Publications by authors named "Lu Huang"

439 Publications

Long-term air pollution exposure associates with increased risk of coronary heart disease morbidity and mortality.

Eur J Prev Cardiol 2020 Oct 21. Epub 2020 Oct 21.

School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, No. 13 Hangkong Road, Wuhan, Hubei 430030, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurjpc/zwaa012DOI Listing
October 2020

CD8 T-cell predominance in autoimmune glial fibrillary acidic protein astrocytopathy.

Eur J Neurol 2021 Feb 16. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Institute of Neuroscience and Department of Neurology, Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Key Laboratory of Neurogenetics and Channelopathies of Guangdong Province and the Ministry of Education of China, Guangzhou, China.

Background And Objective: We aimed to report the pathological features of T lymphocytes in autoimmune glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) astrocytopathy (GFAP-A).

Methods: A retrospective pathological analysis of patients with GFAP-A was performed.

Results: Eight patients with GFAP-immunoglobulin G (IgG) and pathological data were included. Their biopsy findings were similar, and all showed marked lymphocytic infiltration in the white matter, with perivascular predominance. The lymphocytic infiltration was predominantly composed of CD8 T lymphocytes rather than CD4 T lymphocytes, except in one patient who had overlapping positive myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-IgG. Unlike CD4 T cells, CD8 T cells were frequently observed adjacent to dystrophic neurons and astrocytes. There was also diffuse infiltration by CD68 and CD163 macrophages. CD8 astrocytes were identified in two samples, but no CD4 astrocytes were observed.

Conclusions: A predominance of CD8 T cells may be an important pathological and diagnostic feature in GFAP-A.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ene.14778DOI Listing
February 2021

New insight and potential therapy for NAFLD: CYP2E1 and flavonoids.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Feb 5;137:111326. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

State Key Laboratory of Modern Chinese Medicine, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin, 301617, China. Electronic address:

Over the years, the prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has increased year by year; however, due to its complicated pathogenesis, there is no effective treatment so far. It is reported that Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) plays an indispensable role in the development of NAFLD, and numerous studies have shown that flavonoids have a hepatoprotective effect and can exert a beneficial effect on NAFLD by regulating the activity of CYP2E1. Therefore, flavonoids may become effective drugs for the treatment of NAFLD in the future. This prompted us to review the research progress of the pathological mechanism of NAFLD and the impact of CYP2E1 activity changes during the pathological process, and to summarize the protective effect of flavonoids against CYP2E1 activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2021.111326DOI Listing
February 2021

Comparative analyses of hypothalamus transcriptomes reveal fertility-, growth-, and immune-related genes and signal pathways in different ploidy cyprinid fish.

Genomics 2021 Mar 21;113(2):595-605. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

State Key Laboratory of Developmental Biology of Freshwater Fish, College of Life Sciences, Engineering Research Center of Polyploid Fish Reproduction and Breeding of the State Education Ministry, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081, Hunan, PR China. Electronic address:

Triploid crucian carp (TCC) is obtained by hybridization of female diploid red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var., RCC) and male allotetraploid hybrids. In this study, high-throughput sequencing was used to conduct the transcriptome analysis of the female hypothalamus of diploid RCC, diploid common carp (Cyprinus carpio L., CC) and TCC. The key functional expression genes of the hypothalamus were obtained through functional gene annotation and differential gene expression screening. A total of 71.56 G data and 47,572 genes were obtained through sequencing and genome mapping, respectively. The Fuzzy Analysis Clustering assigned the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) into eight groups, two of which, overdominance expression (6005, 12.62%) and underdominance expression (3849, 8.09%) in TCC were further studied. KEGG enrichment analysis showed that the DEGs in overdominance were mainly enriched in four pathways. The expression of several fertility-related genes was lower levels in TCC, whereas the expression of several growth-related genes and immune-related genes was higher levels in TCC. Besides, 15 DEGs were verified by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). The present study can provide a reference for breeding sterility, fast-growth, and disease-resistant varieties by distant hybridization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygeno.2021.01.004DOI Listing
March 2021

Effects of sorghum rice and black rice on genes associated with cholesterol metabolism in hypercholesterolemic mice liver and intestine.

Food Sci Nutr 2021 Jan 14;9(1):217-229. Epub 2020 Nov 14.

School of Food Science and Technology Jiangnan University Wuxi China.

The effects of different proportions of dietary sorghum rice and black rice on the expression of genes related to cholesterol metabolism in mice liver, intestine, and the characteristics of the small intestinal microbiota were investigated. Six types of diets were used to feed C57BL/6 mice: AIN-93M standard diet, high-cholesterol model diet, high-cholesterol and low-dose sorghum grain or black rice diet, and high-cholesterol and high-dose sorghum grain or black rice diet. The results showed that black rice or sorghum grain diets had no effect on the serum TC, LDL-C levels in the hypercholesterolemic mice, whereas these diets decreased serum TG level, and black rice diets increased serum HDL-C level. The diets containing black rice and sorghum grain had no effect on liver TC, TG, HDL-C levels. However, these diets decreased LDL-C levels significantly except high dose of black rice. The black rice or sorghum grain diets reduced the expression of the genes encoding liver 3-hydroxyl-3-methyl-glutarate monoacyl coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA-R) and increased the expression of SREBP-2, thereby partially inhibiting the synthesis of cholesterol in liver. The diets containing different proportions of black rice and a low proportion of sorghum grain reduced the expression level of Niemann-Pick type C 1 like 1 (NPC1L1) mRNA and increased the mRNA level of the ATP-binding cassette transporters, ABCG5/ABCG8, in the small intestine, thereby reducing cholesterol absorption. A diet containing a low proportion of black rice promoted the expression of ABCA1 mRNA and increased the expression of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) mRNA, thereby promoting reverse cholesterol transport. Black rice diets significantly increased the relative abundances of microbiota in the small intestine and maintained biodiversity, while sorghum grain had no positive effect on the abundance of microbiota.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.1986DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7802551PMC
January 2021

Synthesis of sea urchin-shaped Au nanocrystals by double-strand diblock oligonucleotides for surface-enhanced Raman scattering and catalytic application.

Nanotechnology 2021 Apr;32(17):175501

School of Chemistry, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, People's Republic of China.

It is of great significance to construct specially designed gold nanocrystals (AuNCs) with precisely controllable size and morphology to achieve an excellent physicochemical performance. In this work, sea urchin-shaped AuNCs with tunable plasmonic property were successfully synthesized by the hybridized double-strand poly adenine (dsPolyA) DNA-directed self-assembly technique. Hybridized dsPolyA as the directing template had suitable rigidity and upright conformation, which benefited the controllable formation of these anisotropic multi-branched AuNCs with the assistance of surfactant. The effects of essential conditions influencing the synthesis and precise morphology control were investigated in detail. COMSOL simulation was used to evaluate their electromagnetic field distribution according to their morphologies, and the result suggested that sea urchin-shaped AuNCs had abundant 'hot spots' for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection due to their regular nanoprotuberance structure. Finally, sea urchin-shaped AuNCs with excellent SERS and catalytic performance were applied for the quantitative analysis of food colorant and catalytic degradation of potential pollutants. The SERS enhancement factor of sea urchin-shaped AuNCs was up to 5.27 × 10, and the catalytic degradation rate for 4-NP by these AuNCs was up to -0.13min.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/abdb61DOI Listing
April 2021

Integration of full-length transcriptomics and targeted metabolomics to identify benzylisoquinoline alkaloid biosynthetic genes in Corydalis yanhusuo.

Hortic Res 2021 Jan 10;8(1):16. Epub 2021 Jan 10.

Department of Resources Science of Traditional Chinese Medicines and State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, School of Traditional Chinese Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, 210009, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China.

Corydalis yanhusuo W.T. Wang is a classic herb that is frequently used in traditional Chinese medicine and is efficacious in promoting blood circulation, enhancing energy, and relieving pain. Benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIAs) are the main bioactive ingredients in Corydalis yanhusuo. However, few studies have investigated the BIA biosynthetic pathway in C. yanhusuo, and the biosynthetic pathway of species-specific chemicals such as tetrahydropalmatine remains unclear. We performed full-length transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses to identify candidate genes that might be involved in BIA biosynthesis and identified a total of 101 full-length transcripts and 19 metabolites involved in the BIA biosynthetic pathway. Moreover, the contents of 19 representative BIAs in C. yanhusuo were quantified by classical targeted metabolomic approaches. Their accumulation in the tuber was consistent with the expression patterns of identified BIA biosynthetic genes in tubers and leaves, which reinforces the validity and reliability of the analyses. Full-length genes with similar expression or enrichment patterns were identified, and a complete BIA biosynthesis pathway in C. yanhusuo was constructed according to these findings. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a total of ten enzymes that may possess columbamine-O-methyltransferase activity, which is the final step for tetrahydropalmatine synthesis. Our results span the whole BIA biosynthetic pathway in C. yanhusuo. Our full-length transcriptomic data will enable further molecular cloning of enzymes and activity validation studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41438-020-00450-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7797006PMC
January 2021

Corrigendum: Integrated Genetics and Micronutrient Data to Inform the Causal Association Between Serum Calcium Levels and Ischemic Stroke.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2020 18;8:634957. Epub 2020 Dec 18.

Department of Neurosurgery and Institute for Functional Brain Disorders, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, China.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fcell.2020.590903.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2020.634957DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7775735PMC
December 2020

Dual RNA-Sequencing of -Infected Cells from a Murine Infection Model.

STAR Protoc 2020 Dec 6;1(3):100123. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

Microbiology and Immunology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA.

Dual RNA-sequencing is a powerful technique to assess both bacterial and host transcriptomes in an unbiased way. We developed a protocol to perform Dual RNA-seq on -derived macrophage populations infected with . Here, we provide a practical step-by-step guide to execute the protocol on Mtb-infected cells from a murine infection model. Our protocol can also be easily applied to perform Dual RNA-seq on -derived cells as well as different Mtb-infected host cell types. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Pisu et al. (2020).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.xpro.2020.100123DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7756974PMC
December 2020

Targeting neuroinflammation: The therapeutic potential of ω-3 PUFAs in substance abuse.

Nutrition 2021 03 10;83:111058. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

Key Laboratory for Quality Evaluation of Bulk Herbs of Hunan Province, Hunan University of Chinese Medicine, Hunan, China. Electronic address:

Substance abuse is a chronic relapsing disorder that results in serious health and socioeconomic issues worldwide. Addictive drugs induce long-lasting morphologic and functional changes in brain circuits and account for the formation of compulsive drug-seeking and drug-taking behaviors. Yet, there remains a lack of reliable therapy. In recent years, accumulating evidence indicated that neuroinflammation was implicated in the development of drug addiction. Findings from both our and other laboratories suggest that ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are effective in treating neuroinflammation-related mental diseases, and indicate that they could exert positive effects in treating drug addiction. Thus, in the present review, we summarized and evaluated recently published articles reporting the neuroinflammation mechanism in drug addiction and the immune regulatory ability of ω-3 PUFAs. We also sought to identify some of the challenges ahead in the translation of ω-3 PUFAs into addiction treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2020.111058DOI Listing
March 2021

Microfluidic High-Throughput Platforms for Discovery of Novel Materials.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2020 Dec 15;10(12). Epub 2020 Dec 15.

Key Laboratory of Sensing Technology and Biomedical Instruments of Guangdong Province, School of Biomedical Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510006, China.

High-throughput screening is a potent technique to accelerate the discovery and development of new materials. By performing massive synthesis and characterization processes in parallel, it can rapidly discover materials with desired components, structures and functions. Among the various approaches for high-throughput screening, microfluidic platforms have attracted increasing attention. Compared with many current strategies that are generally based on robotic dispensers and automatic microplates, microfluidic platforms can significantly increase the throughput and reduce the consumption of reagents by several orders of magnitude. In this review, we first introduce current advances of the two types of microfluidic high-throughput platforms based on microarrays and microdroplets, respectively. Then the utilization of these platforms for screening different types of materials, including inorganic metals, metal alloys and organic polymers are described in detail. Finally, the challenges and opportunities in this promising field are critically discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano10122514DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7765132PMC
December 2020

Comparative analysis of vaginal natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery versus transumbilical laparoendoscopic single-site surgery in ovarian cystectomy.

J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2021 Feb 16;47(2):757-764. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Department of Gynecology, Chengdu Women's and Children's Central Hospital, School of Medicine, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, China.

Aim: To objectively assess the safety, feasibility, advantages and disadvantages and health economics benefits of vaginal natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (vNOTES) versus transumbilical laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (TU-LESS) in ovarian cystectomy.

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the data of all patients in our hospital who had undergone vNOTES and TU-LESS ovarian cystectomy due to 'unilateral ovarian cyst' from March 2019 to May 2020. Patients were classified into vNOTES group (86) and TU-LESS group (210) based on surgical paths. The patients' general characteristics and perioperative outcomes were compared.

Results: All 296 patients completed surgery with no need to switch to conventional laparoscopy or laparotomy procedures. There were no complications of Grade III, IV, V in Clavien-Dindo classification. There were two patients in the vNOTES group and four patients in the TU-LESS group with complications of Grade I, all of whom were treated with antipyretic drugs for postoperative fever. One patient in the TU-LESS group presented the complication of Grade II and was treated with blood transfusion due to postoperative anemia. The two groups had similar general characteristics. Perioperative outcomes: The visual analogue scale (VAS) scores 24 h postoperation were significantly lower in the vNOTES group than in the TU-LESS group. The cosmetic scores were significantly higher in the vNOTES group than in the TU-LESS group. Postoperative stay and time of flatus after surgery were significantly shorter in the vNOTES group than in the TU-LESS group. There was not significant statistical differences between the two groups in operation time, estimated blood loss, Hb decrease at 48 h postoperation, maximum body temperature in 48 h after surgery and hospital costs.

Conclusion: It was proved to be safe and feasible in ovarian cystectomy by vNOTES. It worked better than TU-LESS in relieving postoperative pain, shortening postoperative stay and improving cosmetic effects and so on. As an emerging surgical path, large sample multicenter randomized controlled trials are required to further verify its safety and advantages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jog.14603DOI Listing
February 2021

Fibrotic Changes Depicted by Thin-Section CT in Patients With COVID-19 at the Early Recovery Stage: Preliminary Experience.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2020 24;7:605088. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Department of Radiology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

To analyze follow-up CTs of patients recovering from COVID-19 in Wuhan, focusing on fibrotic change and its relevant risk factors. From January 13 to February 27, 2020, 166 hospitalized patients meeting our criteria were included. The scores of fibrotic patterns on follow-up CT were evaluated. Patients were designated as group 1 (with CT evidence of fibrotic pattern) and group 2 (without CT evidence of fibrotic pattern). Multivariate logistic regression was performed to explore risk factors for fibrotic change in patients with COVID-19. The follow-up CTs were obtained on 56 days (median, IQR 51-63 days) after symptom onset. Of the 166 patients (mean age, 57 ± 15 years; 69/166 male), 46% (76/166) had CT evidence of fibrotic change and 77% (127/166) were severe or critical cases. Among patients with fibrotic change on CT, 84% (64/76) got a minimal or mild score of fibrosis. The high total score on peak CT, peak eosinophils, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and advancing age were related to lung fibrotic change in patients with COVID-19. Forty six percentages of patients (mainly severe or critical cases) with COVID-19 showed fibrotic change on follow-up CT at early recovery phase, while the extent of fibrosis was not large. The advancing age, high total score on peak CT, peak eosinophils and ESR were associated with fibrotic change depicted by CT in patients recovering from COVID-19. An extended follow up by CT imaging and pulmonary function testing is necessary to fully assess the sequela of COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2020.605088DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7732534PMC
November 2020

Synergistically enhanced heterogeneous activation of persulfate for aqueous carbamazepine degradation using FeO@SBA-15.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Mar 8;760:144027. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Collaborative Innovation Center of Yangtze River Delta Region Green Pharmaceuticals, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032, People's Republic of China; College of Environment, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

The exploration of low-cost, high-performance and stable catalytic materials for sulfate radical-based advanced oxidation processes (SR-AOPs) is of great importance. This study presents FeO-wrapped SBA-15 mesoporous silica catalyst (FeO@SBA-15) for persulfate (PS) activation. The FeO@SBA-15 with an FeO to SBA-15 weight ratio of 3:1 exhibited an impressive carbamazepine (CBZ) removal efficiency of ~100% after 30 min of SR-AOP at an initial pH of 3.0, a temperature of 25 °C, an initial PS concentration of 300 mg L and a catalyst concentration of 0.50 g L. The primary oxidizing species produced in the system were identified as SO and HO by electron paramagnetic resonance spectra and radical quenching experiments. Benefiting from the synergetic effects of improved FeO dispersion and enhanced adsorption of CBZ and PS by SBA-15, the as-obtained heterogeneous FeO@SBA-15 catalysts offer large numbers of active sites for free radical generation and high surface concentrations of CBZ and PS for SR-AOPs, as verified by physicochemical characterization and Langmuir-Hinshelwood model analysis. In addition, the activity of FeO@SBA-15 was maintained throughout six successive cycling tests. Various inorganic anions, including Cl, NO, HCO, and CO, as well as organic material in natural water, exert a negative impact on the FeO@SBA-15 catalyzed SR-AOPs and deserve special attention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.144027DOI Listing
March 2021

Human torpor: translating insights from nature into manned deep space expedition.

Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2021 Apr 14;96(2):642-672. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

Key Laboratory for Quality Evaluation of Bulk Herbs of Hunan Province, Hunan University of Chinese Medicine, Changsha, Hunan, 410208, China.

During a long-duration manned spaceflight mission, such as flying to Mars and beyond, all crew members will spend a long period in an independent spacecraft with closed-loop bioregenerative life-support systems. Saving resources and reducing medical risks, particularly in mental heath, are key technology gaps hampering human expedition into deep space. In the 1960s, several scientists proposed that an induced state of suppressed metabolism in humans, which mimics 'hibernation', could be an ideal solution to cope with many issues during spaceflight. In recent years, with the introduction of specific methods, it is becoming more feasible to induce an artificial hibernation-like state (synthetic torpor) in non-hibernating species. Natural torpor is a fascinating, yet enigmatic, physiological process in which metabolic rate (MR), body core temperature (T ) and behavioural activity are reduced to save energy during harsh seasonal conditions. It employs a complex central neural network to orchestrate a homeostatic state of hypometabolism, hypothermia and hypoactivity in response to environmental challenges. The anatomical and functional connections within the central nervous system (CNS) lie at the heart of controlling synthetic torpor. Although progress has been made, the precise mechanisms underlying the active regulation of the torpor-arousal transition, and their profound influence on neural function and behaviour, which are critical concerns for safe and reversible human torpor, remain poorly understood. In this review, we place particular emphasis on elaborating the central nervous mechanism orchestrating the torpor-arousal transition in both non-flying hibernating mammals and non-hibernating species, and aim to provide translational insights into long-duration manned spaceflight. In addition, identifying difficulties and challenges ahead will underscore important concerns in engineering synthetic torpor in humans. We believe that synthetic torpor may not be the only option for manned long-duration spaceflight, but it is the most achievable solution in the foreseeable future. Translating the available knowledge from natural torpor research will not only benefit manned spaceflight, but also many clinical settings attempting to manipulate energy metabolism and neurobehavioural functions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/brv.12671DOI Listing
April 2021

Leonurine, a potential drug for the treatment of cardiovascular system and central nervous system diseases.

Brain Behav 2021 Feb 10;11(2):e01995. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

Key Laboratory of Shaanxi Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine for TCM Compatibility, State Key Laboratory of Research & Development of Characteristic Qin Medicine Resources (Cultivation), Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Chinese Medicine Fundamentals and New Drugs Research, Shaanxi Collaborative Innovation Center of Chinese Medicinal Resources Industrialization, Shaanxi University of Chinese Medicine, Xi'an, China.

Leonurus japonicus Houtt., a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, is often used as a gynecological medicine with the effect of promoting blood circulation, regulating menstruation, clearing heat, and detoxificating. As the most important alkaloid in L. japonicus, leonurine has a wide range of biological activities, such as antioxidation, anti-inflammation, and anti-apoptosis. Cardiovascular system and central nervous system diseases are arrogant killers that threaten human lives and health around the world, but many drugs for treating them have certain side effects. This paper reviews the potential therapeutic effects of leonurine on cardiovascular system and central nervous system diseases, summarizes the previous research progress, and focuses on its therapeutic effect in various diseases. Although leonurine plays a prominent role in the treatment of cardiovascular system and central nervous system diseases, there are still some shortages, such as low bioavailability, weak transmembrane ability, and poor fat solubility. Therefore, the structure modification of leonurine may solve these problems and provide reference value for the development of new drugs. At present, leonurine is in clinical trial, and it is hoped that our summary will help to provide guidance for its future research on the basic science and clinical application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/brb3.1995DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7882174PMC
February 2021

Genes Induced by Panax Notoginseng in a Rodent Model of Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury.

J Immunol Res 2020 25;2020:8873261. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

Center for Systemic Inflammation Research (CSIR), School of Preclinical Medicine, Youjiang Medical University for Nationalities, Baise City, Guangxi Province, China.

Stroke is a cerebrovascular disease that results in decreased blood flow. Although Panax notoginseng (PN), a Chinese herbal medicine, has been proven to promote stroke recovery, its molecular mechanism remains unclear. In this study, middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was induced in rats with thrombi generated by thread and subsequently treated with PN. After that, staining with 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride was employed to evaluate the infarcted area, and electron microscopy was used to assess ultrastructural changes of the neurovascular unit. RNA-Seq was performed to determine the differential expressed genes (DEGs) which were then verified by qPCR. In total, 817 DEGs were identified to be related to the therapeutic effect of PN on stroke recovery. Further analysis by Gene Oncology analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes revealed that most of these genes were involved in the biological function of nerves and blood vessels through the regulation of neuroactive live receptor interactions of PI3K-Akt, Rap1, cAMP, and cGMP-PKG signaling, which included in the 18 pathways identified in our research, of which, 9 were reported firstly that related to PN's neuroprotective effect. This research sheds light on the potential molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of PN on stroke recovery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/8873261DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7714582PMC
November 2020

Neuroprotective effect of intermittent hypobaric hypoxia preconditioning on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in rats.

Int J Clin Exp Pathol 2020 1;13(11):2860-2869. Epub 2020 Nov 1.

Department of Function Laboratory, Medical College of Qinghai University Xining 810000, Qinghai, P. R. China.

Background: Ischemic tolerance is an endogenous protective mechanism in organs or tissues undergoing one or more short-term sublethal ischemias. Intermittent hypobaric hypoxia preconditioning (IHHP) can induce tolerance and thus protect brain tissues from cerebral ischemic injury (CIR). The current study evaluated the neuroprotective effect of IHHP.

Methods: The established xenograft model was divided into the ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), IHHP, IHHP+I/R, and sham groups. Transmission electron microscopy was used to observe alterations in neuron ultrastructure. Neuron damage was detected using Nissl staining. Western blot and qRT-PCR were used to evaluate the relative expression of genes and proteins related to apoptosis. Immunohistochemistry was used to determine the expression of proteins involved in the processes of neuroprotection and repair.

Results: Our results indicated that the damage to the neurons, organelles, and axons was significantly less following ischemia/reperfusion and intermittent hypobaric hypoxia reconditioning treatment than that in the ischemia/reperfusion group. Compared to the ischemia/reperfusion group, significant downregulation of pro-apoptotic gene/protein expressions along with upregulation of anti-apoptotic and nerve regeneration gene/protein expressions in the IHHP+I/R group were observed.

Conclusion: IHHP can significantly reduce ischemia/reperfusion injury in rat brain nerves and promote nerve repair.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7716138PMC
November 2020

Macrophages: an indispensable piece of ovarian health†.

Biol Reprod 2020 Dec 4. Epub 2020 Dec 4.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Research, Women & Infants Hospital of Rhode Island, Providence, RI USA.

Macrophages are the most abundant immune cells in the ovary. In addition to their roles in the innate immune system, these heterogeneous tissue-resident cells are responsive to tissue-derived signals, adapt to their local tissue environment, and specialize in unique functions to maintain tissue homeostasis. Research in the past decades has established a strong link between macrophages and various aspects of ovarian physiology, indicating a pivotal role of macrophages in ovarian health. However, unlike other intensively studied organs, the knowledge of ovarian macrophages dates back to the time when the heterogeneity of ontogeny, phenotype and function of macrophages was not fully understood. In this review, we discuss the evolving understanding of the biology of ovarian tissue-resident macrophages, highlight their regulatory roles in normal ovarian functions, review the association between certain ovarian pathologies and disturbed macrophage homeostasis, and finally, discuss the technologies that are essential for addressing key questions in the field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioaa219DOI Listing
December 2020

Integrated Genetics and Micronutrient Data to Inform the Causal Association Between Serum Calcium Levels and Ischemic Stroke.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2020 11;8:590903. Epub 2020 Nov 11.

Department of Neurosurgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.

There has been an increased interest for observational studies or randomized controlled trials exploring the impact of calcium intake on cardiovascular diseases (CVD) including coronary artery disease (CAD) and ischemic stroke (IS). However, a direct relationship between total calcium intake and CVD has not been well established and remains controversial. Mendelian randomization (MR) studies have been performed to evaluate the causal association between serum calcium levels and CAD risk and found that increased serum calcium levels could increase the risk of CAD. However, MR analysis found no significant association between genetically higher serum calcium levels and IS as well as its subtypes. Hence, three MR studies reported inconsistent effects of serum calcium levels on CAD and IS. Here, we performed an updated MR study to investigate the association of serum calcium levels with the risk of IS using large-scale genome-wide association study (GWAS) datasets. We selected 14 independent genetic variants as the potential instrumental variables from a large-scale serum calcium GWAS dataset and extracted summary statistics corresponding to the 14 serum calcium genetic variants from the MEGASTROKE Consortium IS GWAS dataset. Interestingly, we found a significant association between serum calcium levels and IS risk using the robust inverse-variance weighted (IVW) and penalized robust IVW methods, with β = 0.243 and = 0.002. Importantly, the MR results from the robust MR-Egger and penalized robust MR-Egger methods further supported the causal association between serum calcium levels and IS risk, with β = 0.256 and = 0.005. Meanwhile, the estimates from other MR methods are also consistent with the above findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2020.590903DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7686510PMC
November 2020

HPIPS: A High-Precision Indoor Pedestrian Positioning System Fusing WiFi-RTT, MEMS, and Map Information.

Sensors (Basel) 2020 Nov 27;20(23). Epub 2020 Nov 27.

State Key Laboratory of Satellite Navigation System and Equipment Technology, Shijiazhuang 050081, China.

In order to solve the problem of pedestrian positioning in the indoor environment, this paper proposes a high-precision indoor pedestrian positioning system (HPIPS) based on smart phones. First of all, in view of the non-line-of-sight and multipath problems faced by the radio-signal-based indoor positioning technology, a method of using deep convolutional neural networks to learn the nonlinear mapping relationship between indoor spatial position and Wi-Fi RTT (round-trip time) ranging information is proposed. When constructing the training dataset, a fingerprint grayscale image construction method combined with specific AP (Access Point) positions was designed, and the representative physical space features were extracted by multi-layer convolution for pedestrian position prediction. The proposed positioning model has higher positioning accuracy than traditional fingerprint-matching positioning algorithms. Then, aiming at the problem of large fluctuations and poor continuity of fingerprint positioning results, a particle filter algorithm with an adaptive update of state parameters is proposed. The algorithm effectively integrates microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) sensor information in the smart phone and the structured spatial environment information, improves the freedom and positioning accuracy of pedestrian positioning, and achieves sub-meter-level stable absolute pedestrian positioning. Finally, in a test environment of about 800 m, through a large number of experiments, compared with the millimeter-level precision optical dynamic calibration system, 94.2% of the positioning error is better than 1 m, and the average positioning error is 0.41 m. The results show that the system can provide high-precision and high-reliability location services and has great application and promotion value.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s20236795DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7731165PMC
November 2020

Acetylation of lactate dehydrogenase B drives NAFLD progression by impairing lactate clearance.

J Hepatol 2020 Nov 25. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

Department of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science, College of Animal Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China; The Cooperative Innovation Center for Sustainable Pig Production, Wuhan 430070, China; Key laboratory of Enviroment Correlative Dietology, Ministry of Education, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: Lactate has been recently reported to accumulate in the liver with the progression of hepatosteatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). However, the underlying mechanism(s) for lactate accumulation and the role of lactate in the NAFLD progression is essentially unknown.

Methods: Acetylome of normal, nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL), and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) samples of human livers were compared to determine the potential acetylated target of lactate metabolism. The interaction of acetylated target and acetyltransferase was measured in multiple cell lines. Inhibitor of the acetyltransferase were injected to high-fat diet (HFD) fed mouse to determine the function of lactate on NAFLD progression in vivo.

Results: Hyperacetylation of lactate dehydrogenase B (LDHB) was found to be associated with lactate accumulation in NAFL and NASH livers in human and mouse. P300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF)-mediated acetylation of LDHB K82 was found to significantly decreased LDHB activity and impaired hepatic lactate clearance, resulting in lactate accumulation in NAFLD progression. Acetylated LDHB-induced lactate accumulation exacerbated lipid deposition and inflammatory responses via activating histone hyperacetylation in HFD-induced NASH. The administration of embelin, the inhibitor of the PCAF and the generation of an acetylation-deficient mutant of LDHB ameliorated NASH.

Conclusion: PCAF-dependent LDHB acetylation plays a key role in the development of hepatic lipid accumulation and inflammatory responses by imparing lactate clearance; and might be a potential therapeutic target for treatment of NASH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2020.11.028DOI Listing
November 2020

Comparison of the elimination effectiveness of tetracycline and AmpC β-lactamase resistance genes in a municipal wastewater treatment plant using four parallel processes.

Ecotoxicology 2020 Nov 27. Epub 2020 Nov 27.

School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510006, China.

Municipal wastewater treatment plants (mWWTPs), considered reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), are selected to compare the contributions of technology and process to ARG removal. Fifteen ARGs (tetA, tetB, tetC, tetE, tetG, tetL, tetM, tetO, tetQ, tetS, tetX, MOX, CIT, EBC, and FOX) and two integron genes (intI1, intI2) were tracked and detected in wastewater samples from a large-scale mWWTP with four parallel processes, including three biological technologies of AAO (anaerobic-anoxic-oxic), AB (adsorption-biodegradation), and UNITANK, two different disinfection technologies, and two primary sedimentation steps. The results showed that ARGs were widely detected, among which tetA and tetM had the highest detection rate at 100%. AAO was the most effective process in removing ARGs, followed by the AB and UNITANK processes, where the separation step was critical: 37.5% AmpC β-lactamase genes were reduced by the secondary clarifier. UV disinfection was more efficient than chlorination disinfection by 47.0% in ARG removal. Both disinfection and primary sedimentation processes could effectively remove integrons, and the swirling flow grit chamber was a more effective primary settling facility in total ARG removal than the aerated grit chamber. The tet genes and AmpC β-lactamase genes were significantly correlated with the water quality indexes of BOD, COD, SS, TP, TOC, pH and NH-N (p < 0.05). In addition, the correlation between efflux pump genes and AmpC β-lactamase genes was strongly significant (r = 0.717, p < 0.01). This study provides a more powerful guide for selecting and designing treatment processes in mWWTPs with additional consideration of ARG removal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10646-020-02306-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7692429PMC
November 2020

Mobile chest X-ray manifestations of 54 deceased patients with coronavirus disease 2019: Retrospective study.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 Nov;99(46):e23167

Department of Radiology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

To describe the mobile chest X-ray manifestations of deceased patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).In this retrospective study, we analyzed in patients with COVID-19 from Tongji Hospital (Wuhan, China), who had been died between February 18 and March 25, 2020. Two radiologists analyzed the radiologic characteristics of mobile chest X-ray, and analyzed the serial X-ray changes.Fifty-four deceased patients with COVID-19 were included in the study. We found that 50 (93%) patients with lesions occurred in the bilateral lung, 4 (7%) patients occurred in the right lung, 54 (100%) patients were multifocal involvement. The number of lung fields involved was 42 (78%) patients in 6 fields, 3 (6%) patients in 5 lung fields, 4 (7%) patients in 4 lung fields, and 5 (9%) patients in 3 lung fields. Fifty-three (98%) patients had patchy opacities, 3 (6%) patients had round or oval solid nodules, 9 (17%) patients had fibrous stripes, 13 (24%) patients had pleural effusion, 8 (15%) patients had pleural thickening, 6 (11%) patients had pneumothorax, 3 (6%) patients had subcutaneous emphysema. Among the 24 patients who had serial mobile chest X-rays, 16 (67%) patients had the progression of the lesions, 8 (33%) patients had no significant change of the lesions, and there was no case of reduction of the lesions.The mobile chest X-ray manifestations of deceased patients with COVID-19 were mostly bilateral lung, multifocal involvement, and extensive lung field, and pleural effusion, pleural thickening, and pneumothorax probably could be observed. The serial mobile chest X-ray showed that the chest lesions were progressive with a high probability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000023167DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7668430PMC
November 2020

Recent discoveries in HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors.

Curr Opin Pharmacol 2020 10 8;54:166-172. Epub 2020 Nov 8.

Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Process of Ministry of Education, School of Chemical Engineering & Pharmacy, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Wuhan 430205, China.

HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTIs) are indispensable components of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), which has achieved great success in controlling AIDS epidemic in reducing drastically the morbidity and mortality of HIV-infected patients. RTIs are divided into two categories, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs). In this review, the recent discoveries in NRTIs and NNRTIs, including approved anti-HIV drugs and noteworthy drug candidates in different development stages, are summarized, and their future direction is prospected.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coph.2020.09.017DOI Listing
October 2020

A Visual Circuit Related to the Nucleus Reuniens for the Spatial-Memory-Promoting Effects of Light Treatment.

Neuron 2021 01 9;109(2):347-362.e7. Epub 2020 Nov 9.

Guangdong-Hongkong-Macau Institute of CNS Regeneration, Ministry of Education CNS Regeneration Collaborative Joint Laboratory, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, China; Bioland Laboratory (Guangzhou Regenerative Medicine and Health Guangdong Laboratory), Guangzhou 510530, China; Center for Brain Science and Brain-Inspired Intelligence, Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area, Guangzhou 510515, China; Co-innovation Center of Neuroregeneration, Nantong University, Nantong 226001, China. Electronic address:

Light exerts profound effects on cognitive functions across species, including humans. However, the neuronal mechanisms underlying the effects of light on cognitive functions are poorly understood. In this study, we show that long-term exposure to bright-light treatment promotes spatial memory through a di-synaptic visual circuit related to the nucleus reuniens (Re). Specifically, a subset of SMI-32-expressing ON-type retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) innervate CaMKIIα neurons in the thalamic ventral lateral geniculate nucleus and intergeniculate leaflet (vLGN/IGL), which in turn activate CaMKIIα neurons in the Re. Specific activation of vLGN/IGL-projecting RGCs, activation of Re-projecting vLGN/IGL neurons, or activation of postsynaptic Re neurons is sufficient to promote spatial memory. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the spatial-memory-promoting effects of light treatment are dependent on the activation of vLGN/IGL-projecting RGCs, Re-projecting vLGN/IGL neurons, and Re neurons. Our results reveal a dedicated subcortical visual circuit that mediates the spatial-memory-promoting effects of light treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2020.10.023DOI Listing
January 2021

Feruloylated Oligosaccharides Alleviate Central Nervous Inflammation in Mice Following Spinal Cord Contusion.

J Agric Food Chem 2020 Dec 10;68(52):15490-15500. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

Formula-pattern Research Center, School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510632, China.

As one of the empirical models of the chronic central inflammatory response, a spinal cord injury (SCI) deteriorates the neuronal survival and results in irreversible motor and sensory dysfunction below the injury area. Our previous studies have reported that maize bran feruloylated oligosaccharides (FOs) exert significant anti-inflammatory activities both in diabetes and colitis. However, no direct evidence of FOs alleviating central nervous inflammation was stated. This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic effect of FOs on SCI and its potential mechanism. Our results indicated that 4 weeks of FO administration effectively mitigated the inflammatory response decreasing the number of microglia (labelled with Iba1), result in the expression of IL-1α, IL-2, IL-6, IL-18 and TNF-α downregulating, but the level of IL-10 and BDNF increases in the injured spinal cord. Moreover, FOs enhanced neuronal survival, ameliorated the scar cavities, and improved behaviors, including Basso mouse scale (BMS) scores and the gait of mice after SCI. Together, these results demonstrated that administration of FOs showed superior functional recovery effects in a SCI model. Also, FOs may modulate inflammatory activities by regulating the expression of proinflammatory factors, decreasing the production of inflammatory cells, and promoting functional recovery through the MAPK pathway following SCI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.0c05553DOI Listing
December 2020

Mapping and Discriminating Rural Settlements Using Gaofen-2 Images and a Fully Convolutional Network.

Sensors (Basel) 2020 Oct 25;20(21). Epub 2020 Oct 25.

Institute of Applied Remote Sensing and Information Technology, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China.

New ongoing rural construction has resulted in an extensive mixture of new settlements with old ones in the rural areas of China. Understanding the spatial characteristic of these rural settlements is of crucial importance as it provides essential information for land management and decision-making. Despite a great advance in High Spatial Resolution (HSR) satellite images and deep learning techniques, it remains a challenging task for mapping rural settlements accurately because of their irregular morphology and distribution pattern. In this study, we proposed a novel framework to map rural settlements by leveraging the merits of Gaofen-2 HSR images and representation learning of deep learning. We combined a dilated residual convolutional network (Dilated-ResNet) and a multi-scale context subnetwork into an end-to-end architecture in order to learn high resolution feature representations from HSR images and to aggregate and refine the multi-scale features extracted by the aforementioned network. Our experiment in Tongxiang city showed that the proposed framework effectively mapped and discriminated rural settlements with an overall accuracy of 98% and Kappa coefficient of 85%, achieving comparable and improved performance compared to other existing methods. Our results bring tangible benefits to support other convolutional neural network (CNN)-based methods in accurate and timely rural settlement mapping, particularly when up-to-date ground truth is absent. The proposed method does not only offer an effective way to extract rural settlement from HSR images but open a new opportunity to obtain spatial-explicit understanding of rural settlements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s20216062DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7662595PMC
October 2020

STAT3 couples with 14-3-3σ to regulate BCR signaling, B-cell differentiation, and IgE production.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2020 Oct 9. Epub 2020 Oct 9.

Department of Pathogen Biology, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China. Electronic address:

Background: STAT3 or dedicator of cytokinesis protein 8 (Dock8) loss-of-function (LOF) mutations cause hyper-IgE syndrome. The role of abnormal T-cell function has been extensively investigated; however, the contribution of B-cell-intrinsic dysfunction to elevated IgE levels is unclear.

Objective: We sought to determine the underlying molecular mechanism of how STAT3 regulates B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling, B-cell differentiation, and IgE production.

Methods: We used samples from patients with STAT3 LOF mutation and samples from the STAT3 B-cell-specific knockout (KO) mice Mb1Stat3 mice (B-STAT3 KO) to investigate the mechanism of hyper-IgE syndrome.

Results: We found that the peripheral B-cell homeostasis in B-STAT3 KO mice mimicked the phenotype of patients with STAT3 LOF mutation, having decreased levels of follicular and germinal center B cells but increased levels of marginal zone and IgE B cells. Furthermore, B-STAT3 KO B cells had reduced BCR signaling following antigenic stimulation owing to reduced BCR clustering and decreased accumulation of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein and F-actin. Excitingly, a central hub protein, 14-3-3σ, which is essential for the increase in IgE production, was enhanced in the B cells of B-STAT3 KO mice and patients with STAT3 LOF mutation. The increase of 14-3-3σ was associated with increased expression of the upstream mediator, microRNA146A. Inhibition of 14-3-3σ with R18 peptide in B-STAT3 KO mice rescued the BCR signaling, follicular, germinal center, and IgE B-cell differentiation to the degree seen in wild-type mice.

Conclusions: Altogether, our study has established a novel regulatory pathway of STAT3-miRNA146A-14-3-3σ to regulate BCR signaling, peripheral B-cell differentiation, and IgE production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2020.09.033DOI Listing
October 2020

1,3-Dichloropropene and chloropicrin emission reduction using a flexible CuInS/ZnS:Al-TiO photocatalytic film.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Feb 6;28(6):6980-6989. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai, 200240, China.

Soil fumigation using 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and chloropicrin (CP) is an important strategy for agriculture production; however, excessive emissions can cause air pollution and possible human exposure. In this study, solar light-driven CuInS/ZnS:Al-TiO photocatalytic film was prepared through spin-coating on the flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate of 0.1 mm. Using the photocatalytic film, degradation of 1,3-D was inhibited in the Pci-clor 60 formulation of 1,3-D and CP. However, the degradation of CP was accelerated in this formulation, and the half-life was shortened from 0.66 to 0.40 h. Emissions of 1,3-D from soil to the air were reduced by 97.30%, 97.17%, 47.10%, and 7.88%, for treatments of D + Film, D + C + Film, D + PET, and D, respectively. The efficiencies for reducing 1,3-D emission were significantly improved by about 1.1 and 11.3 times using the film, compared with using the PET alone and no film, respectively. Furthermore, fumigation effects on nematodes could still achieve higher than 90%. The findings provided a basis for the practical application of quantum dot films to reduce soil fumigants emissions by photocatalytic degradation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-11039-wDOI Listing
February 2021