

Methods: This is a retrospective review of 25 patients with long proximal or middle ureteral strictures who underwent laparoscopic and robotic onlay flaps or grafts ureteroplasty using an omental flap to reinforce an anastomosis site between August 2018 and November 2019. Perioperative and follow-up data were collected.

Results: Sixteen laparoscopic procedures and nine robotic procedures were performed successfully. Sixteen patients underwent ureteroplasty with lingual mucosal graft (LMG), and nine patients with appendiceal onlay flap (AOF). The median stricture length was 4 cm (range, 2-6 cm). The mean operative time (OT) was 220.5±50.6 min, the estimated blood loss (EBL) was 66.0±38.9 mL, and the length of hospital stay (LHS) was 8.0±3.6 days. In the LMG group, four patients had tongue numbing and one had an oral ulcer, which relieved itself gradually without intervention. Two patients in the LMG group and four patients in the AOF group experienced urinary tract infection, and all responded well to antibiotic treatment. There were no complications attributed to "omental wrapping". The mean follow-up was 16.3±4.8 months. According to the standards regarding improvement in clinical symptoms, relief of obstruction radiologically and a stable estimate glomerular filtration rate, our surgical success rate was 100%.

Conclusions: The "omental wrapping" technique in laparoscopic and robotic onlay flaps or grafts ureteroplasty for long proximal or middle ureteral strictures is an efficient, safe, reproducible and simple technique.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/tau-21-305DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8350257PMC
July 2021

A potential pathogenic role of interleukin-6 in a child with ANCA-negative pauci-immune crescentic glomerulonephritis: case report and literature review.

BMC Nephrol 2021 Aug 23;22(1):285. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Department of Pediatrics, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, No.36 Sanhao Street, Heping District, Shenyang, 110004, China.

Background: Crescentic glomerulonephritis is a disease characterized by severe glomerular injuries that is classified into five different pathological types. Patients with type V disease have pauci-immune crescentic glomerulonephritis (PICGN) that is negative for anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (ANCAs). There are limited clinical data on the manifestations, treatment, and prognosis of type V crescentic glomerulonephritis, especially in children.

Case Presentation: A 13-year-old girl who had an intermittent fever for more than 10 months was admitted to our hospital. She had no gross hematuria, oliguria, edema, or hypertension, but further tests indicated a decreased glomerular filtration rate, hematuria, proteinuria, and an elevated level of IL-6. The antinuclear antibody spectrum test was positive at 1:1000, and the ANCA and anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody tests were negative. A renal biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of ANCA-negative PICGN. We administered methylprednisolone pulse therapy with intravenous cyclophosphamide and oral mycophenolate mofetil. At the 3-month follow-up, her urine protein level was significantly lower, and her serum creatinine level was in the normal range.

Conclusions: Fever may be an extrarenal manifestation of ANCA-negative PICGN, and IL-6 may play a role in the pathogenesis of this disease. Early methylprednisolone pulse therapy with an immunosuppressant may reduce symptoms and improve prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12882-021-02504-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8381499PMC
August 2021

Activation of Orexinergic Neurons Inhibits the Anesthetic Effect of Desflurane on Consciousness State via Paraventricular Thalamic Nucleus in Rats.

Anesth Analg 2021 09;133(3):781-793

From the Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine, Xijing Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, China.

Background: Orexin, a neuropeptide derived from the perifornical area of the hypothalamus (PeFLH), promotes the recovery of propofol, isoflurane, and sevoflurane anesthesias, without influencing the induction time. However, whether the orexinergic system also plays a similar role in desflurane anesthesia, which is widely applied in clinical practice owing to its most rapid onset and offset time among all volatile anesthetics, has not yet been studied. In the present study, we explored the effect of the orexinergic system on the consciousness state induced by desflurane anesthesia.

Methods: The c-Fos staining was used to observe the activity changes of orexinergic neurons in the PeFLH and their efferent projection regions under desflurane anesthesia. Chemogenetic and optogenetic techniques were applied to compare the effect of PeFLH orexinergic neurons on the induction, emergence, and maintenance states between desflurane and isoflurane anesthesias. Orexinergic terminals in the paraventricular thalamic nucleus (PVT) were manipulated with pharmacologic, chemogenetic, and optogenetic techniques to assess the effect of orexinergic circuitry on desflurane anesthesia.

Results: Desflurane anesthesia inhibited the activity of orexinergic neurons in the PeFLH, as well as the neuronal activity in PVT, basal forebrain, dorsal raphe nucleus, and ventral tegmental area, as demonstrated by c-Fos staining. Activation of PeFLH orexinergic neurons prolonged the induction time and accelerated emergence from desflurane anesthesia but only influenced the emergence in isoflurane anesthesia, as demonstrated by chemogenetic and pharmacologic techniques. Meanwhile, optical activation of orexinergic neurons exhibited a long-lasting inhibitory effect on burst-suppression ratio (BSR) under desflurane anesthesia, and the effect may be contributed by the orexinergic PeFLH-PVT circuitry. The orexin-2 receptor (OX2R), but not orexin-1 receptor (OX1R), in the PVT, which had been inhibited most significantly by desflurane, mediated the proemergence effect of desflurane anesthesia.

Conclusions: We discovered, for the first time, that orexinergic neurons in the PeFLH could not only influence the maintenance and emergence from isoflurane and desflurane anesthesias but also affect the induction under desflurane anesthesia. Furthermore, this specific effect is probably mediated by orexinergic PeFLH-PVT circuitry, especially OX2Rs in the PVT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1213/ANE.0000000000005651DOI Listing
September 2021

Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the nitrogen distribution in endangered Torreya jackii under nitrogen limitation.

Planta 2021 Aug 17;254(3):53. Epub 2021 Aug 17.

College of Biology and Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang Shuren University, Hangzhou, 310015, China.

Main Conclusion: Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi regulated the distribution of nitrogen in the leaves, thereby facilitating the adaptation of the endangered plant Torreya jackii to a low-nitrogen environment. Rhizophagus irregularis was inoculated into sterilized soil to investigate its impact on the distribution ratio of leaf nitrogen in cell wall proteins, cell membrane proteins, water-soluble proteins, and photosynthetic systems which includes the carboxylation system (P), energy metabolism (P), and light-harvesting system in the endangered species Torreya jackii. The results showed that R. irregularis reduced the specific leaf weight and the distribution ratio of nitrogen in cell wall proteins in the leaves of T. jackii, whereas it enhanced the distribution ratio of nitrogen in cell membrane proteins and water-soluble proteins. R. irregularis enabled more nitrogen uptake for growth by decreasing the distribution of nitrogen to the structural substances. At low-nitrogen levels, inoculation with R. irregularis improved the plant height (18.78 ~ 36.04%), shoot dry weight (50.53 ~ 64.33%), total dry weight (42.86 ~ 52.82%), maximal net photosynthetic rate (P) (16.83 ~ 20.11%), photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency (PNUE) (40.01 ~ 43.14%), P (33.56 ~ 38.59%) and P (29.08 ~ 34.02%). However, it did not substantially affect the leaf nitrogen content per unit area or the leaf nitrogen content per unit mass. Moreover, P exhibited a significant positive correlation with P and P, and all three parameters showed a significant positive correlation with the PNUE, thereby revealing that R. irregularis increased the photosynthetic capacity and PNUE of T. jackii through boosting P and P.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00425-021-03704-2DOI Listing
August 2021

PD-L1 correlated gene expression profiles and tumor infiltrating lymphocytes in pancreatic cancer.

Int J Med Sci 2021 5;18(14):3150-3157. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200127, China.

To study the expression and clinical value of PD-L1 gene in pancreatic cancer, and to predict the role of PD-L1 gene in the development of pancreatic cancer. The pancreatic cancer datasets were downloaded from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and the Oncomine to obtain the PD-L1 gene expression profile and clinical information. Bioinformatics methods were used to analyze the correlation between the expression level of PD-L1 gene in pancreatic cancer and clinicopathological indicators, as well as its influence on prognosis. GSEA and WGCNA analysis was performed to predict the possible pathways of PD-L1 gene regulation in pancreatic cancer. TIMER and MCP-counter were used for PD-L1 with immune infiltration. The genes interact with PD-L1 were also investigated by STING and immunoco-precipitation combined with mass spectrometry analysis (IP-MS). In TCGA database, the overall survival of patients with high expression of PD-L1 gene was significantly lower than that of patients with low expression of PD-L1 gene (χ = 12.52, P < 0.001). The samples with high expression of PD-L1 gene showed enrichment of 8 pathways including toll-like receptor signaling pathway and NOD receptor signaling pathway (P < 0.01, FDR < 0.05). Immune infiltration analysis suggested that PD-L1 were associated with monocytic lineage (r = 0.5). The proteins interacting with PD-L1 are mainly concentrated in RNA binding, ribosome, spliceosome and other biological processes or pathways. PD-L1 gene may play an important role in the development of pancreatic cancer and is expected to be a prognostic indicator of pancreatic cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ijms.61771DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8364450PMC
July 2021

COVID-19 in Individuals Treated With Long-Term Hydroxychloroquine: A Propensity Score-Matched Analysis of Cicatricial Alopecia Patients.

J Drugs Dermatol 2021 Aug;20(8):914-916

Early in the COVID-19 pandemic, anti-malarial agent hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) was touted as a potentially effective COVID-19 treatment due to its purported antiinflammatory and antiviral effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.36849/JDD.5843DOI Listing
August 2021

Neurophysiological correlate of incubation of craving in individuals with methamphetamine use disorder.

Mol Psychiatry 2021 Aug 12. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Psychotic Disorders, Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Previous studies both in laboratory animals and humans have reported that abstinence induces incubation of cue-induced drug craving for nicotine, alcohol, cocaine, and methamphetamine. However, current experimental procedures utilized to study incubation of methamphetamine craving do not incorporate the temporal dynamics of neuropsychological measures and electrophysiological activities associated with this incubation process. This study utilized the high-density electroencephalogram (EEG) signals as a rapid, inexpensive, and noninvasive measure of cue-induced craving potential. A total of 156 male individuals with methamphetamine use disorder (MUD) enrolled in this multisite, cross-sectional study. Structured clinical interview data, self-report questionnaires (cued craving, quality of sleep, impulsivity, anxiety, and depression) and resting-state, eye-closed 128 high-density channel EEG signals were collected at 5 abstinence duration time points (<1, 1-3, 3-6, 6-12, and 12-24 months) to track the neuropsychological and neurophysiological signatures. Cue-induced craving was higher after 1-3 months than after the other time points. This incubation effect was also observed for sleep quality but not for anxiety, depression, and impulsivity symptoms, along with exhibited decreased power spectrum for theta (5.5-8 Hz) and alpha (8-13 Hz), and increased in beta (16.5-26.5 Hz) frequency band. Source reconstructed resting-state EEG analysis showed increased synchronization of medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) for the beta frequency band in 1-3 months abstinent MUD group, and associated with the incubation of craving. Remarkably, the robust incubation-related abnormalities may be driven by beta-band source space connectivity between MPFC and bilateral orbital gyrus (ORB). Our findings suggest the enhancement of beta activity in the incubation period most likely originates from a dysfunction involving frontal brain regions. This neurophysiological signature of incubation of craving can be used to identify individuals who might be most susceptible to relapse, providing a potential insight into future therapeutic interventions for MUD via neuromodulation of beta activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41380-021-01252-5DOI Listing
August 2021

Hypoxia boosts aerobic glycolysis of carcinoma:a complex process for tumor development.

Curr Mol Pharmacol 2021 Aug 11. Epub 2021 Aug 11.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Pharmacology and Safety Evaluation of Chinese Materia Medica, School of Pharmacy, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210023. China.

Hypoxia, a common feature in malignant tumors, is mainly caused by insufficient oxygen supply. Hypoxia is closely related to cancer development, affecting cancer invasion and metastasis, energy metabolism and other pathological processes, and is not conducive to cancer treatment and prognosis. Tumor cells exacerbate metabolic abnormalities to adapt to the hypoxic microenvironment, especially to enhance aerobic glycolysis. Glycolysis leads to an acidic microenvironment in cancer tissues, enhancing cancer metastasis, deterioration and drug resistance. Therefore, hypoxia is a therapeutic target that cannot be ignored in cancer treatment. The adaptation of tumor cells to hypoxia is mainly regulated by hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs), and the stability of HIFs is improved under hypoxic conditions. HIFs can promote the glycolysis of tumors by regulating glycolytic enzymes, transporters, and participates in regulating the TCA (tricarboxylic acid) cycle. In addition, HIFs indirectly affect glycolysis through its interaction with non-coding RNAs. Therefore, targeting hypoxia and HIFs are important tumor therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1874467214666210811145752DOI Listing
August 2021

Validation of the Microreader 28A ID System: A 6-dye multiplex amplification assay for forensic application.

Electrophoresis 2021 Aug 9. Epub 2021 Aug 9.

Department of Forensic Genetics, West China School of Basic Medical Sciences and Forensic Medicine, Sichuan University, Sichuan, P. R. China.

The Microreader 28A ID System is a new 28-plex genotyping system with 6-dye multiplex amplification, which allows the simultaneous amplification of all 20 Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) core loci (CSF1PO, D3S1358, D5S818, D7S820, D8S1179, D13S317, D16S539, D18S51, D21S11, FGA, TH01, TPOX, vWA, D1S1656, D2S441, D2S1338, D10S1248, D12S391, D19S433, D22S1045), plus five extended STRs loci (D6S1043, Penta D, Penta E, DYS391, SE33), 2 Y-Indels (Rs2032678, Rs771783753), and the amelogenin loci. This system can be used for forensic analyses, such as personal identification, kinship testing, scientific research, database applications, and other aspects of human genetic identification. The validation of the Microreader 28A ID System followed the "Validation Guidelines for DNA Analysis Methods (2016)" described by the Scientific Working Group on DNA Analysis Methods and the regulations published by the China Ministry of Public Security. Our tests included PCR-based studies, sensitivity study, precision and accuracy evaluation, stutter percentage and heterozygous peak height ratio, inhibitor tests, species specificity, and population studies. The validation results suggest that the Microreader 28A ID system is a robust and reliable amplification kit for personal identification, kinship testing, and forensic database applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/elps.202100110DOI Listing
August 2021

Association between Metabolic Syndrome and Osteoporosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Int J Endocrinol 2021 16;2021:6691487. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Medical Research & Biometrics Center, Fuwai Hospital, State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Peking Union Medical College and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing 102300, China.

Background: Previous studies have reached mixed conclusions regarding the association between metabolic syndrome (MS) and osteoporosis. We aimed to perform a meta-analysis based on published studies that explored the association between osteoporosis and MS.

Methods: To identify related literature, a systematic search of PubMed, Cochrane Library, and EMBASE databases from inception to June 2020 was performed. Original studies that reported the risk estimates of osteoporosis morbidity for two or three categories of bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with MS were selected. Two independent investigators screened and selected the articles. Summary odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using random-effects models.

Results: Of 2632 identified studies, nine cross-sectional studies with 14 datasets were eligible for our meta-analysis. In seven studies (10 datasets), the summarized ORs of osteoporosis for MS were 0.72 (95% CI: 0.52-0.99). Subgroup analyses by gender showed that significant inverse associations were observed only in men (OR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.55-0.96) but not in women (OR = 0.70, 95% CI: 0.41-1.22). The definition of MS, the source of the study population, and the adjustment of covariates affected the estimates. In two studies (4 datasets), there was no evidence for an association between MS and decreased BMD.

Conclusions: Our findings demonstrated that MS was significantly associated with a lower osteoporosis risk. There might be gender differences in the association between MS and osteoporosis. In addition, the association was likely to relate to the definition of MS, the source of the study population, and the adjustment of covariates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6691487DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8331299PMC
July 2021

Association of heart rate with cardiovascular events and mortality in hypertensive and normotensive population: a nationwide prospective cohort study.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Jun;9(11):917

State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Peking Union Medical College and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.

Background: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. We assessed the association of baseline heart rate with cardiovascular events and mortality in hypertensive and normotensive populations using a prospective urban and rural epidemiology cohort study in China.

Methods: A total of 29,554 individuals were involved in our analysis, distributed equally between groups of normotensive and hypertensive. The primary outcomes were myocardial infarction, stroke, major cardiovascular diseases, and cardiovascular mortality. Cox frailty models were utilized to estimate hazard ratios for cardiovascular outcomes, and restricted cubic splines were used to explore the shape of the association between baseline heart rate and cardiovascular mortality.

Results: During a total observational time of 230,813 person-years, 402 myocardial infarction events, 1,096 stroke events, 1,540 major cardiovascular events, and 356 cardiovascular deaths were documented. In adjusted analyses, normotensive subjects with baseline heart rate >82.5 beats per minute had a 3.30-fold greater risk of cardiovascular death and an increased 72% risk of myocardial infarction, compared with individuals whose baseline heart rate was 65.5-71 beats per minute. A similar trend was observed for cardiovascular mortality in the hypertensive population, but the association was attenuated. Multivariable-adjusted restricted cubic splines showed linear associations between baseline heart rate and cardiovascular mortality in two groups of people (all P<0.05 for linearity).

Conclusions: Elevated baseline heart rate is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality and myocardial infarction in the normotensive population. The association is attenuated for cardiovascular death in hypertensive patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-21-706DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8263883PMC
June 2021

A Practical Approach to the Diagnosis and Management of Classic Lichen Planopilaris.

Am J Clin Dermatol 2021 Sep 4;22(5):681-692. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

The Ronald O. Perelman Department of Dermatology, New York University Grossman School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.

Lichen planopilaris is a primary lymphocytic cicatricial alopecia that commonly presents with hair loss at the vertex or parietal scalp. Patients may also have associated scalp itching, burning or tenderness. Due to scarring, hair loss is typically permanent. The main goals of treatment are reducing symptoms and preventing disease progression and further hair loss. Currently, the literature has limited evidence on treatments for this difficult condition, and most available evidence is from case reports and case series. Furthermore, the evidence shows a varied response to therapy, with frequent reports of poor response. This article reviews the diagnosis of this rare disease, summarize the currently available treatments, and provide insights and practices from alopecia experts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40257-021-00630-7DOI Listing
September 2021

Toripalimab or placebo plus chemotherapy as first-line treatment in advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a multicenter randomized phase 3 trial.

Nat Med 2021 Sep 2;27(9):1536-1543. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan.

Gemcitabine-cisplatin (GP) chemotherapy is the standard first-line systemic treatment for recurrent or metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (RM-NPC). In this international, double-blind, phase 3 trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03581786), 289 patients with RM-NPC and no previous chemotherapy for recurrent or metastatic disease were randomized (1/1) to receive either toripalimab, a monoclonal antibody against human programmed death-1 (PD-1), or placebo in combination with GP every 3 weeks for up to six cycles, followed by monotherapy with toripalimab or placebo. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS) as assessed by a blinded independent review committee according to RECIST v.1.1. At the prespecified interim PFS analysis, a significant improvement in PFS was detected in the toripalimab arm compared to the placebo arm: median PFS of 11.7 versus 8.0 months, hazard ratio (HR) = 0.52 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.36-0.74), P = 0.0003. An improvement in PFS was observed across key subgroups, including PD-L1 expression. As of 18 February 2021, a 40% reduction in risk of death was observed in the toripalimab arm compared to the placebo arm (HR = 0.603 (95% CI: 0.364-0.997)). The incidence of grade ≥3 adverse events (AEs) (89.0 versus 89.5%), AEs leading to discontinuation of toripalimab/placebo (7.5 versus 4.9%) and fatal AEs (2.7 versus 2.8%) was similar between the two arms; however, immune-related AEs (39.7 versus 18.9%) and grade ≥3 infusion reactions (7.5 versus 0.7%) were more frequent in the toripalimab arm. In conclusion, the addition of toripalimab to GP chemotherapy as a first-line treatment for patients with RM-NPC provided superior PFS compared to GP alone, and with a manageable safety profile.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41591-021-01444-0DOI Listing
September 2021

Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Overlapped Areas of Farmland and Coal Resources in Xuzhou, China.

Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 2021 Jul 31. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

School of Environment Science and Spatial Informatics, China University of Mining and Technology, 1 Daxue Road, Xuzhou, 221116, Jiangsu, China.

Heavy metals (As, Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb, Zn, Hg) in soil of a typical overlapped area of farmland and coal resources (OAFCR) in Xuzhou were investigated, meanwhile the pollution levels and risks of there were discussed. The results are: Pollution Load Index (PLI) showed no heavy metals (HMs) pollution; 3.74% of soil samples were above moderately accumulated with Hg; the ecological risk (E) values followed the order: Hg > Cd > Cu > As > Pb > Cr > Zn, and there has a moderate degree of potential ecological risk (PER) with the mean PER of 184.26; the non-carcinogenic risk of all seven HMs to human beings is acceptable, and the carcinogenic risk caused by As, Cd and Cr can be tolerated; the exposure ways both of carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic is: oral > dermal > inhalation, while children are suffering higher health risks than adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00128-021-03337-xDOI Listing
July 2021

Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity evaluation of polystyrene microplastics on Vicia faba roots.

Environ Pollut 2021 Jul 21;288:117821. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Hangzhou Yunzhi Education & Technology Company, Hangzhou, 310052, China. Electronic address:

In this study, the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of polystyrene microplastics (PS-MPs) on V. faba roots were investigated by exposing Vicia faba roots to PS-MPs (10 nm) for 24, 48, and 72 h. The viability, micronucleus rate, and reactive oxygen species metabolism of V. faba root border cells were then analyzed in detail, and a transcriptome sequencing analysis was performed. The results demonstrate that PS-MP treatment could significantly increase the percentage of late apoptotic cells and dead cells, which suggests that PS-MPs can lead the apoptosis or thanatosis of root margin cells. Moreover, the micronucleus rate in root samples exposed to PS-MPs is significantly greater and can be as high as 4.89 times of that in the control group. The mitotic index in the root sample processed with PS-MPs is reduced significantly and can be as low as 16.80 % of that in the control group. Furthermore, PS-MP treatment can increase the content of reactive oxygen (O and HO) and reduce the activity of antioxidase (superoxide dismutase SOD and peroxidase POD), causing significantly serious oxidative stress. Transcriptome analysis display PS-MPs could destroy the expression of antioxidant enzymes, cell cycle and DNA repair related genes in the young V. faba roots.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.117821DOI Listing
July 2021

Combination Foretinib and Anti-PD-1 Antibody Immunotherapy for Colorectal Carcinoma.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 8;9:689727. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center/Collaborative Innovation Center for Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Immune checkpoint inhibitors have achieved unprecedented success in cancer immunotherapy. However, the overall response rate to immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy for many cancers is only between 20 and 40%, and even less for colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop an efficient immunotherapeutic strategy for CRC. Here, we developed a novel CRC combination therapy consisting of a multiple receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (Foretinib) and anti-PD-1 antibody. The combination therapy significantly inhibited tumor growth in mice, led to improved tumor regression without relapse (83% for CT26 tumors and 50% for MC38 tumors) and prolonged overall survival. Mechanistically, Foretinib caused increased levels of PD-L1 via activating the JAK2-STAT1 pathway, which could improve the effectiveness of the immune checkpoint inhibitor. Moreover, the combination therapy remodeled the tumor microenvironment and enhanced anti-tumor immunity by further increasing the infiltration and improving the function of T cells, decreasing the percentage of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and inhibiting their polarization toward the M2 phenotype. Furthermore, the combination therapy inhibited the metastasis of CT26-Luc tumors to the lung in BALB/c mouse by reducing proportions of regulatory T-cells, TAMs and M2 phenotype TAMs in their lungs. This study suggests that a novel combination therapy utilizing both Foretinib and anti-PD-1 antibody could be an effective combination strategy for CRC immunotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.689727DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8298272PMC
July 2021

BrRNE cleaves RNA in chloroplasts, regulating retrograde signals in Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis.

Theor Appl Genet 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

State Key Laboratory of North China Crop Improvement and Regulation, Key Laboratory of Vegetable Germplasm Innovation and Utilization of Hebei, Collaborative Innovation Center of Vegetable Industry in Hebei, College of Horticulture, Hebei Agricultural University, Baoding, 071000, China.

Key Message: Brassica rapa RNE participates in the processing of polycistronic precursor transcripts into mature monocistronic mRNAs in plastids, thereby sending strong retrograde signals. Leaf color is one of the most important agronomic traits for Chinese cabbage. Not only is it closely linked to photosynthesis, thereby affecting plant growth, but it also influences consumer preference in the marketplace. A pale-green mutant rne was produced by EMS mutagenesis of Chinese cabbage inbred line A03. Chlorophyll content, photosynthetic rate, actual quantum efficiency (φPSII), and maximum quantum efficiency (Fv/Fm) of photosystem II (PSII) were all reduced in rne plants. Genetic analysis indicated that the pale-green trait was controlled by a pair of recessive alleles. Using mixed pool sequencing of F individuals derived from an rne × wild-type cross, we identified the essential gene Brassica rapa RNase E (BrRNE), which is responsible for chloroplast development. BrRNE cleaves polycistronic RNA in Chinese cabbage A03 plastids, but rne plants are defective in RNA processing and show reduced translation levels of the seven plastid genes, BrpsaB, BrpsaA, BrpsbA, BrpsbD, BrpsbB, BrpetA, and Brycf4. Abnormal RNA processing in the plastids sends retrograde signals that markedly regulate the expression of nuclear genes, upregulating genes that participate in ribosome and DNA replication pathways and repressing photosynthesis-associated nuclear genes (PhANGs). Our study reveals a new regulatory mechanism by which plastid RNA cleavage influences plastid development and leaf color, sending retrograde signals that affect the expression of nuclear genes in Brassica.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00122-021-03905-zDOI Listing
July 2021

ACE2 Receptor-Modified Algae-Based Microrobot for Removal of SARS-CoV-2 in Wastewater.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 08 22;143(31):12194-12201. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of NanoEngineering and Chemical Engineering Program, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, United States.

The coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 can survive in wastewater for several days with a potential risk of waterborne human transmission, hence posing challenges in containing the virus and reducing its spread. Herein, we report on an active biohybrid microrobot system that offers highly efficient capture and removal of target virus from various aquatic media. The algae-based microrobot is fabricated by using click chemistry to functionalize microalgae with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. The resulting ACE2-algae-robot displays fast (>100 μm/s) and long-lasting (>24 h) self-propulsion in diverse aquatic media including drinking water and river water, obviating the need for external fuels. Such movement of the ACE2-algae-robot offers effective "on-the-fly" removal of SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins and SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus. Specifically, the active biohybrid microrobot results in 95% removal of viral spike protein and 89% removal of pseudovirus, significantly exceeding the control groups such as static ACE2-algae and bare algae. These results suggest considerable promise of biologically functionalized algae toward the removal of viruses and other environmental threats from wastewater.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.1c04933DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8315242PMC
August 2021

New volumetric capnography-derived parameter: a potentially valuable tool for detecting hyperventilation during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a porcine model.

J Thorac Dis 2021 Jun;13(6):3467-3477

Emergency Department, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.

Background: Volumetric capnography is increasingly being applied in cardiopulmonary resuscitation. However, during cardiopulmonary resuscitation, the abnormal ventilation state affects the monitoring effect of the most commonly used capnography-derived parameter, the partial carbon dioxide end-tidal pressure (PetCO). In this study, we evaluated the ability of a new volumetric capnography-derived parameter, the ratio between the PetCO and the volume of carbon dioxide (CO) eliminated per min and per kilogram of body weight, for detecting hyperventilation during cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

Methods: We used 12 porcine models of primary ventricular fibrillation-induced cardiac arrest. Ventricular fibrillation was induced and left untreated for 4 min. Standardized chest compressions were performed throughout the experiment using mechanical cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Following 5 min of normal ventilation as a washout period, each animal underwent 4 types of ventilation. The main outcome measures were the PetCO, the ratio between the PetCO and the volume of CO eliminated per min and per kilogram of body weight with each ventilation type.

Results: Different ventilation types had a significant effect on the volumetric capnography-derived parameters. The PetCO and ratio between the PetCO and the volume of CO eliminated per min and per kilogram of body weight values during cardiopulmonary resuscitation was significantly higher in non-hyperventilating than in hyperventilating animals. The ratio reflected hyperventilation accurately and immediately, with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.98. The optimal cut-off point of the ratio for discriminating hyperventilation from non-hyperventilation was 6.36, with a sensitivity and specificity of 0.99 and 0.89, respectively.

Conclusions: The ratio between the PetCO and the volume of CO eliminated per min and per kilogram of body weight showed good performance in discriminating hyperventilation from non-hyperventilation and was sensitive to changes in ventilation status. This ratio may be a valuable clinical indicator for monitoring the ventilation status during cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/jtd-21-50DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8264707PMC
June 2021

3D super-resolution microscopy based on nonlinear gradient descent structured illumination.

Opt Express 2021 Jul;29(14):21428-21443

Three-dimensional structured illumination microscopy (3D-SIM) is an essential tool for volumetric fluorescence imaging, which improves both axial and lateral resolution by down-modulating high-frequency information of the sample into the passband of optical transfer function (OTF). And when combining with the 4Pi structure, the performance of 3D-SIM can be further improved. The reconstruction results of generally used linear 3D algorithm, however, are lack of high-fidelity and proneess to generate artifacts. In this paper, we proposed a novel iterative algorithm based on gradient descent combined with a nonlinear optimizer, which can be applied to all 3D-SIM setups (including IS setup). We verified through simulation that the proposed solution, termed as nonlinear gradient descent structured illumination microscopy (NGD-SIM), achieves more fidelity results which can reach the limitation of theoretical resolution improvement of SIM. Moreover, it can be firmly validated on simulation that this algorithm can effectively reduce the amount of raw data in the case of sinusoidal-pattern illumination, i.e., the algorithm doesn't need five-step phase shifting; data with any number of phases can theoretically be reconstructed. Our method also provides the possibility to extend the application of sinusoidal-pattern illumination to any kind of interference fringe, which is generated by diversified types of illumination mode.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.424740DOI Listing
July 2021

Study on relationship between bacterial diversity and quality of Huangjiu (Chinese Rice Wine) fermentation.

Food Sci Nutr 2021 Jul 4;9(7):3885-3892. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Shaoxing Jianhu Brewing Co., Ltd Shaoxing China.

Huangjiu (Chinese rice wine) is brewed in an open environment, where bacteria play an important role during the fermentation process. In this study, bacterial community structure and composition changes in the fermented mash liquid of mechanized Huangjiu, well-fermented manual Huangjiu (wines of good qualities), and poorly fermented manual Huangjiu (wines of poor qualities: spoilage, high acidity, low alcohol content) in different fermentation stages from Guyuelongshan Shaoxing Huangjiu company were analyzed via metagenomic sequencing. And bacterial metabolic difference was analyzed via gene prediction of metabolic pathway enzymes. The results showed that the bacterial diversity degree was abundant, and the number of bacterial species in every sample was approximately 200-400. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) dominated the bacterial community of Huangjiu fermentation, and was predominant species in well-fermented Huangjiu while had an absolute dominance in spoilage Huangjiu. Further, gene prediction revealed that transformation of malate to pyruvate and lactate anabolism was more active in mash liquid of well-fermented manual Huangjiu, while acetate accumulation was stronger in mash liquid of poorly fermented manual Huangjiu, which explained acidity excess reason in poorly fermented Huangjiu at gene level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.2369DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8269602PMC
July 2021
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