Publications by authors named "Lu Peng"

603 Publications

Efficiency of Deoxynivalenol Detoxification by Microencapsulated Sodium Metabisulfite Assessed via an Bioassay Based on Intestinal Porcine Epithelial Cells.

ACS Omega 2021 Mar 19;6(12):8382-8393. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Animal Science, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2, Canada.

Deoxynivalenol (DON) contamination occurs in feeds and causes a reduction in growth performance, damage to the intestinal epithelial cells, and increased susceptibility to enteric pathogen challenge. Sodium metabisulfite (SMBS) has shown promise in reducing DON; however, SMBS quickly degrades under aqueous acidic conditions such as the environment within a stomach. Thus, protection of SMBS is required for effective delivery to the small intestine to detoxify DON. This study was to encapsulate SMBS into hydrogenated palm oil-based microparticles for its delivery to the small intestine and to evaluate its efficacy on DON detoxification in simulated intestinal fluids using IPEC-J2 cells . The diameter of the SMBS containing microparticles was 511 ± 135 μm, and the loading capacity of SMBS in the microparticles was 45.50%; 1.41% of the encapsulated SMBS (ES) was released into the simulated gastric fluid, and 66.39% of ES was progressively released into the simulated intestinal fluid within 4 h at 37 °C. In IPEC-J2 cells, when DON was treated with the simulated gastric fluid containing 0.5% ES for 2 h, then mixed with the simulated intestinal fluid (1:1) and incubated for 2 h, cytotoxicity was not observed. DON treated with 0.5 ES decreased the gene expression of inflammatory cytokines in the cells compared with DON alone and maintained the cell integrity. To conclude, the SMBS containing microparticles were stable in the simulated gastric fluid and allowed a progressive release of SMBS in the simulated intestinal fluid. The released SMBS in the simulated intestinal fluid effectively detoxified DON.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.1c00117DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8015119PMC
March 2021

Using the Negative Soil Adjustment Factor of Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI) to Resist Saturation Effects and Estimate Leaf Area Index (LAI) in Dense Vegetation Areas.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Mar 17;21(6). Epub 2021 Mar 17.

CESBIO-UPS, CNES, CNRS, IRD, Université de Toulouse, CEDEX 9, 31401 Toulouse, France.

Saturation effects limit the application of vegetation indices (VIs) in dense vegetation areas. The possibility to mitigate them by adopting a negative soil adjustment factor is addressed. Two leaf area index (LAI) data sets are analyzed using the Google Earth Engine (GEE) for validation. The first one is derived from observations of MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) from 16 April 2013, to 21 October 2020, in the Apiacás area. Its corresponding VIs are calculated from a combination of Sentinel-2 and Landsat-8 surface reflectance products. The second one is a global LAI dataset with VIs calculated from Landsat-5 surface reflectance products. A linear regression model is applied to both datasets to evaluate four VIs that are commonly used to estimate LAI: normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), soil adjusted vegetation index (SAVI), transformed SAVI (TSAVI), and enhanced vegetation index (EVI). The optimal soil adjustment factor of SAVI for LAI estimation is determined using an exhaustive search. The Dickey-Fuller test indicates that the time series of LAI data are stable with a confidence level of 99%. The linear regression results stress significant saturation effects in all VIs. Finally, the exhaustive searching results show that a negative soil adjustment factor of SAVI can mitigate the SAVIs' saturation in the Apiacás area (i.e., = -0.148 for mean LAI = 5.35), and more generally in areas with large LAI values (e.g., = -0.183 for mean LAI = 6.72). Our study further confirms that the lower boundary of the soil adjustment factor can be negative and that using a negative soil adjustment factor improves the computation of time series of LAI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21062115DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8002733PMC
March 2021

Early prevention of cognitive impairment in the community population: The Beijing Aging Brain Rejuvenation Initiative.

Alzheimers Dement 2021 Mar 31. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China.

Facing considerable challenges associated with aging and dementia, China urgently needs an evidence-based health-care system for prevention and management of dementia. The Beijing Aging Brain Rejuvenation Initiative (BABRI) is a community-based cohort study initiated in 2008 that focuses on asymptomatic stages of dementia, aims to develop community-based prevention strategies for cognitive impairment, and provides a platform for scientific research and clinical trials. Thus far, BABRI has recruited 10,255 participants (aged 50 and over, 60.3% female), 2021 of whom have been followed up at least once at a 2- or 3-year interval. This article presents aims and study design of BABRI; summarizes preliminary behavioral and neuroimaging findings on mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and results of clinical trials on MCI; and discusses issues concerning early prevention in community, MCI diagnosis methods, and applications of database of aging and dementia. BABRI is proposed to build a systematic framework on brain health in old age.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/alz.12326DOI Listing
March 2021

Preparation and evaluation of a water-in-oil nanoemulsion drug delivery system loaded with salidroside.

Chin J Nat Med 2021 Mar;19(3):231-240

State Key Laboratory of Component-based Chinese Medicine, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin 301617, China; Engineering Research Center of Modern Chinese Medicine Discovery and Preparation Technique, Ministry of Education, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin 301617, China. Electronic address:

Salidroside (SAL) is a phenolic substance with high solubility and low permeability, which make it easy to cause the efflux effect of P-glycoprotein and degradation of intestinal flora, resulting in lower bioavailability. The aim of this study was to develop and optimize a water-in-oil nanoemulsion of SAL (w/o SAL-N) to explore its suitability in oral drug delivery systems. In this work, SAL-N was successfully prepared by water titration method at K = 1 to construct the pseudo-ternary phase diagrams. Physical characterization including the average viscosity, pH, refractive index, particle size, PDI, TEM, DSC, the content of SAL, and stability study were performed. It was evaluated for drug release in vitro and pharmacokinetic studies in vivo. The optimized nanoemulsion formulation consisted of Labrafil M 1944CS (63%), Span-80/Tween-80/EtOH (27%) and 200 mg∙mL SAL solution (SAL-SOL) (10%). Low viscosity and suitable pH were expected for the nanoemulsion. The spherical morphology and nanoscale size of SAL-N enhanced the stability of the nanoemulsion system. In vitro drug release showed that SAL-N had a better controlled release property than SAL-SOL at earlier time points. The pharmacokinetic studies exhibited that SAL-N had significantly higher in t (2.11-fold), AUC (1.75-fold) and MRT (2.63-fold) than SAL-SOL (P < 0.01). The w/o SAL-N prepared in this work can be effectively delivered via the oral route. It can be seen w/o nanoemulsion is a strategy for the drug with polyphenols to delay the release, enhance oral absorption and reduce metabolic rate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1875-5364(21)60025-0DOI Listing
March 2021

Overexpression Enhances Expression .

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 10;12:634191. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Department of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, Shanghai Institute of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Objective: The Iroquois homeobox 3 () gene was recently reported to be a functional downstream target of a common polymorphism in the gene, which encodes an obesity-associated protein; however, the role of in energy expenditure remains unclear. Studies have revealed that the overexpression of a dominant-negative form of IRX3 in the mouse hypothalamus and adipose tissue promoted energy expenditure by enhancing brown/browning activities. Meanwhile, we and others recently demonstrated that knockdown impaired the browning program of primary preadipocytes . In this study, we aimed to further clarify the effects of overexpressing human (h) on brown/beige adipose tissues .

Methods: Brown/beige adipocyte-specific h-overexpressing mice were generated and the browning program of white adipose tissues was induced by both chronic cold stimulation and CL316,243 injection. Body weight, fat mass, lean mass, and energy expenditure were measured, while morphological changes and the expression of thermogenesis-related genes in adipose tissue were analyzed. Moreover, the browning capacity of primary preadipocytes derived from h-overexpressing mice was assessed. RNA sequencing was also employed to investigate the effect of h on the expression of thermogenesis-related genes.

Results: h overexpression in embryonic brown/beige adipose tissues ( ;Cre) led to increased energy expenditure, decreased fat mass, and a lean body phenotype. After acute cold exposure or CL316,243 stimulation, brown/beige tissue h-overexpressing mice showed an increase in expression. Consistent with this, induced h overexpression in adult mice ( ;Cre) also promoted a moderate increase in expression. experiments further revealed that h overexpression induced by -driven Cre recombinase activity upregulated brown/beige adipocytes expression and oxygen consumption rate (OCR). RNA sequencing analyses indicated that h overexpression in brown adipocytes enhanced brown fat cell differentiation, glycolysis, and gluconeogenesis.

Conclusion: Consistent with the findings, brown/beige adipocyte-specific overexpression of h promoted expression and thermogenesis, while reducing fat mass.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2021.634191DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7988233PMC
March 2021

A combination of PD‑1/PD‑L1 inhibitors: The prospect of overcoming the weakness of tumor immunotherapy (Review).

Mol Med Rep 2021 May 24;23(5). Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine Laboratory, College of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin 301617, P.R. China.

Programmed cell death protein‑1 (PD‑1)/programmed death protein ligand‑1 (PD‑L1) inhibitors for treatment of a various types of cancers have revolutionized cancer immunotherapy. However, PD‑1/PD‑L1 inhibitors are associated with a low response rate and are only effective on a small number of patients with cancer. Development of an anti‑PD‑1/PD‑L1 sensitizer for improving response rate and effectiveness of immunotherapy is a challenge. The present study reviews the synergistic effects of PD‑1/PD‑L1 inhibitor with oncolytic virus, tumor vaccine, molecular targeted drugs, immunotherapy, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, intestinal flora and traditional Chinese medicine, to provide information for development of effective combination therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2021.12001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7985997PMC
May 2021

Molecular distribution and localization of extracellular calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) and vitamin D receptor (VDR) at three different laying stages in laying hens (Gallus gallus domesticus).

Poult Sci 2021 Feb 18;100(5):101060. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Department of Animal Science, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2, Canada. Electronic address:

The extracellular calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) and vitamin D receptor (VDR) play important roles in regulating calcium mobilization, calcium absorption, and calcium homeostasis, and they could be potential therapeutic targets to osteoporosis in laying hens. The present study investigated the molecular distribution of CaSR and VDR and the localization of CaSR in the kidney, proventriculus (true stomach), duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon, cecum, shell gland, and tibia of laying hens at 3 different laying stages (19, 40, and 55 wk). The results showed that the relative mRNA abundance of CaSR in the kidney, ileum, proventriculus, duodenum, and colon was higher (P < 0.05) than the other tissues at 40 and 55 wk. The relative mRNA abundance of CaSR in the tibia was higher (P < 0.05) at 55 wk than at 40 wk. However, there were no significant differences in the relative protein abundance of CaSR among all tested tissues at peak production or in each tissue at the 3 different laying stages (P > 0.05). The relative mRNA abundance of VDR was higher (P < 0.05) in the small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum) when compared with other tissues at the 3 different laying stages. The relative protein abundance of VDR in the duodenum was higher (P < 0.05) than that in the proventriculus, colon, and cecum. There were no significant differences in the VDR expression among the tested tissues at the 3 different laying stages (P > 0.05). The immunohistochemical results showed that the positive staining was found widely in each tissue. Moreover, different laying stages did not affect the localization of CaSR except for the tibia tissue. In conclusion, similar to VDR, CaSR was widely expressed not only in the gut but also in the tibia and shell gland in laying hens. The expression level of CaSR and VDR in all tested tissues was unchanged at the different laying stages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2021.101060DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8010884PMC
February 2021

Genetic Mechanism of Leukemia Relapse Following CD19 Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cell Therapy.

Cancer Biother Radiopharm 2021 Mar 18. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

School of Life Sciences, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, China.

Chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy (CART) has achieved excellent results in the past 10 years for the treatment of leukemia. Treatment of B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia by anti-CD19 CART can reach a complete remission rate of 90%. Although CART has greatly improved the treatment of patients with leukemia and lymphoma, as many as one-third of patients can suffer disease relapse after CART. The tumor surface marker CD19 is negative in most patients who relapse, and these patients display high expression of CD19 before treatment. In this review, the current causes of CD19-negative relapses after CD19 CART against leukemia, and the mechanisms of target escape are briefly summarized. Also, methods and strategies for treating relapse to provide references for the treatment of leukemia relapse are also discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/cbr.2020.4630DOI Listing
March 2021

Glycemic Trajectories After Tuberculosis Diagnosis and Treatment Outcomes of New Tuberculosis Patients: A Prospective Study in Eastern China.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2021 Mar 11. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Stanford University School of Medicine, 10624, Division of Infectious Diseases and Geographic Medicine, Stanford, California, United States.

Rationale Newly diagnosed tuberculosis patients often have inconsistent glycemic measurements during and after treatment. Distinct glycemic trajectories after tuberculosis diagnosis are not well characterized and whether patients with stress hyperglycemia have poor treatment outcomes is not known. Objectives To identify distinct glycemic trajectories from tuberculosis diagnosis to post-treatment and to assess the relationship between glycemic trajectories and tuberculosis treatment outcomes. Methods Newly diagnosed, drug-susceptible tuberculosis patients with at least three fasting plasma glucose (FPG) tests at tuberculosis diagnosis and during the 3rd and 6th month of treatment were identified and included from Jiangsu Province, China. Patients were also given an additional FPG test at two and four months post-treatment. Measurements and Main Results Several distinct glycemic trajectories from tuberculosis diagnosis to post-treatment were found including consistently normal glycemic testing (43%), transient hyperglycemia (24%), erratic glycemic instability (12%), diabetes (16%), and consistently hyperglycemic but without diabetes (6%). Compared to participants with a consistently normal glycemic trajectory, patients were more likely to fail treatment if they had transient hyperglycemia (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR], 4.20; 95% CI, 1.57-11.25, P=0.004) or erratic glycemic instability (AOR, 5.98; 95% CI, 2.00-17.87; P=0.001). Patients living with diabetes also had higher risk of treatment failure (AOR, 6.56; 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 2.22-19.35, P=0.001), and this was modified by glycemic control and metformin use. Conclusions Among tuberculosis patients without diabetes, glycemic changes were common and may represent an important marker for patient response to tuberculosis treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1164/rccm.202007-2634OCDOI Listing
March 2021

Porous Graphitic Carbons Containing Nitrogen by Structuration of Chitosan with Pluronic P123.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Mar 11;13(11):13499-13507. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Instituto Universitario de Tecnología Química, Universitat Politècnica de València-Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Av. de los Naranjos s/n, 46022 Valencia, Spain.

Using Pluronic P123 as a structure-directing agent and chitosan as a carbon precursor, different porous carbons with remarkable morphologies such as orthohedra or spheres with diametrically opposite holes are obtained. These particles of micrometric size are constituted by the stacking of thin sheets (60 nm) that become increasingly bent in the opposite sense, concave in the upper and convex in the bottom hemispheres, as the chitosan proportion increases. TEM images, after dispersion of the particles by sonication, show that besides micrometric graphene sheets, the material is constituted by nanometric onion-like carbons. The morphology and structure of these porous carbons can be explained based on the ability of Pluronic P123 to undergo self-assembly in aqueous solution due to its amphoteric nature and the filmogenic properties of chitosan to coat Pluronic P123 nanoobjects undergoing structuration and becoming transformed into nitrogen-doped graphitic carbons. XPS analysis reveals the presence of nitrogen in their composition. These porous carbons exhibit a significant CO adsorption capacity of above 3 mmol g under 100 kPa at 273 K attributable to their large specific surface area, ultraporosity, and the presence of basic N sites. In addition, the presence of dopant elements in the graphitic carbons opening the gap is responsible for the photocatalytic activity for H generation in the presence of sacrificial electron donors, reaching a H production of 63 μmol g in 24 h.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c19463DOI Listing
March 2021

Naa10p Enhances Chemosensitivity to Cisplatin in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells.

Cancer Manag Res 2021 22;13:1843-1851. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Department of Stomatology and Key Laboratory of Xinjiang Endemic and Ethnic Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, Shihezi University School of Medicine, Shihezi, Xinjiang, People's Republic of China.

Background: This study aimed to investigate the function and underlying molecular mechanism of N-α-acetyltransferase 10 protein (Naa10p) in cisplatin (CDDP) chemosensitivity in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC).

Methods: Salivary Naa10p levels in 76 OSCC patients undergoing CDDP-based chemotherapy were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot were used to examine the expression of Naa10p in constructed CDDP-resistant OSCC cell (Cal-27/CDDP) lines and nude mouse model. In addition, the tumor volume and weight of nude mice were analyzed. Lentiviral system was employed to establish and identify OSCC cell lines with stable Naa10p interference or overexpression. MTT assay was used for drug sensitivity analysis. P-gp and Bcl-2 expression levels were tested by Western blot.

Results: Higher salivary Naa10p expression was present in the complete response/partial response group (n=46) compared to the stable disease/progressive disease group (n=30) in OSCC patients receiving chemotherapy treatment. Naa10p expression was down-regulated in Cal-27/CDDP cells and tissues. Naa10p overexpression significantly reduced the expression level of drug-resistant molecules. Naa10p was related to CDDP resistance and enhanced CDDP sensitivity in OSCC according to drug sensitivity analysis and nude mouse model experiments.

Conclusion: Naa10p plays a tumor suppressor gene role and is associated with CDDP resistance in OSCC. It can enhance CDDP sensitivity in OSCC and may be a potential target for OSCC chemotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CMAR.S296783DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7917391PMC
February 2021

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers quinone-induced intracellular protein oxidative damage triggers ubiquitin-proteasome and autophagy-lysosomal system activation in LO2 cells.

Chemosphere 2021 Feb 23;275:130034. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Key Laboratory of Luminescence Analysis and Molecular Sensing, Ministry of Education, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Southwest University, Chongqing, 400715, China; State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085, China. Electronic address:

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), a kind of flame retardants, were widely used in the furniture, textile and electronics industries. Because of their lipophilic, persistent and bio-accumulative properties, PBDEs were listed on the Stockholm Convention as typical persistent organic pollutants (POPs). We have previously reported that a highly active, quinone-type metabolite of PBDEs (PBDEQ) causes DNA damage and subsequently triggers apoptosis. However, it is remaining unclear whether PBDEQ provokes protein damage and stimulates corresponding signaling cascade. Using human normal liver (LO2) cells as an in vitro model, we demonstrated that PBDEQ causes oxidative protein damage through excess reactive oxygen species (ROS). Consistently, we found PBDEQ exposure causes the depletion of protein thiol group, the appearance of carbonyl group and the accumulation of protein aggregates. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress was involved in the repair of oxidized proteins. Under the scenario of severe damage, LO2 cells degrade oxidized proteins through ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) and autophagy. The blockage of these protein degradation pathways aggravates PBDEQ-induced cytotoxicity in LO2 cells, whilst antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) rescues PBDEQ-induced oxidative protein damage conversely. In summary, our current study first demonstrated PBDEQ-induced protein oxidative damage in LO2 cells, which offer a better understanding of the cytotoxicity of PBDEs and corresponding metabolites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.130034DOI Listing
February 2021

NO inhibition by toluene over Mn-Fe spinel SCR catalyst.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Feb 19;414:125468. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Guangdong Province Engineering Laboratory for Air Pollution Control, South China Institute of Environmental Sciences, MEE, Guangzhou 510655, PR China; Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Water and Air Pollution Control, Guangzhou 510655, PR China. Electronic address:

Co-removal of toluene in NH-SCR unit over Mn based catalysts is desirable but still faces the big challenge of byproduct greenhouse gas NO. In this work, the impacts of toluene on NO formation mechanism was studied. The main NO formation pathways in NH-SCR over Mn-Fe spinel were NH oxidation and non-catalytic selective reduction (NSCR), in which NSCR dominated below 250 °C. The NO from NSCR through both Eley-Rideal (E-R) and Langmuir-Hinshelwood (L-H) mechanisms was confirmed. And the E-R mechanism was dominant at 200 °C. Toluene was effectively co-removed with NO with the advantage of NO inhibition. Toluene suppressed NO generation from both NH oxidation and NSCR. NH oxidation by gaseous O and catalyst surface oxygen was all limited by toluene, resulting in less adsorbed NH that was further proved by the larger energy barriers of NH*→NH* and NH*→NH* on toluene pre-adsorbed catalyst surface. NO oxidation was also limited, suppressing the generation of adsorbed NO. Due to the inhibition of NH and NO activation to key intermediates NH and NO, respectively, the NO generation from E-R route was slightly decreased in the presence of toluene, while that from L-H route was completely prohibited at 200 °C.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.125468DOI Listing
February 2021

Extracellular vesicle microRNA cargoes from intermittent hypoxia-exposed cardiomyocytes and their effect on endothelium.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 Apr 26;548:182-188. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Beijing An Zhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100029, China. Electronic address:

Intermittent hypoxia (IH), a main characteristic of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome, is an independent risk factor of cardiovascular complications. However, the mechanism has not been fully elucidated. Growing evidence has revealed alterations of extracellular vesicle (EV) contents, mostly miRNAs, playing a pathogenic role in cardiovascular complications. In current study, we attempt to compare the disparity of myocardial EV miRNA components after IH or normoxia treatment and determine whether EVs from IH-treated cardiomyocytes could affect endothelial function. 63 differentially expressed miRNAs were identified in EVs from IH-exposed cardiomyocytes by miRNA chip assay. Among them, 16 miRNAs with homologous sequence in mouse and human were verified by qPCR assay and 11 miRNAs were proved with the same tendency as miRNA chip assay. KEGG predicted that the function of differentially expressed miRNA was enriched to Akt signaling pathway. Notably, EVs from IH-exposed cardiomyocytes dramatically impaired endothelial-dependent relaxation and inhibited Akt/eNOS expression in endothelial cells. This study provides the first evidence that IH significantly alters myocardial EV miRNA composition and reveals a novel role of myocardial EVs in endothelial function under IH status, which will help to understand the OSA- or IH-related endothelial dysfunction from a new scope.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2021.02.034DOI Listing
April 2021

Quercetin 3,5,7,3',4'-pentamethyl ether from Kaempferia parviflora directly and effectively activates human SIRT1.

Commun Biol 2021 Feb 19;4(1):209. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Department of Applied Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), an NAD-dependent deacetylase, is a crucial regulator that produces multiple physiological benefits, such as the prevention of cancer and age-related diseases. SIRT1 is activated by sirtuin-activating compounds (STACs). Here, we report that quercetin 3,5,7,3',4'-pentamethyl ether (KPMF-8), a natural STAC from Thai black ginger Kaempferia parviflora, interacts with SIRT1 directly and stimulates SIRT1 activity by enhancing the binding affinity of SIRT1 with Ac-p53 peptide, a native substrate peptide without a fluorogenic moiety. The binding affinity between SIRT1 and Ac-p53 peptide was enhanced 8.2-fold by KPMF-8 but only 1.4-fold by resveratrol. The specific binding sites of KPMF-8 to SIRT1 were mainly localized to the helix2-turn-helix3 motif in the N-terminal domain of SIRT1. Intracellular deacetylase activity in MCF-7 cells was promoted 1.7-fold by KPMF-8 supplemented in the cell medium but only 1.2-fold by resveratrol. This work reveals that KPMF-8 activates SIRT1 more effectively than resveratrol does.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s42003-021-01705-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7896056PMC
February 2021

Maternal aryl hydrocarbon receptor activation protects newborns against necrotizing enterocolitis.

Nat Commun 2021 02 15;12(1):1042. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Division of Pediatric Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and the Johns Hopkins Children's Center, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a disease of premature infants characterized by acute intestinal necrosis. Current dogma suggests that NEC develops in response to post-natal dietary and bacterial factors, and so a potential role for in utero factors in NEC remains unexplored. We now show that during pregnancy, administration of a diet rich in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) ligand indole-3-carbinole (I3C), or of breast milk, activates AHR and prevents NEC in newborn mice by reducing Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling in the newborn gut. Protection from NEC requires activation of AHR in the intestinal epithelium which is reduced in mouse and human NEC, and is independent of leukocyte activation. Finally, we identify an AHR ligand ("A18") that limits TLR4 signaling in mouse and human intestine, and prevents NEC in mice when administered during pregnancy. In summary, AHR signaling is critical in NEC development, and maternally-delivered, AHR-based therapies may alleviate NEC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-21356-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7884836PMC
February 2021

Few-shot pulse wave contour classification based on multi-scale feature extraction.

Sci Rep 2021 Feb 12;11(1):3762. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, 450001, China.

The annotation procedure of pulse wave contour (PWC) is expensive and time-consuming, thereby hindering the formation of large-scale datasets to match the requirements of deep learning. To obtain better results under the condition of few-shot PWC, a small-parameter unit structure and a multi-scale feature-extraction model are proposed. In the small-parameter unit structure, information of adjacent cells is transmitted through state variables. Simultaneously, a forgetting gate is used to update the information and retain long-term dependence of PWC in the form of unit series. The multi-scale feature-extraction model is an integrated model containing three parts. Convolution neural networks are used to extract spatial features of single-period PWC and rhythm features of multi-period PWC. Recursive neural networks are used to retain the long-term dependence features of PWC. Finally, an inference layer is used for classification through extracted features. Classification experiments of cardiovascular diseases are performed on photoplethysmography dataset and continuous non-invasive blood pressure dataset. Results show that the classification accuracy of the multi-scale feature-extraction model on the two datasets respectively can reach 80% and 96%, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-83134-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7881007PMC
February 2021

Community-based Model for Dementia Risk Screening: The Beijing Aging Brain Rejuvenation Initiative (BABRI) Brain Health System.

J Am Med Dir Assoc 2021 Jan 22. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China; Beijing Aging Brain Rejuvenation Initiative (BABRI) Centre, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Objectives: To address the condition that community-based geriatric services for the assessment and promotion of older adults' cognitive ability systemically aimed at delaying or preventing dementia is lacking in China.

Design: A community-based model including cognitive assessment and training, geriatric health guidance and long-term support was designed based on a prospective cohort study.

Setting And Participants: Participants (N = 5593) were all from an ongoing cohort study, the Beijing Aging Brain Rejuvenation Initiative (BABRI) study.

Methods: We conducted receiver operating characteristic, stepwise logistic regression and branch-and-bound algorithm analyses to select the most effective tests from the BABRI neuropsychological test battery. Canonical discriminant analysis was conducted to extract the first canonical variable as a composite index of the tests. In addition, we developed comprehensive surveys and computerized cognitive trainings targeting every cognitive domain.

Results: The BABRI brain health system (BABRI-BHS) was designed to include SCREEN, ASSESS, and DIAGNOSE sessions. When distinguishing cognitively impaired older adults from cognitively healthy older adults, the canonical variable extracted from tests in the SCREEN session achieved an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.730 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.671-0.789], with a sensitivity of 0.630 and a specificity of 0.780; in the ASSESS session, the AUC was 0.906 (95% CI 0.894-0.917), the sensitivity was 0.809, and the specificity was 0.854. A stepwise screening pathway is recommended when using the BABRI-BHS in communities to divide older adults into subtypes and to provide targeted interventions and long-term geriatric health guidance.

Conclusions And Implications: The BABRI-BHS is an effective and efficient geriatric health care solution that is suitable for community-based dementia risk screening, providing stepwise cognitive assessments and helping older adults acquire tailored interventions and guidance conveniently.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2020.12.024DOI Listing
January 2021

Clinical characteristics, rates of blindness, and geographic features of primary angle-closure disease in hospitals of the Chinese Glaucoma Study Consortium.

Can J Ophthalmol 2021 Jan 21. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Beijing Tongren Eye Center, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China; Beijing Institute of Ophthalmology. Electronic address:

Objective: To analyze the rates of blindness with the demographics and clinical characteristics of patients with primary angle-closure disease (PACD) to provide a comprehensive epidemiologic reference in China.

Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted in the Chinese Glaucoma Study Consortium database, which is a national multicenter glaucoma research alliance of 111 hospitals participating between December 21, 2015 and September 9, 2018. The diagnosis of PACD was made by qualified physicians through examination. Comparison of sex, age, family history, subtypes of PACD, and blindness were analyzed.

Results: A total of 5762 glaucoma patients were included, of which 4588 (79.6%) had PACD. Of PACD patients, 72.1% were female with the sex ratio (F/M) of 2.6, and the average age of patients was 63.8±9.3 years with the majority between 60 and 70 years. Additionally, 30% of these patients had low vision in one eye, 8.8% had low vision in both eyes, 1.7% had blindness in one eye, and 0.3% had blindness in both eyes. There were statistical differences with regards to age between male and female patients with PACD, with male patients being older on average. Primary angle-closure glaucoma was more commonly diagnosed in males (60%) compared to females (35.9%), whereas acute primary angle closure (APAC) was more commonly diagnosed in females (54.3%) compared to males (37.7%). The visual acuity in APAC patients was lower and the rate of low vision and blindness was higher than other subtypes.

Conclusion: PACD was the major type of glaucoma in Chinese hospitals. There were more female patients with PACD, mostly between 60 and 70 years old, with higher rates of APAC in women. APAC resulted in the worst visual outcomes of all PACD subtypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcjo.2020.12.010DOI Listing
January 2021

Preclinical Chimeric Antibody Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cell Progress in Digestive System Cancers.

Cancer Biother Radiopharm 2021 Jan 22. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Institute of Life Sciences, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, China.

Digestive system cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma, colorectal and gastric tumors, are characterized by high rates of incidence and mortality. Digestive cancers are difficult to diagnose during the early stages, and the side effects of chemotherapy are often severe and may outweigh the therapeutic benefits. Chimeric antibody chimeric antigen receptor T cell (CAR-T) therapy, a novel immunotherapy, has achieved excellent results for the treatment of hematological tumors. However, CAR-T treatment of solid tumors has struggled due to a lack of target specificity, a difficult tumor microenvironment, and T cell homing. Despite the challenges, CAR-T treatment of digestive cancers is progressing. Combining CAR-T with other targets and/or modifying the CAR may represent the most promising approaches for future treatment of digestive cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/cbr.2020.4089DOI Listing
January 2021

Impact of multiple policy interventions on the screening and diagnosis of drug-resistant tuberculosis patients: a cascade analysis on six prefectures in China.

Infect Dis Poverty 2021 Jan 19;10(1). Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Jiangsu Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 172 Jiangsu Road, Nanjing, 210009, Jiangsu, China.

Background: The detection of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) is a major health concern in China. We aim to summarize interventions related to the screening and detection of DR-TB in Jiangsu Province, analyse their impact, and highlight policy implications for improving the prevention and control of DR-TB.

Methods: We selected six prefectures from south, central and north Jiangsu Province. We reviewed policy documents between 2008 and 2019, and extracted routine TB patient registration data from the TB Information Management System (TBIMS) between 2013 and 2019. We used the High-quality Health System Framework to structure the analysis. We performed statistical analysis and logistic regression to assess the impact of different policy interventions on DR-TB detection.

Results: Three prefectures in Jiangsu introduced DR-TB related interventions between 2008 and 2010 in partnership with the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (the Global Fund) and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (Gates Foundation). By 2017, all prefectures in Jiangsu had implemented provincial level DR-TB policies, such as use of rapid molecular tests (RMT), and expanded drug susceptibility testing (DST) for populations at risk of DR-TB. The percentage of pulmonary TB cases confirmed by bacteriology increased from 30.0% in 2013 to over 50.0% in all prefectures by 2019, indicating that the implementation of new diagnostics has provided more sensitive testing results than the traditional smear microscopy. At the same time, the proportion of bacteriologically confirmed cases tested for drug resistance has increased substantially, indicating that the intervention of expanding the coverage of DST has reached more of the population at risk of DR-TB. Prefectures that implemented interventions with support from the Global Fund and the Gates Foundation had better detection performance of DR-TB patiens compared to those did not receive external support. However, the disparities in DR-TB detection across prefectures significantly narrowed after the implementation of provincial DR-TB polices.

Conclusions: The introduction of new diagnostics, including RMT, have improved the detection of DR-TB. Prefectures that received support from the Global Fund and the Gates Foundation had better detection of DR-TB. Additionally, the implementation of provincial DR-TB polices led to improvements in the detection of DR-TB across all prefectures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40249-021-00793-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7814633PMC
January 2021

Degradation of aqueous methylparaben by non-thermal plasma combined with ZnFeO-rGO nanocomposites: Performance, multi-catalytic mechanism, influencing factors and degradation pathways.

Chemosphere 2021 May 9;271:129575. Epub 2021 Jan 9.

State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control & Resources Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210046, China.

Non-thermal plasma (NTP) combined with zinc ferrite-reduced graphene oxide (ZnFeO-rGO) nanocomposites were used for the degradation of aqueous methylparaben (MeP). ZnFeO-rGO nanocomposites were prepared using the hydrothermal method, with the structure and photoelectric properties of nanocomposites then characterized. The effects of discharge power, initial MeP concentration, initial pH, and air flow rate on MeP degradation efficiency were investigated, and the multi-catalytic mechanism and MeP degradation pathways were established. Results showed that ZnFeO-rGO nanocomposites with a 10%:90% mass ratio of GO:ZnFeO had an optimal catalytic effect. The MeP degradation efficiency of NTP combined with ZnFeO-rGO (10 wt%), was approximately 25% higher than that of NTP alone. Conditions favorable for MeP degradation included higher discharge power, lower MeP concentration, neutral pH value, and higher air flow rate. The degradation of MeP by NTP combined with ZnFeO-rGO nanocomposites followed pseudo-first-order kinetics. O, •OH, HO and O were found to play important roles in the MeP degradation, as part of the multi-catalytic mechanism of NTP combined with ZnFeO-rGO nanocomposites. MeP degradation pathways were proposed based on the degradation intermediates detected by gas chromatography mass spectrometry, including demethylation, hydroxylation, carboxylation, ring-opening, and mineralization reactions. The prepared ZnFeO-rGO nanocomposites provide an approach for improved contaminant degradation efficiency, with reduced energy consumption in the NTP process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.129575DOI Listing
May 2021

6-month consequences of COVID-19 in patients discharged from hospital: a cohort study.

Lancet 2021 01 8;397(10270):220-232. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, National Center for Respiratory Medicine, Center of Respiratory Medicine, National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Diseases, Beijing, China; Institute of Respiratory Medicine, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China; Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China; Tsinghua University-Peking University Joint Center for Life Sciences, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Background: The long-term health consequences of COVID-19 remain largely unclear. The aim of this study was to describe the long-term health consequences of patients with COVID-19 who have been discharged from hospital and investigate the associated risk factors, in particular disease severity.

Methods: We did an ambidirectional cohort study of patients with confirmed COVID-19 who had been discharged from Jin Yin-tan Hospital (Wuhan, China) between Jan 7, 2020, and May 29, 2020. Patients who died before follow-up, patients for whom follow-up would be difficult because of psychotic disorders, dementia, or re-admission to hospital, those who were unable to move freely due to concomitant osteoarthropathy or immobile before or after discharge due to diseases such as stroke or pulmonary embolism, those who declined to participate, those who could not be contacted, and those living outside of Wuhan or in nursing or welfare homes were all excluded. All patients were interviewed with a series of questionnaires for evaluation of symptoms and health-related quality of life, underwent physical examinations and a 6-min walking test, and received blood tests. A stratified sampling procedure was used to sample patients according to their highest seven-category scale during their hospital stay as 3, 4, and 5-6, to receive pulmonary function test, high resolution CT of the chest, and ultrasonography. Enrolled patients who had participated in the Lopinavir Trial for Suppression of SARS-CoV-2 in China received severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 antibody tests. Multivariable adjusted linear or logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between disease severity and long-term health consequences.

Findings: In total, 1733 of 2469 discharged patients with COVID-19 were enrolled after 736 were excluded. Patients had a median age of 57·0 (IQR 47·0-65·0) years and 897 (52%) were men. The follow-up study was done from June 16, to Sept 3, 2020, and the median follow-up time after symptom onset was 186·0 (175·0-199·0) days. Fatigue or muscle weakness (63%, 1038 of 1655) and sleep difficulties (26%, 437 of 1655) were the most common symptoms. Anxiety or depression was reported among 23% (367 of 1617) of patients. The proportions of median 6-min walking distance less than the lower limit of the normal range were 24% for those at severity scale 3, 22% for severity scale 4, and 29% for severity scale 5-6. The corresponding proportions of patients with diffusion impairment were 22% for severity scale 3, 29% for scale 4, and 56% for scale 5-6, and median CT scores were 3·0 (IQR 2·0-5·0) for severity scale 3, 4·0 (3·0-5·0) for scale 4, and 5·0 (4·0-6·0) for scale 5-6. After multivariable adjustment, patients showed an odds ratio (OR) 1·61 (95% CI 0·80-3·25) for scale 4 versus scale 3 and 4·60 (1·85-11·48) for scale 5-6 versus scale 3 for diffusion impairment; OR 0·88 (0·66-1·17) for scale 4 versus scale 3 and OR 1·77 (1·05-2·97) for scale 5-6 versus scale 3 for anxiety or depression, and OR 0·74 (0·58-0·96) for scale 4 versus scale 3 and 2·69 (1·46-4·96) for scale 5-6 versus scale 3 for fatigue or muscle weakness. Of 94 patients with blood antibodies tested at follow-up, the seropositivity (96·2% vs 58·5%) and median titres (19·0 vs 10·0) of the neutralising antibodies were significantly lower compared with at the acute phase. 107 of 822 participants without acute kidney injury and with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) 90 mL/min per 1·73 m or more at acute phase had eGFR less than 90 mL/min per 1·73 m at follow-up.

Interpretation: At 6 months after acute infection, COVID-19 survivors were mainly troubled with fatigue or muscle weakness, sleep difficulties, and anxiety or depression. Patients who were more severely ill during their hospital stay had more severe impaired pulmonary diffusion capacities and abnormal chest imaging manifestations, and are the main target population for intervention of long-term recovery.

Funding: National Natural Science Foundation of China, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Innovation Fund for Medical Sciences, National Key Research and Development Program of China, Major Projects of National Science and Technology on New Drug Creation and Development of Pulmonary Tuberculosis, and Peking Union Medical College Foundation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)32656-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7833295PMC
January 2021

Necrotizing enterocolitis induces T lymphocyte-mediated injury in the developing mammalian brain.

Sci Transl Med 2021 Jan;13(575)

Division of General Pediatric Surgery, Johns Hopkins University and Bloomberg Children's Center, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) causes acute intestinal necrosis in premature infants and is associated with severe neurological impairment. In NEC, Toll-like receptor 4 is activated in the intestinal epithelium, and NEC-associated brain injury is characterized by microglial activation and white matter loss through mechanisms that remain unclear. We now show that the brains of mice and humans with NEC contained CD4 T lymphocytes that were required for the development of brain injury. Inhibition of T lymphocyte influx into the brains of neonatal mice with NEC reduced inflammation and prevented myelin loss. Adoptive intracerebroventricular delivery of gut T lymphocytes from mice with NEC into recipient mice lacking CD4 T cells resulted in brain injury. Brain organoids derived from mice with or without NEC and from human neuronal progenitor cells revealed that IFN-γ release by CD4 T lymphocytes induced microglial activation and myelin loss in the organoids. IFN-γ knockdown in CD4 T cells derived from mice with NEC abrogated the induction of NEC-associated brain injury after adoptive transfer to naïve recipient mice. T cell receptor sequencing revealed that NEC mouse brain-derived T lymphocytes shared homology with gut T lymphocytes from NEC mice. Intraperitoneal injection of NEC gut-derived CD4 T lymphocytes into naïve recipient mice induced brain injury, suggesting that gut-derived T lymphocytes could mediate neuroinflammation in NEC. These findings indicate that NEC-associated brain injury may be induced by gut-derived IFN-γ-releasing CD4 T cells, suggesting that early management of intestinal inflammation in children with NEC could improve neurological outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.aay6621DOI Listing
January 2021

Traditional Chinese medicine combined with pulmonary drug delivery system and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: Rationale and therapeutic potential.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Jan 8;133:111072. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

State Key Laboratory of Component-based Chinese Medicine, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin, 301617, China; Engineering Research Center of Modern Chinese Medicine Discovery and Preparation Technique, Ministry of Education, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin, 301617, China. Electronic address:

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive pulmonary interstitial inflammatory disease of unknown etiology, and is also a sequela in severe patients with the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Nintedanib and pirfenidone are the only two known drugs which are conditionally recommended for the treatment of IPF by the FDA. However, these drugs pose some adverse side effects such as nausea and diarrhoea during clinical applications. Therefore, it is of great value and significance to identify effective and safe therapeutic drugs to solve the clinical problems associated with intake of western medicine. As a unique medical treatment, Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has gradually exerted its advantages in the treatment of IPF worldwide through a multi-level and multi-target approach. Further, to overcome the current clinical problems of oral and injectable intakes of TCM, pulmonary drug delivery system (PDDS) could be designed to reduce the systemic metabolism and adverse reactions of the drug and to improve the bioavailability of drugs. Through PubMed, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and CNKI, we retrieved articles published in related fields in recent years, and this paper has summarized twenty-seven Chinese compound prescriptions, ten single TCM, and ten active ingredients for effective prevention and treatment of IPF. We also introduce three kinds of inhaling PDDS, which supports further research of TCM combined with PDDS to treat IPF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2020.111072DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7836923PMC
January 2021

A New Multichannel Parallel Network Framework for the Special Structure of Multilead ECG.

J Healthc Eng 2020 3;2020:8889483. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

Collaborative Innovation Center of Internet Healthcare, Zhengzhou 450052, China.

Electrocardiogram (ECG) contains the rhythmic features of continuous heartbeat and morphological features of ECG waveforms and varies among different diseases. Based on ECG signal features, we propose a combination of multiple neural networks, the multichannel parallel neural network (MLCNN-BiLSTM), to explore feature information contained in ECG. The MLCNN channel is used in extracting the morphological features of ECG waveforms. Compared with traditional convolutional neural network (CNN), the MLCNN can accurately extract strong relevant information on multilead ECG while ignoring irrelevant information. It is suitable for the special structures of multilead ECG. The Bidirectional Long Short-Term Memory (BiLSTM) channel is used in extracting the rhythmic features of ECG continuous heartbeat. Finally, by initializing the core threshold parameters and using the backpropagation algorithm to update automatically, the weighted fusion of the temporal-spatial features extracted from multiple channels in parallel is used in exploring the sensitivity of different cardiovascular diseases to morphological and rhythmic features. Experimental results show that the accuracy rate of multiple cardiovascular diseases is 87.81%, sensitivity is 86.00%, and specificity is 87.76%. We proposed the MLCNN-BiLSTM neural network that can be used as the first-round screening tool for clinical diagnosis of ECG.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/8889483DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7728482PMC
December 2020

Surrogates for on-line monitoring of the attenuation of trace organic contaminants during advanced oxidation processes for water reuse.

Water Res 2021 Feb 8;190:116733. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Key Laboratory of Microorganism Application and Risk Control of Shenzhen, Guangdong Provincial Engineering Research Center for Urban Water Recycling and Environmental Safety, Tsinghua Shenzhen International Graduate School, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055, China.

The large number of trace organic contaminants (TrOCs) in wastewater has resulted in severe concerns to human health. Ozonation and UV/HO are widely used to remove TrOCs in wastewater treatment process. Owing to the trace concentrations of TrOCs in wastewater, real-time monitoring of the abatement efficiency of TrOCs through ozonation and UV/HO is quite challenging. Instead of a direct measurement of all the TrOCs, the research community has begun to use different surrogates to monitor the attenuation of TrOCs during AOPs. Various surrogates have been developed over the past few decades. In this review, the different types of surrogates are summarized, including ultraviolet spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy. Strong linear correlations have been found for the removal of TrOCs using AOPs, and the abatement of UV absorption spectroscopy at 254 nm or total fluorescence (TF). Moreover, a two-phase linear correlation can better describe the ozone-resistant TrOCs compared with a single linear correlation. Two different kinds of predictive models exist that use surrogates as the input for ozonation: the regression model and kinetic model. The development of the models requires a further understanding of the impacts of water quality, seasonal variations, and storm events on the kinetic parameters. For the in situ monitoring system, the light-emitting diode (LED) is one of the most promising light sources, although the sensitivity and accuracy still need to be improved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2020.116733DOI Listing
February 2021

Identification and Verification on Prognostic Index of Lower-Grade Glioma Immune-Related LncRNAs.

Front Oncol 2020 23;10:578809. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Xiamen Key Laboratory of Chiral Drugs, School of Medicine, Xiamen University, Xiamen, China.

Previous studies have shown that the prognosis of patients with lower-grade glioma (LGG) is closely related to the infiltration of immune cells and the expression of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). In this paper, we applied single-sample gene set enrichment analysis (ssGSEA) algorithm to evaluate the expression level of immune genes from tumor tissues in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database, and divided patients into the high immune group and the low immune group, which were separately analyzed for differential expression. Venn analysis was taken to select 36 immune-related lncRNAs. To construct a prognostic model of LGG based on immune-related lncRNAs, we divided patients into a training set and a verification set at a ratio of 2:1. Univariate Cox regression and the Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) regression were performed to select 11 immune-related lncRNAs associated with the prognosis of LGG, and based on these selected lncRNAs, the risk scoring model was constructed. Through Kaplan-Meier analysis, the overall survival (OS) of patients in the high-risk group was significantly lower than that of the low-risk group. Then, established a nomogram including age, gender, neoplasm histologic grade, and risk score. Meanwhile, the predictive performance of the model was evaluated by calculating the C-index, drawing the calibration chart, the clinical decision curve as well as the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve. Similar results were obtained by utilizing the validation data to verify the above consequences. Based on the TIMER database, the correlation analysis showed that the 11 immune-related lncRNAs risk score of LGG were in connection with the infiltration of the subtypes of immune cells. Subsequently, we performed enrichment analysis, whose results showed that these immune-related lncRNAs played important roles in the progress of LGG. In conclusion, these 11 immune-related lncRNAs have the potential to predict the prognosis of patients with LGG, which may play a key role in the development of LGG.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2020.578809DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7719803PMC
November 2020