Publications by authors named "Lu Lyu"

13 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Analysis of 55 patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1-associated insulinoma from a single center in China.

Orphanet J Rare Dis 2022 06 13;17(1):219. Epub 2022 Jun 13.

Department of Endocrinology, Key Laboratory of Endocrinology, Ministry of Health, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, 100730, China.

Objective: To investigate the clinical characteristics of patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1)-related insulinoma and their relationship with specific biochemical changes and to summarize the features of treatment options for the Chinese population with this disease and the impact on long-term prognosis.

Methods: "MEN1" and "insulinoma" were used when searching the Peking Union Medical College Hospital (PUMCH) medical record retrieval system to obtain clinical information about patients. We identified patients diagnosed with MEN1-associated insulinoma based on endocrinological, radiological, and pathological examinations, and subsequently analyzed their clinical data.

Results: A total of 55 patients with MEN1-associated insulinoma were included, including 29 (52.7%) men and 26 (47.3%) women. The parathyroid gland was the most commonly affected (78.2%), followed by the pituitary gland (69.1%) and adrenal gland (16.4%). Insulinoma was the first manifestation of MEN1 in at least 23.6% (13/55) of patients. Nineteen (34.5%) patients presented with initial symptoms of hypoglycemia before the age of 22 years. Among the 24 Patients with high serum calcium (Ca) had significantly lower serum insulin levels than those with normal serum Ca levels (p < 0.001) during hypoglycemic episodes. However, serum C-peptide level at 0.5 h and serum insulin level at 1 h was higher in patients with hypercalcemia than in patients with normal serum Ca levels in the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), although the differences were not statistically significant. Multifocal pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs) were present in 38 (69.1%) patients; most of them (55.6%, 20/36) underwent multiple enucleations, and 45% (9/20) had a postoperative recurrence. Five patients (10%) who underwent distal pancreatectomy developed pancreatic insufficiency after an average of seven years. patients who underwent genetic testing, 23 (95.8%) were positive for MEN1 mutation, with mutations most commonly found in exons 2 (21.7%) and 3 (13%).

Conclusions: In our study, the rates of postoperative recurrence and long-term complications in patients with MEN1 with multifocal pNETs were significantly different from those in other international centers and might be related to the choice of surgical method. In addition, elevated serum Ca levels in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism may affect insulin secretion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13023-022-02370-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9195405PMC
June 2022

Elemental Composition and Cell Mass Quantification of Cultured Thraustochytrids Unveil Their Large Contribution to Marine Carbon Pool.

Mar Drugs 2021 Aug 29;19(9). Epub 2021 Aug 29.

Center for Marine Environmental Ecology, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China.

The element stoichiometry of bacteria has received considerable attention because of their significant role in marine ecosystems. However, relatively little is known about the composition of major structural elements of the unicellular heterotrophic protists-thraustochytrids, despite their widely recognized contribution to marine nutrient cycling. Here, we analyze the cell volume and elemental C, N, H, and S cell content of seven cultured thraustochytrids, isolated from different marine habitats, in the exponential and stationary growth phases. We further derive the relationships between the cell volume and elemental C and N content of the cultured thraustochytrids. The cell volumes varied significantly ( < 0.001) among the isolates, with median values of 96.9 and 212.5 μm in the exponential and stationary phases, respectively. Our results showed a significantly higher percentage of C (64.0 to 67.5) and H (9.9 to 13.2) but a lower percentage of N (1.86 to 2.16) and S (0.34 to 0.91) in the stationary phase, along with marked variations of C and N fractions among isolates in the exponential phase. The cell C (5.7 to 203.7 pg) and N (0.65 to 6.1 pg) content exhibited a significant ( < 0.001) linear relationship with the cell volume (27.7 to 510 μm). On further analysis of the relationship across the two growth phases, we found the equation (cell C (pg) = 0.356 × cell volume (μm) + 20.922) for stationary phase cells more appropriate for C estimation of natural thraustochytrids. This study provides the first experimental evidence of higher cell C density than the current estimate and relatively larger C contribution of thraustochytrids than bacteria to the marine organic pool.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/md19090493DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8468426PMC
August 2021

High Hemoglobin Glycation Index Is Associated With Telomere Attrition Independent of HbA1c, Mediated by TNFα.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2022 01;107(2):462-473

Department of Endocrinology, NHC Key Laboratory of Endocrinology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100730, China.

Context: The hemoglobin glycation index (HGI) is correlated with metabolic diseases and inflammation. Whether the HGI is associated with the aging process and how inflammation and oxidative stress affect the relationship remain unclear.

Objective: We aimed to analyze links between the HGI and aging biomarkers, and to explore a potential role of inflammation and oxidative stress in the correlations.

Methods: A cross-sectional study of 434 subjects with different glucose intolerances in a rural community was enrolled. The HGI was calculated as the difference between the measured and predicted hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). The population was categorized into tertiles of the HGI. Telomere length (LTL) and mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn) determined by polymerase chain reaction assay. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α and interleukin (IL) 6, 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities, and glutathione reductase (GR) were measured.

Results: Participants in the high HGI group were older and reported a shorter LTL, higher levels of TNFα, SOD activities, and HbA1c. Correlation analyses demonstrated that HGI was correlated with LTL (r = -0.25, P < .001) and TNFα (r = 0.19, P < .001) regardless of HbA1c levels. No relationship was found between HGI and mtDNAcn. HGI (β = -0.238, 95% CI -0.430, -0.046, P = .015) and TNFα (β = -0.02, 95% CI -0.030, -0.014, P < .001) were proved to be correlated with LTL independently, using multiple linear regression analysis. Ordinal logistic regression models showed that compared with subjects the high HGI group, the possibilities of a higher-level LTL was 5.29-fold in the low HGI group (OR 5.29, 95% CI (2.45, 11.41), P < .001), 2.41-fold in the moderate HGI group (OR 2.41, 95% CI 1.35, 4.30, P = .003) after controlling for confounding variables. Mediation analyses indicated that TNFα accounted for 30.39% of the effects of the HGI on LTL.

Conclusion: HGI was negatively related to telomere attrition, independent of HbA1c. TNFα acted as a mediator of the relationship between HGI and LTL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/clinem/dgab703DOI Listing
January 2022

A study of energy investment and environmental sustainability nexus in China: a bootstrap replications analysis.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2022 Feb 6;29(6):8464-8472. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Accounting School, Hubei University of Economics, Wuhan, China.

Environmental sustainability is increasing emphasis on global environmental concerns at the forefront of public policy debate. This paper investigates the relationship between energy investments and environmental sustainability in China from 1980 to 2018 while considering the moderating effect of international trade and economic growth under the environment Kuznets curve (EKC) framework. We apply advanced econometric modeling for empirical analysis. Our findings show that energy investment and economic growth are positive, while international trade is negatively associated with ecological footprints. Moreover, economic growth and energy investment deteriorate, while international trade improves environmental sustainability. This empirical evidence suggests the improvements in cleaner energy infrastructure with the participation of the private sector to promote clean energy investment. We argue that policymakers should ensure environmental provisions in the regional and bilateral trade agreements to harmonize the environmental regulations, and develop crucial trade and ecological policy indicators to monitor policy consistency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-16254-7DOI Listing
February 2022

Mobilization upon Cooling.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Aug 16;60(35):19117-19122. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Physical Chemistry I, Faculty of Chemistry, Bielefeld University, Universitätsstrasse 25, 33615, Bielefeld, Germany.

Phase transitions between different aggregate states are omnipresent in nature and technology. Conventionally, a crystalline phase melts upon heating as we use ice to cool a drink. Already in 1903, Gustav Tammann speculated about the opposite process, namely melting upon cooling. So far, evidence for such "inverse" transitions in real materials is rare and limited to few systems or extreme conditions. Here, we demonstrate an inverse phase transition for molecules adsorbed on a surface. Molybdenum tetraacetate on copper(111) forms an ordered structure at room temperature, which dissolves upon cooling. This transition is mediated by molecules becoming mobile, i.e., by mobilization upon cooling. This unexpected phenomenon is ascribed to the larger number of internal degrees of freedom in the ordered phase compared to the mobile phase at low temperatures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202105100DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8457188PMC
August 2021

TNF Mediates the Interaction of Telomeres and Mitochondria Induced by Hyperglycemia: A Rural Community-Based Cross-Sectional Study.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2020 4;2020:8235873. Epub 2020 May 4.

Key Laboratory of Endocrinology, Ministry of Health, Department of Endocrinology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100730, China.

This study is aimed at evaluating the relationship between leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn) in a noninterventional rural community of China with different glucose tolerance statuses. In addition, we investigate whether the indicators of oxidative stress and inflammation were involved and identify mediators among them. A total of 450 subjects in rural China were included and divided into two groups according to a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT): the abnormal glucose metabolism (AGM, = 257, 57.1%) group and the normal glucose tolerance (NGT, = 193, 42.9%) group. Indicators of oxidative stress (superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR)) and inflammatory indices (tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6)) were all determined by ELISA. LTL and mtDNAcn were measured using a real-time PCR assay. Linear regressions were used to adjust for covariates that might affect the relationship between LTL and mtDNAcn. Mediation analyses were utilized to evaluate the mediators. In the AGM, LTL was correlated with mtDNAcn ( = 0.214, = 0.001), but no correlation was found in the NGT. The association between LTL and mtDNAcn was weakened after adjusting for inflammatory factors in the AGM ( = 0.087). LTL and mtDNAcn were both inversely related to HbA1c, IL-6, TNF, and SOD activity. Mediation analysis demonstrated that TNF was a significant mediator in the telomere-mitochondrial interactome in the AGM. This result suggests that inflammation and oxidative stress may play a vital role in telomere shortening as well as mitochondrial dysfunction. In the subjects with hyperglycemia, a significant positive correlation is observed between LTL and mtDNAcn, which is probably mediated by TNF. TNF may be considered a potential therapeutic target against aging-related disease in hyperglycemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/8235873DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7222557PMC
January 2021

Interfacial Electronic Structures of Photodetectors Based on C8BTBT/Perovskite.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2018 Jun 7;10(24):20959-20967. Epub 2018 Jun 7.

Department of Physics and Astronomy , University of Rochester , Rochester , New York 14627 , United States.

Comprehensive measurements of ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and atomic force microscopy are adopted to investigate the corelevance of energy level alignment, molecular orientation, and film growth of Au/C8BTBT/perovskite interfaces. A small energy offset of valence band maximum of 0.06 eV between perovskite and C8BTBT makes hole transportation feasible. About 0.65 eV upward shift of energy levels is observed with the deposition of the Au film on C8BTBT, which enhances hole transportation to the Au electrode. The observations from the interface analysis are supported by a prototype photodetector of Au (80 nm)/C8BTBT (20 nm)/perovskite (100 nm) that exhibits excellent performances whose responsivity can reach up to 2.65 A W, 4 times higher than the best CHNHPbI photodetectors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.8b03355DOI Listing
June 2018

The correlations of the electronic structure and film growth of 2,7-diocty[1]benzothieno[3,2-b]benzothiophene (C8-BTBT) on SiO.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2017 Jan;19(2):1669-1676

Institute of Super-microstructure and Ultrafast Process in Advanced Materials, School of Physics and Electronics, Central South University, No. 605 Lushan South Road, Changsha, Hunan 410012, P. R. China. and Hunan Key Laboratory for Super-microstructure and Ultrafast Process, School of Physics and Electronics, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410012, P. R. China and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY14627, USA.

Combining ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS), X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and small angle X-ray diffraction (SAXD) measurements, we perform a systematic investigation on the correlations of the electronic structure, film growth and molecular orientation of 2,7-diocty[1]benzothieno[3,2-b]benzothiophene (C8-BTBT) on silicon oxide (SiO). AFM analysis reveals a phase transition of disorderedly oriented molecules in clusters in thinner films to highly ordered standing-up molecules in islands in thicker films. SAXD peaks consistently support the standing-up configuration in islands. The increasing ordering of the molecular orientation with film thickness contributes to the changing of the shape and lowering of the leading edge of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO). The end methyl of the highly ordered standing molecules forms an outward pointing dipole layer which makes the work function (WF) decrease with increasing thickness. The downward shift of the HOMO and a decrease of WF result in unconventional downward band bending and decreased ionization potential (IP). The correlations of the orientation ordering of molecules, film growth and interface electronic structures provide a useful design strategy to improve the performance of C8-BTBT thin film based field effect transistors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c6cp06919cDOI Listing
January 2017

[Effects of culture supernatant of human amnion mesenchymal stem cells on biological characteristics of human fibroblasts].

Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi 2016 Jun;32(6):370-5

Department of Burns and Plastic Surgery, the Affiliated Hospital of Guilin Medical University, Guilin 541001, China.

Objective: To investigate the effects of culture supernatant of human amnion mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs-CS) on biological characteristics of human fibroblasts.

Methods: (1) hAMSCs were isolated from deprecated human fresh amnion tissue of placenta and then sub-cultured. The morphology of hAMSCs on culture day 3 and hAMSCs of the third passage were observed with inverted phase contrast microscope. (2) Two batches of hAMSCs of the third passage were obtained, then the expression of vimentin of cells was observed with immunofluorescence method, and the expression of cell surface marker CD90, CD73, CD105, and CD45 was detected by flow cytometer. (3) hAMSCs-CS of the third passage at culture hour 72 were collected, and the content of insulin-like growth factor Ⅰ (IGF-Ⅰ), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. (4) Human fibroblasts were isolated from deprecated human fresh prepuce tissue of circumcision and then sub-cultured. Human fibroblasts of the third passage were used in the following experiments. Cells were divided into blank control group and 10%, 30%, 50%, and 70% hAMSCs-CS groups according to the random number table (the same grouping method below), with 48 wells in each group. Cells in blank control group were cultured with DMEM/F12 medium containing 2% fetal bovine serum (FBS), while cells in the latter 4 groups were cultured with DMEM/F12 medium containing corresponding volume fraction of hAMSCs-CS and 2% FBS. The proliferation activity of cells was detected by cell counting kit 8 and microplate reader at culture hour 12, 24, 48, and 72, respectively, and corresponding volume fraction of hAMSCs-CS which causing the best proliferation activity of human fibroblasts was used in the following experiments. (5) Human fibroblasts were divided into blank control group and 50% hAMSCs-CS group and treated as in (4), with 4 wells in each group, at post scratch hour (PSH) 0 (immediately after scratch), 12, 24, 48, and 72, the migration distance of cells was observed and measured with inverted phase contrast microscope. (6) Human fibroblasts were grouped and treated as in (5), with 3 battles in each group, and apoptosis rate of cells was detected by flow cytometer. Data were processed with analysis of variance of factorial design, analysis of variance for repeated measurement, one-way analysis of variance, LSD test, and t test.

Results: (1) On culture day 3, most hAMSCs were in large form, and spindle-shaped with much prominences like fibroblasts or in flat polygonal shape. hAMSCs of the third passage were spindle-shaped. The expression of vimentin of hAMSCs of the third passage was strongly positive, and the expressions of surface markers CD90, CD73, and CD105 of the cells were positive, while the expression of CD45 of the cells was negative. (2) The content of IGF-Ⅰ, VEGF, EGF, and bFGF in hAMSCs-CS were respectively (11.7±1.0), (316±68), (6.1±0.4), and (1.49±0.05) pg/mL. (3) At culture hour 12-72, the proliferation activity of human fibroblasts in each hAMSCs-CS group was significantly higher than that in blank control group (with P values below 0.01), and the proliferation activity of human fibroblasts in 50% hAMSCs-CS group was the highest. (4) The width of scratch in two groups was nearly the same at PSH 0. The migration distance of cells in 50% hAMSCs-CS group was significantly longer than that in blank control group at PSH 12-72 (with P values below 0.01). (5) The apoptosis rate of human fibroblasts in blank control group was (16.2±2.4)%, which was significantly higher than that in 50% hAMSCs-CS group [(7.4±3.6)%, t=6.710, P<0.01].

Conclusions: hAMSCs-CS can promote proliferation and migration of human fibroblasts and inhibit the apoptosis of human fibroblasts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.issn.1009-2587.2016.06.013DOI Listing
June 2016

Orientation-dependent energy level alignment and film growth of 2,7-diocty[1]benzothieno[3,2-b]benzothiophene (C8-BTBT) on HOPG.

J Chem Phys 2016 Jan;144(3):034701

Institute of Super-Microstructure and Ultrafast Process in Advanced Materials, School of Physics and Electronics, Central South University, No. 605 Lushan South Road, Changsha, Hunan 410012, People's Republic of China.

Combining ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray diffraction measurements, we performed a systematic investigation on the correlation of energy level alignment, film growth, and molecular orientation of 2,7-diocty[1]benzothieno[3,2-b]benzothiophene (C8-BTBT) on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite. The molecules lie down in the first layer and then stand up from the second layer. The ionization potential shows a sharp decrease from the lying down region to the standing up region. When C8-BTBT molecules start standing up, unconventional energy level band-bending-like shifts are observed as the film thickness increases. These shifts are ascribed to gradual decreasing of the molecular tilt angle about the substrate normal with the increasing film thickness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4939839DOI Listing
January 2016

From Water Oxidation to Reduction: Transformation from Ni(x)Co(3-x)O4 Nanowires to NiCo/NiCoO(x) Heterostructures.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2016 Feb 29;8(5):3208-14. Epub 2016 Jan 29.

Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri-Kansas City , Kansas City 64110, Missouri United States.

A homologous Ni-Co based nanowire catalyst pair, composed of Ni(x)Co(3-x)O4 nanowires and NiCo/NiCoO(x) nanohybrid, is developed for efficient overall water splitting. Ni(x)Co(3-x)O4 nanowires are found as a highly active oxygen evolution reaction (OER) catalyst, and they are converted into a highly active hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) catalyst through hydrogenation treatment as NiCo/NiCoO(x) heteronanostructures. An OER current density of 10 mA cm(-2) is obtained with the Ni(x)Co(3-x)O4 nanowires under an overpotential of 337 mV in 1.0 M KOH, and an HER current density of 10 mA cm(-2) is obtained with the NiCo/NiCoO(x) heteronanostructures at an overpotential of 155 mV. When integrated in an electrolyzer, these catalysts demonstrate a stable performance in water splitting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.5b10724DOI Listing
February 2016

[Preliminary study of semi-quantitative and quantitative dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI in evaluating the response to concurrent chemoradiotherapy in patients with non-small cell lung cancer].

Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi 2015 Apr;37(4):272-7

Objective: To investigate the capability of semi-quantitative and quantitative parameters of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) to predict the response to concurrent chemoradiotherapy( CCRT) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

Methods: A total of 24 patients with stage III or IIIB NSCLC, who underwent 3.0T DCE-MRI before CCRT, were enrolled in this study. Semi-quantitative and quantitative parameters were calculated by Funtool and Omnikinetics software. The relationship between these obtained parameters and tumor response was evaluated by Spearmen' s correlation analysis. The patients were classified into two groups according to the tumor regression rate after treatment, as response group (group A) and non-response group ( group B). Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the parameters of responders and non-responders. The value of the parameters on predicting response was calculated by receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC).

Results: The tumor regression rate after treatment was negatively correlated with time to peak (TTP) and the extravascular-extracellular volume fraction (Ve), and was positively correlated with signal enhancement ratio (SERmax) and volume transfer constant (Ktrans) (P < 0.05 for all). Statistical significant differences were found between group A and group B both in semi-quantitative and quantitative parameters (P < 0.05). Group A had a lower TTP value [(34.66 ± 16.37) s vs. (44.09 ± 17.41) s] and Ve value [(0.19 ± 0.03) vs. (0.25 ± 0.05)] than group B, whereas group A had a higher SERmax [(166.50 ± 44.95)% vs. (113.57 ± 46.62)%] and Ktrans [(0.41 ± 0.17) min(-1) vs. (0.28 ± 0.12) min(-1)] than group B (P < 0.05 for all). The ROC analysis indicated that when setting the threshold of Ve on ≤ 0.21 for predicting response, the specificity, sensitivity and accuracy were 85.7%, 80.0% and 83.3%, respectively, with an area under curve of 0.875 (P < 0.001).

Conclusions: Both the semi-quantitative and quantitative DCE-MRI parameters are helpful for predicting the response after CCRT of NSCLC. Quantitative parameters seem to be more meaningful than semi-quantitative parameters.
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April 2015

Electronic structures at the interface between Au and CH3NH3PbI3.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2015 Jan 18;17(2):896-902. Epub 2014 Nov 18.

Hunan Key Laboratory for Super-microstructure and Ultrafast Process, College of Physics and Electronics, Central South University, Changsha, 410083, P. R. China.

The electronic properties of interfaces formed between Au and organometal triiodide perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3) are investigated using ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS), inverse photoemission spectroscopy (IPES) and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS). It is found that the CH3NH3PbI3 film coated onto the substrate of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS)/indium tin oxide (ITO) by a two-step method presents n-type semiconductor behavior, with a band gap of 1.7 eV and a valence band (VB) edge of 1.0 eV below the Fermi energy (EF). An interface dipole of 0.1 eV is observed at the CH3NH3PbI3/Au interface. The energy levels of CH3NH3PbI3 shift upward by ca. 0.4 eV with an Au coverage of 64 Å upon it, resulting in band bending, hence a built-in field in CH3NH3PbI3 that encourages hole transport to the interface. Hole accumulation occurs in the vicinity of the interface, facilitating the hole transfer from CH3NH3PbI3 to Au. Furthermore, the shift of the VB maximum of CH3NH3PbI3 toward the EF indicates a decrease of energy loss as holes transfer from CH3NH3PbI3 to Au.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c4cp03842hDOI Listing
January 2015
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